Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

РОССИЯ An Introduction to Pre-1917 Russia Mr. Bixon IBHistory

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "РОССИЯ An Introduction to Pre-1917 Russia Mr. Bixon IBHistory"— Presentation transcript:

1 РОССИЯ An Introduction to Pre-1917 Russia Mr. Bixon IBHistory
“A riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma!” -Winston Churchill commenting on Russia/USSR in 1939

2 Let me introduce you to Russia:
What is Russia? (Geography) Who are the Russians? (Society) What was Russia like under the Czars? (History)

3 Geography


5 Physical Geography of the Russian Domain

6 The Slavic Peoples Slavs from Europe split into groups which became nationalities: Czechs and Slovakians Poles Ukrainians Serbians ( along with Yugoslavs meaning Southern Slavs) Russians Bulgarians

7 The Rus’

8 St. Cyril Cyrilic

9 Foundation of Kiev & Moscow
Kiev - 1st Russian state Founded by 3 Viking brothers Mongols overrun in 13th century Moscow - Russians begin cooperation with Mongols

10 1400’s

11 The First CZAR Ivan III Czar? Tsar? How? / Why? And what does
It all mean anyway? Refusing the Khan Zoe (Sophia) of Byzantium

12 Ivan III -- Ivan the Great
Ivan III (1462 to 1505) Defeated Mongols Named himself ‘tsar’ Caesar (emperor) in Russian Tripled territory Moscow: “The Third Rome”

13 Ivan IV “The Terrible” Consolidated power in 16th century
Ruthless, killed all who opposed Established law Built St. Basil’s

14 The Romanov’s ( ) Michael Nicholas II

15 Peter the Great ( )

16 Catherine the Great German princess Ruled 1762 to 1796 Expanded empire
Married heir to throne An ‘incompetent moron’ Consented to his murder Ruled 1762 to 1796 Expanded empire Defeated Ottomans Swallowed Poland

17 Red: 1800 Pink: Additions to 1900

18 Ethnicities of Russian Empire
Great Russians Ukrainians Poles White Russians Jews Kirghiz Tartars Finns Germans Latvians Bashkirs Lithuanians Armenians Roumanians Estonians Mordvinians Georgians Tadzhiks Turkmens And many other smaller groups Ethnic Russians made up less than HALF of the total population!

19 How was Russia Ruled? Unlimited or absolute monarchy
Nobility served the crown Nobility also ran central government

20 Blind obedience to Tsar
Orthodox Church Most deeply religious ‘Red corner’ at home Priests paid by state Blind obedience to God = Blind obedience to Tsar

21 Alexander I (19th Century)
“Savior of Europe” in 1812

22 Grande Army Defeated!

23 ~80% Russian Society: ~2-3% ~10% ~5-6% ~1% Freed Peasants (Controlled)
Tsar Royal Family Nobles/Landlords/ (Gentry) Middle Class Freed Peasants (Controlled) Semi-Free Peasants (Indentured Servants) Serfs (Slaves) ~2-3% ~10% ~5-6% ~80%

24 Russian Society: In 1855, 5/6 of European Russians are peasant serfs
1/2 private 1/2 state-owned Owners supply means to live Serfs treated like slaves Physically punish Send to army Sale, trade, mortgage Diet Cabbage soup Rye bread Gruel Permission to: Marry Travel ~90% serfs/ ~5% Middle Class/~5% Gentry

25 Life Expectancy =35 Years

26 Nobility/Landowners Upper classes supported serfdom
Mortgaged land & peasants Fabulous wealth for some “Best police force” for the Tsar

27 Middle Class Very Few Professionals Enlightenment ideals
Critical of ‘backward Russia’

28 Two Distinct Views Emerge
Liberal More critical of Russia More education led to questioning of Russia’s ways Believed Russia was backward Believed Russia was out of step w/modern world Disagreed over what to do about it -Limit tsar -Overthrow tsar Conservative Suspicious of the west Suspicious of Enlightenment ideas Believed Russians naturally superior Believed in own traditional view of the world Supported the tsar

29 Growing Problems in Russian Society
Serfdom becoming outdated Failure to join the Industrial Revolution Weak systems Banking Transport Government

30 Decembrist Revolt! 1815

31 Nicholas I Autocracy Orthodoxy Nationality -est. Third Section
(Secret Police) to enforce

32 Crimean War 1855

33 Alexander II Nicholas I (father)

34 Alexander II “Tsar Liberator”
Enacted radical reforms over: Serfs “It is better to abolish serfdom from above than to wait for the time when it will begin to abolish itself from below.” Local Government Education Law Army Despite well-intentioned reforms Assassins threatened constantly Forced to travel w/armed guard

35 Village Mir Local community Run by elders Responsibilities
Taxes to tsar Select soldiers for army Redistribute land Justice Internal passports Mir definitions: commune, peace, world Current name of Soviet space station A Mir is a local village community Responsibilities Run by elders Tax Collection: payment to tsar’s gov’t Selection of soldiers to meet gov’t quotas Divide & redistribute lands Handle most forms of justice/law/legal

36 Why did change not occur sooner?
Fear of change Both peasants & nobility Afraid of the west Autocracy swept away Fatalistic attitude of peasants Thought only of their local village & problems No concept of Russia as a great state …As a result: -Nobles unhappy -Serfs not really free (60 y mortgage!)

37 Growth of Opposition Despite reforms, political climate grew more threatening Reform allowed dissent to grow Demands never granted -Constitution -National Assembly Student movement Study abroad

38 What to do? OR What is to be done? Nikolai Chernyshevsky
Alexander Herzen “The Bell” What to do? OR What is to be done? Nikolai Chernyshevsky

39 Narodniks Intellectuals “going to the people” in 1874 & 1876
Dressed as peasants to convince them of need for revolution Failed miserably Didn’t understand Denounced Turned in to authorities

40 Mikhail Bakunin NIHILISM
I reverse the phrase of Voltaire, and say that if God really existed, it would be necessary to abolish him. The passion for destruction is also a creative passion. NIHILISM Nothing

41 NARODNIKI “Going to the People” Movement (Populists)
Peaceful Evolution Violent Revolution HELL Land and Liberty People’s Will 1866 Dmitry Karakozov Black Partition Vera Zasulich 1878 Vera Figner

42 Assassination(s) of Alexander II
1866 Student shot & missed 1867 Polish man failed attempt in Paris bombs on trains from Crimea 1st Tsar took another route 2nd Bomb failed to explode 3rd Exploded under wrong train 1880 bomb in Winter Palace Carpenter infiltrated Killed 40 Finnish soldiers in dining room but not the tsar 1881 bomb thrown Killed Cossack guard Alexander stepped out to help 2nd bomb thrown kills tsar Blew his legs off

43 Aftermath ‘Savior of the Spilt Blood’ Built on site of assassination
Alex III Alexander Ulyanov ‘Savior of the Spilt Blood’ Built on site of assassination

44 Alexander III and Nicholas II
REACTIONary!!! Abandonment of Alexander II’s liberal reform policies Series of repressive measures Censorship Russification Implemented by son Alexander III & grandson Nicholas II In “reaction” to terrorist movement

Download ppt "РОССИЯ An Introduction to Pre-1917 Russia Mr. Bixon IBHistory"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google