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Eng 105- writing chapter 5 from paragraph to essay

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1 Eng 105- writing chapter 5 from paragraph to essay
WEEK 10&11&12

2 Expanding the paragraph
A paragraph has three parts : a topic sentence, supporting sentences and a concluding sentence. Look at the model paragraph 1 on page 81. When you want to write about a topic in more detail , you can turn your paragraph into an essay. Similar to a paragraph, an essay has three sections. These sections are introductory paragraph, the body (supporting paragraph), and the concluding paragraph. Look at the model essay on page 81 & 82

3 Now look at the diagram on page 83 to see how a paragraph is expanded into an essay.
The topic sentence of the paragraph becomes the thesis statement of the essay, which comes at the end of the introductory paragraph The supporting sentences of the paragraph expand into three different paragraphs in the essay. Each major supporting and its minor points become one body paragraph in the essay. The concluding sentence is made into a concluding paragraph.

4 Introductory paragraph
The introductory paragraph is the first paragraph of an essay. It has two functions: 1. It attracts the reader’s interest, and 2. it introduces the topic of the essay. There are several kinds of introductory paragraph. Here you will learn three kinds of introductory paragraph. First one is funnel or general to specific introductory paragraphs. This introduction has two parts: general statements and thesis statement.

5 The general statement gives the reader background information about the topic of the essay.
They should lead your reader gradually from a very general idea of your topic to a very specific idea. The first general statement in a funnel introduction just introduces the topic. Then each sentence that follows the first sentence becomes more and more focused on a specific topic. The thesis statement is the last sentence of the introductory paragraph. It has three purposes: It states the topic of the essay It may list the subtopics of the main idea It may also mention the method of organization

6 Look at the sample introductory paragraph on page 85.
The first sentence attracts the reader’s interest with a short sentence; it also names the general topic (music) The second sentence says each culture has its own kinds of music The next two sentences narrow the general topic (music) to a more specific one (popular music) and mention taht it has many styles The final sentence , the thesis statement, specifically names the three styles to be discussed in the body paragrahs: reggae, punk, and rap. Practice 1 , Page 85.

7 Another type of introductory paragraph is anecdote.
An anecdote is a brief story that illustrates your topic. In a personal anecdote, you tell a story about your own experiences that are relevant to the thesis. In a third person anecdote, you tell a story about someone else. You can base your story on a real person or you can make it up.

8 The last type of introductory paragraph is historical paragraphs.
You may also choose to write a brief historical introduction to your essay. You do not need to give a detailed historical information Just a summary or main events related to the topic can be written. Practice 2 , Page 87

9 Guidelines for introductory paragraphs
There are several guidelines for a good introductory paragraph: It must be relevant to the topic; that is, it should not introduce material not covered in the essay. It should not give detailed information about the main ideas of the essay. There should be at least two sentences before the thesis statement. The thesis statement should come at the end of the introductory paragraph. Practice 3, Page 88

10 The thesis statement The thesis statement is the most important sentence in an essay. It contains the main idea for the whole essay. The body paragraphs in an essay must support the thesis statement in an essay. Practice 4, Page 90-91

11 Parts of a thesis statement
Like a topic sentence, a thesis statement has two main parts: a topic and a controlling idea. The topic: the subject of the essay, or what the essay is about The controlling idea: what you are going to say about the topic Topic is more general and you can have many controlling ideas for a topic. For example, the topic : the sense of smell For me it is the sense of smell rather than the sense of taste that brings back happy memories (controlling idea) The sense of smell is much stronger in dogs than it is in humans(controlling idea) Many scientists believe that the sense of smell is the most basic of all the senses in humans(controlling idea).

12 The predictor Some thesis statements may also have a third component called a predictor. The predictor of a thesis statement can tell the reader how many body paragraphs there will be in the essay. For example: Blindness requires a heightened development of the other senses, especially touch and hearing. In this thesis statement, the topic is blindness. The controlling idea is that it requires a heightened development of the other senses. The third part of the thesis statement lists the two senses : touch and hearing This is called the predictor because it predicts the number and content of the essay paragraphs. Practice 5 & 6, Page 92

13 More on thesis statements
A thesis statement must be a statement, not a question. Not a thesis statement: Is living in a city advantageous? Thesis Statement: Living in a city is advantageous? A thesis statement must be a complete sentence. Not a thesis statement Music: the food of love Thesis statement Music is the food of love A thesis statement is an opinion or shows intent: it can not be a simple statement of fact. Not a thesis statement Dogs have a sense of smell Thesis statement Dogs use their keen sense of smell in many ways

14 A thesis statement must state the controlling idea.
Not a thesis statement This essay is about Helen Keller Thesis statement Both blind and deaf, Helen Keller learned to communicate through touch alone. A thesis statement should have only one controlling idea. Not a thesis statement My cousin has an excellent sense of pitch, and she is also a famous dancer. Thesis statement My cousin’s excellent sense of pitch has made her an accomplished musician. Practice 7&8&9, Pages 94-98

15 Body paragraphs The body of an essay is made of one or more paragraphs. Each body paragraph has a topic sentence and several supporting sentences. It may or may not have a concluding sentence. Each body paragraph supports the thesis statement. Look at the topic sentences of body paragraphs in model essay. The topic sentence of each body paragraph introduces one style of popular music. The supporting sentences following each topic sentence give more information about each style. Practice 10 ,11&12, Page 100,102

16 Transitions between paragraphs
Using transition signals is important to show the connection between ideas within a paragraph. It is also important to use transition signals between paragraphs to show how one paragraph is related to another. Transition signals can tell your reader if the topic of the next paragraph follows the same line of thought or reverses direction. In addition to costing money for special food, fad diets… On the other hand, fad diets work for some people…

17 Sentence Connectors Prepositions Furthermore… Moreover… Besides… In addition…. 2. Besides + noun/gerund In addition to +noun/gerund Furthermore/In addition/Moreover/Besides, people on fad diets often gain even more weight than they had lost. Besides/In addition to suffering from poor nutrition, people on fad diets often don’t lose weight. 2. Besides/In addition to not losing weight, people on fad diets often gain even more weight than they had lost.

18 Sentence Connectors Subordinators Prepositions On the other hand,… However,… 2. Although,… Even though,… 3. Despite…. In spite of ….. On the other hand/ However, people who want to lose weight can succeed. 2. Although/Even though, fad diets do not work, there are other diets that do. 3. Despite/ In spite of many attempts to lose weight, I am still overweight. Despite/In spite of dieting for several years, I am still overweight.

19 The concluding paragraph
The concluding paragraph is the last paragraph of an essay. It has three purposes: It signals the end of the essay It reminds the reader of your main points It leaves the reader with your final thoughts on the topic. Read the sample concluding paragraph on page 107 and notice how the writer accomplishes three purposes: The transition phrase In short signals the end of the essay It summarizes the qualities of Mr. Smith It gives a final comment: Mr. Smith inspired students to love learning.

20 Parts of a concluding paragraph
A concluding paragraph consists of A summary of the points made in your body paragraphs A restatement of the thesis statement A final comment on your topic You may choose one of these ways to end your essay or your may choose two or three. Warning: Do not introduce new information about the topic of the essay. New information should be in the body part of the essay, not in the concluding paragraph.

21 1. Summary Concluding Paragraphs
One way to end your essay is to summarize its main points. You need to include the main point of each body paragraph. Your conclusion won’t be complete if you leave one point out. Practice 14, Page 108

22 2. Restatement Concluding Paragraphs
An alternative to a summary is a restatement of the idea of your thesis statement. Look at the model paragrah 1 on page 109. 3. Final Comment Concluding Paragraph Adding final comments to summary or restatement concluding paragraphs is an effective way. A final comment can make a concluding paragraph more personal. It can also invite readers to think about how the essay is directly related to their lives. Look at the modeal paragraph 2 on page 109. Practice 15&16&17, Page


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