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РОССИЯ An Introduction to Pre-1917 Russia Mr. Bixon IBHistory A riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma! -Winston Churchill commenting on Russia/USSR.

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Presentation on theme: "РОССИЯ An Introduction to Pre-1917 Russia Mr. Bixon IBHistory A riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma! -Winston Churchill commenting on Russia/USSR."— Presentation transcript:


2 РОССИЯ An Introduction to Pre-1917 Russia Mr. Bixon IBHistory A riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma! -Winston Churchill commenting on Russia/USSR in 1939

3 Let me introduce you to Russia: What is Russia? (Geography) Who are the Russians? (Society) What was Russia like under the Czars? ( History )

4 Geography


6 Physical Geography of the Russian Domain

7 The Slavic Peoples Slavs from Europe split into groups which became nationalities: Czechs and Slovakians Poles Ukrainians Serbians ( along with Yugoslavs meaning Southern Slavs) Russians Bulgarians

8 The Rus

9 St. Cyril Cyrilic

10 Foundation of Kiev & Moscow Kiev - 1st Russian state –Founded by 3 Viking brothers Mongols overrun in 13th century Moscow - Russians begin cooperation with Mongols

11 1400s

12 The First CZAR Ivan III Czar? Tsar?How? / Why? And what does It all mean anyway? Zoe (Sophia) of Byzantium Refusing the Khan

13 Ivan III -- Ivan the Great Ivan III (1462 to 1505) Defeated Mongols Named himself tsar –Caesar (emperor) in Russian Tripled territory Moscow: The Third Rome

14 Ivan IV The Terrible Consolidated power in 16th century Ruthless, killed all who opposed Established law Built St. Basils

15 The Romanovs ( ) Michael Nicholas II

16 Peter the Great ( )

17 Catherine the Great German princess –Married heir to throne –An incompetent moron –Consented to his murder Ruled 1762 to 1796 Expanded empire –Defeated Ottomans –Swallowed Poland

18 Red: 1800 Pink: Additions to 1900

19 Ethnicities of Russian Empire Great RussiansUkrainiansPoles White RussiansJewsKirghiz TartarsFinnsGermans LatviansBashkirsLithuanians ArmeniansRoumaniansEstonians MordviniansGeorgiansTadzhiks TurkmensAnd many other smaller groups Ethnic Russians made up less than HALF of the total population!

20 How was Russia Ruled? Unlimited or absolute monarchy Nobility served the crown Nobility also ran central government

21 Orthodox Church Most deeply religious Red corner at home Priests paid by state Blind obedience to God = Blind obedience to Tsar

22 Alexander I (19 th Century) Savior of Europe in 1812

23 Grande Army Defeated!

24 Tsar Royal Family Nobles/Landlords/ (Gentry) Middle Class Freed Peasants (Controlled) Semi-Free Peasants (Indentured Servants) Serfs (Slaves) Russian Society: ~80% ~1% ~10% ~5-6% ~2-3%

25 Russian Society: In 1855, 5/6 of European Russians are peasant serfs –1/2 private –1/2 state-owned Owners supply means to live Serfs treated like slaves –Physically punish –Send to army –Sale, trade, mortgage Diet –Cabbage soup –Rye bread –Gruel Permission to: –Marry –Travel ~90% serfs/ ~5% Middle Class/~5% Gentry

26 Life Expectancy =35 Years

27 Nobility/Landowners Upper classes supported serfdom Mortgaged land & peasants Fabulous wealth for some Best police force for the Tsar

28 Middle Class Very Few Professionals Enlightenment ideals –Critical of backward Russia

29 Two Distinct Views Emerge Conservative Suspicious of the west Suspicious of Enlightenment ideas Believed Russians naturally superior Believed in own traditional view of the world Supported the tsar Liberal More critical of Russia More education led to questioning of Russias ways Believed Russia was backward Believed Russia was out of step w/modern world Disagreed over what to do about it -Limit tsar -Overthrow tsar

30 Growing Problems in Russian Society Serfdom becoming outdated Failure to join the Industrial Revolution Weak systems –Banking –Transport –Government

31 Decembrist Revolt! 1815

32 Nicholas I Autocracy Orthodoxy Nationality - est. Third Section (Secret Police) to enforce

33 Crimean War 1855

34 Alexander II Nicholas I (father)

35 Alexander II Tsar Liberator Enacted radical reforms over: –Serfs It is better to abolish serfdom from above than to wait for the time when it will begin to abolish itself from below. –Local Government –Education –Law –Army Despite well-intentioned reforms –Assassins threatened constantly –Forced to travel w/armed guard

36 Village Mir Local community Run by elders Responsibilities –Taxes to tsar –Select soldiers for army –Redistribute land –Justice –Internal passports

37 Why did change not occur sooner? Fear of change Both peasants & nobility Afraid of the west Autocracy swept away Fatalistic attitude of peasants Thought only of their local village & problems No concept of Russia as a great state …As a result: -Nobles unhappy -Serfs not really free (60 y mortgage!)

38 Growth of Opposition Despite reforms, political climate grew more threatening Reform allowed dissent to grow Demands never granted -Constitution -National Assembly Student movement Study abroad

39 What to do? OR What is to be done? Nikolai Chernyshevsky Alexander Herzen The Bell

40 Narodniks Intellectuals going to the people in 1874 & 1876 Dressed as peasants to convince them of need for revolution Failed miserably –Didnt understand –Denounced –Turned in to authorities

41 Mikhail Bakunin NIHILISM I reverse the phrase of Voltaire, and say that if God really existed, it would be necessary to abolish him. The passion for destruction is also a creative passion. Nothing

42 NARODNIKIGoing to the People Movement (Populists) Violent Revolution Peaceful Evolution Land and Liberty Peoples Will HELL Black Partition Vera Zasulich Dmitry Karakozov Vera Figner

43 Assassination(s) of Alexander II 1866 Student shot & missed 1867 Polish man failed attempt in Paris bombs on trains from Crimea –1st Tsar took another route –2nd Bomb failed to explode –3rd Exploded under wrong train 1880 bomb in Winter Palace –Carpenter infiltrated –Killed 40 Finnish soldiers in dining room but not the tsar 1881 bomb thrown –Killed Cossack guard –Alexander stepped out to help –2nd bomb thrown kills tsar –Blew his legs off

44 Aftermath Alex III Alexander Ulyanov Savior of the Spilt Blood Built on site of assassination

45 Alexander III and Nicholas II REACTIONary!!! Abandonment of Alexander IIs liberal reform policies Abandonment of Alexander IIs liberal reform policies Series of repressive measures Series of repressive measures Censorship Censorship Russification Russification Implemented by son Alexander III & grandson Nicholas II Implemented by son Alexander III & grandson Nicholas II In reaction to terrorist movement In reaction to terrorist movement

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