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From Isolation to Westernization Chapter 18: The Rise of Russia.

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1 From Isolation to Westernization Chapter 18: The Rise of Russia

2 Independence Ivan III gained political experience collecting taxes for the Mongols Ivan III gained political experience collecting taxes for the Mongols Freed most of Russia by 1462 Freed most of Russia by 1462 Freed Moscow by 1480 Freed Moscow by 1480 Ivan III emerges as leader Ivan III emerges as leader Carefully managed contact with the West Carefully managed contact with the West Commercial and Cultural disadvantage Commercial and Cultural disadvantage

3 Russia after Independence Centuries of isolation led to decline and stagnation Centuries of isolation led to decline and stagnation Low literacy Low literacy Feudal organization Feudal organization Almost non-existent trade Almost non-existent trade Mostly Orthodox Christians Mostly Orthodox Christians

4 Ivan the Great (III) Married niece of Byzantine Emperor Married niece of Byzantine Emperor Insisted Russia was the Third Rome Insisted Russia was the Third Rome Named himself Czar Named himself Czar I am the autocrat of all the Russians!

5 Ivan the Terrible Expansion Expansion Killed Boyars to increase power Killed Boyars to increase power Ruled with terror Ruled with terror Fear Me!

6 Expansion The Ivans focused on expansion into central Asia The Ivans focused on expansion into central Asia Want to push back Mongols Want to push back Mongols Recruit Cossacks to settle pioneer lands Recruit Cossacks to settle pioneer lands 16 th Century gain control of 16 th Century gain control of Caspian Sea Caspian Sea Siberia Siberia

7 Expansion Czars took advantage of new lands as gifts for nobles Czars took advantage of new lands as gifts for nobles New trade routes New trade routes Russia becomes huge multicultural empire Russia becomes huge multicultural empire Late 16 th Century begin looking west for cultural cues Late 16 th Century begin looking west for cultural cues

8 The Time of Troubles Ivan the Terrible dies without an heir Ivan the Terrible dies without an heir Power struggles between boyars Power struggles between boyars Sweden and Poland attack while Russia is weak Sweden and Poland attack while Russia is weak 1613, Romanovs chosen to rule 1613, Romanovs chosen to rule Surprisingly, czars dont lose power Surprisingly, czars dont lose power

9 Michael Romanov Reestablished order Reestablished order Drove out invaders Drove out invaders Gained control of Ukraine Gained control of Ukraine

10 Alexis Romanov Abolished noble assemblies Abolished noble assemblies Gained control over Orthodox Church Gained control over Orthodox Church Exiled Old Believers to Siberia Exiled Old Believers to Siberia

11 Peter the Great Inherits large but medieval, agricultural Empire Inherits large but medieval, agricultural Empire Wants to adopt some western ideas Wants to adopt some western ideas Rules as autocrat, not interested in parliaments Rules as autocrat, not interested in parliaments Hires bureaucrats to run government Hires bureaucrats to run government Builds professional army and navy Builds professional army and navy

12 Moscow

13 Set up secret police Set up secret police Gained territory Gained territory Moved capital from Moscow to St. Petersburg Moved capital from Moscow to St. Petersburg

14 St. Petersburg

15 Paris and Versailles (France)

16 Peter the Greats Westernization Built modern European style army and Russias 1 st navy Built modern European style army and Russias 1 st navy Systematized laws Systematized laws Revised tax structure Revised tax structure Built up metallurgy and mining to support military Built up metallurgy and mining to support military Western styles Western styles

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18 What Peter didnt change Limited urbanization = no real middle class Limited urbanization = no real middle class Gender roles remain the same Gender roles remain the same Serfs lives do not change Serfs lives do not change Non-military technology does not change Non-military technology does not change Didnt attempt to increase international trade Didnt attempt to increase international trade

19 Catherine the Great Catherine the Great wrote her own epitaph, or gravestone inscription. When she had ascended to the throne of Russia, she wished to do good and tried to bring happiness, freedom, and prosperity to her subjects. She forgave easily and hated no one. She was good natured and easy going; she had a cheerful temprament, republican sentiments, and a kind heart. She had friends. Work was easy for her; she loved sociability and the arts.

20 Catherine the Great Practiced selective westernization Practiced selective westernization Advocated a strong monarchy Advocated a strong monarchy Claimed to be an Enlightened Despot Claimed to be an Enlightened Despot Built a bureaucracy mostly from the nobility (aristocracy, not middle class) Built a bureaucracy mostly from the nobility (aristocracy, not middle class) Landlords maintained control over peasants Landlords maintained control over peasants

21 Catherine the Great Refused to emancipate the serfs Refused to emancipate the serfs Put down the Pugachev rebellion Put down the Pugachev rebellion

22 Catherine the Great Patronized western styled art Patronized western styled art Encouraged nobility to get educated in Europe Encouraged nobility to get educated in Europe Fought Ottoman Empire to win a port on the Black Sea Fought Ottoman Empire to win a port on the Black Sea Partitioned Poland with Austria and Prussia Partitioned Poland with Austria and Prussia

23 Catherine the Great When the French Revolution began in 1789, Catherine, fearing revolution spilling into Russia, isolated the empire from the west When the French Revolution began in 1789, Catherine, fearing revolution spilling into Russia, isolated the empire from the west

24 Major Themes Serfdom: majority of people were serfs who did agricultural work Serfdom: majority of people were serfs who did agricultural work Law passed in 1785 allowed landlords to harshly punish serfs for major offenses Law passed in 1785 allowed landlords to harshly punish serfs for major offenses Very limited trade, aimed at strengthening military Very limited trade, aimed at strengthening military Extremely limited middle class Extremely limited middle class

25 Major Themes Most people were loyal to the Czar, but hated their landlords Most people were loyal to the Czar, but hated their landlords Empire expanded east, west, and south Empire expanded east, west, and south

26 How Russia differed from the West Very feudal, local lords exercised incredible power Very feudal, local lords exercised incredible power Did not experience cultural growth like the West Did not experience cultural growth like the West Because it wasnt Catholic, no involvement in Protestant Reformation Because it wasnt Catholic, no involvement in Protestant Reformation

27 Changes in Russia by 1750 Gained warm water ports on Baltic and Black Seas Gained warm water ports on Baltic and Black Seas Sought and gained cultural access to the West Sought and gained cultural access to the West Unlike China and Japan, Russia wanted to engage with and emulate aspects of the West Unlike China and Japan, Russia wanted to engage with and emulate aspects of the West

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