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QOTD - NO MARK QUIZ 1. The number of deer in a forest is called… THE POPULATION THE POPULATION 2. Which does not belong? Sunshine, Water, Dirt or a rotting.

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Presentation on theme: "QOTD - NO MARK QUIZ 1. The number of deer in a forest is called… THE POPULATION THE POPULATION 2. Which does not belong? Sunshine, Water, Dirt or a rotting."— Presentation transcript:

1 QOTD - NO MARK QUIZ 1. The number of deer in a forest is called… THE POPULATION THE POPULATION 2. Which does not belong? Sunshine, Water, Dirt or a rotting log? ROTTING LOG (Biotic) ROTTING LOG (Biotic) 3. Name one ecologically significant region in Can. GREAT LAKES, PRAIRIES, CDN. SHIELD, ETC. 4. The variety of living things is called… BIODIVERSITY 5. The process by which plants produce food is… PHOTOSYNTHESIS

2 ECOSYSTEMS 101 DECIDUOUS FOREST THE TUNDRA BOREAL FOREST GRASSLANDS

3 Energy in an Ecosystem All living elements play a role in the functioning of an ecosystem. All living elements play a role in the functioning of an ecosystem. As energy flows through the ecosystem, it is passed from one organism to another. As energy flows through the ecosystem, it is passed from one organism to another. The energy coming into an ecosystem originates from the Sun. The energy coming into an ecosystem originates from the Sun.

4 Photosynthesis 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + Light C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + Light C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 RAW MATERIALS PRODUCTS

5 Producers Capture energy from the sun and convert it to food energy (Photosynthesis). Capture energy from the sun and convert it to food energy (Photosynthesis). Plants use this food energy and soil nutrients to live and reproduce. Plants use this food energy and soil nutrients to live and reproduce. When plants are eaten, some of this energy is passed along. When plants are eaten, some of this energy is passed along.

6 Types of Consumers Consumers must eat to obtain their energy. Consumers must eat to obtain their energy. All animals are consumers All animals are consumers HERBIVORE

7 Types of Consumers CARNIVORE OMNIVORE

8 Types of Consumers SCAVENGERS

9 Decomposers After a consumer dies, nutrients are returned to the soil After a consumer dies, nutrients are returned to the soil Decomposers recycle nutrients back to producers by breaking down dead matter. Decomposers recycle nutrients back to producers by breaking down dead matter. Moulds and Bacteria finish the job! Moulds and Bacteria finish the job!

10 Cellular Respiration C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6H 2 O + 6CO 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6H 2 O + 6CO 2 RAW MATERIALS PRODUCTS Sugar + oxygen = water + carbon dioxide

11 Photosynthesis and Respiration Complementary processes – check it out… Complementary processes – check it out… Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis: 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + Light C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + Light C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Cellular Respiration: Cellular Respiration: C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6H 2 O + 6CO 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6H 2 O + 6CO 2

12 FOOD CHAIN A connection of organisms showing the transfer of energy from one organism to the next.

13 Question… WHATS WRONG WITH JUST USING FOOD CHAINS TO DESCRIBE THE RELATIONSHIPS WITHIN ECOSYSTEMS? WHATS WRONG WITH JUST USING FOOD CHAINS TO DESCRIBE THE RELATIONSHIPS WITHIN ECOSYSTEMS? FOOD WEBS are more realistic! FOOD WEBS are more realistic!

14 TROPHIC LEVELS A way of categorizing living things according to how they gain their energy. A way of categorizing living things according to how they gain their energy. The 1 st trophic level contains Autotrophs (organisms that make their own food) The 1 st trophic level contains Autotrophs (organisms that make their own food) Each higher level contains Heterotrophs (eat others for energy) Each higher level contains Heterotrophs (eat others for energy)

15 TROPHIC LEVELS (Cont.) 1st 2nd 3rd 4th PRODUCERS (AUTOTROPHS) Eg. GRASS PRIMARY CONSUMERS Eg. INSECTS SECONDARY CONSUMERS Eg. SPARROW TERTIARY CONSUMERS Eg. HAWK – TOP CARNIVORE

16 TROPHIC LEVELS (Cont.)

17 TROPHIC LEVELS (Cont.)

18 Energy Flow! What is this illustration telling us? What is this illustration telling us? -Trophic levels -Trophic levels - Food web - Energy Transfer? - Energy Transfer?

19 Not all of the Suns energy is captured. Not all of the Suns energy is captured. As you go along up the trophic levels, energy is lost. As you go along up the trophic levels, energy is lost.

20 [1 joule is the absolute minimum amount of energy required (on the surface of Earth) to lift a one kilogram object up by a height of 10 centimeters.] So each level loses about 90% of the energy in the previous level! And where does it go? HEAT! Energy Pyramid

21 The dry weight of all organisms in all in an ecosystem is known as: The dry weight of all organisms in all in an ecosystem is known as:BIOMASS! So: As the amount of energy decreases, so does the BIOMASS. So: As the amount of energy decreases, so does the BIOMASS. Therefore: there are fewer animals at each trophic level Therefore: there are fewer animals at each trophic level Biomass Pyramid

22 Numbers Pyramid For example, in an forest ecosystem: For example, in an forest ecosystem: - Grasses = 10,000,000,000 organisms - Grasshoppers = 27,000,000 - Frogs = 90,000 - Trout = 300 - Bear = 5

23 Bioaccumulation Bioaccumulation: How substances (usually toxic) build up in a biological system Bioaccumulation: How substances (usually toxic) build up in a biological system Biomagnification Biomagnification increased concentration of a toxin in the bodies of consumers at each trophic level. increased concentration of a toxin in the bodies of consumers at each trophic level.

24 MeHg = Methyl Mercury MeHg = Methyl Mercury

25 Here is another look. This picture shows how weather through water works in spreading toxins. Here is another look. This picture shows how weather through water works in spreading toxins.

26 THE END!!!


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