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From Isolation to Westernization

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Presentation on theme: "From Isolation to Westernization"— Presentation transcript:

1 From Isolation to Westernization
Chapter 18: The Rise of Russia

2 Independence Ivan III gained political experience collecting taxes for the Mongols Freed most of Russia by 1462 Freed Moscow by 1480 Ivan III emerges as leader Carefully managed contact with the West Commercial and Cultural disadvantage

3 Russia after Independence
Centuries of isolation led to decline and stagnation Low literacy Feudal organization Almost non-existent trade Mostly Orthodox Christians

4 I am the autocrat of all the Russians!
Ivan the Great (III) I am the autocrat of all the Russians! Married niece of Byzantine Emperor Insisted Russia was the Third Rome Named himself Czar

5 Ivan the Terrible Expansion Killed Boyars to increase power
Fear Me! Expansion Killed Boyars to increase power Ruled with terror

6 Expansion The Ivans focused on expansion into central Asia
Want to push back Mongols Recruit Cossacks to settle pioneer lands 16th Century gain control of Caspian Sea Siberia

7 Expansion Czars took advantage of new lands as gifts for nobles
New trade routes Russia becomes huge multicultural empire Late 16th Century begin looking west for cultural cues

8 The Time of Troubles Ivan the Terrible dies without an heir
Power struggles between boyars Sweden and Poland attack while Russia is weak 1613, Romanovs chosen to rule Surprisingly, czars don’t lose power

9 Michael Romanov Reestablished order Drove out invaders
Gained control of Ukraine

10 Alexis Romanov Abolished noble assemblies
Gained control over Orthodox Church Exiled Old Believers to Siberia

11 Peter the Great Inherits large but medieval, agricultural Empire
Wants to adopt some western ideas Rules as autocrat, not interested in parliaments Hires bureaucrats to run government Builds professional army and navy

12 Moscow

13 Set up secret police Gained territory Moved capital from Moscow to St. Petersburg

14 St. Petersburg

15 Paris and Versailles (France)

16 Peter the Great’s Westernization
Built modern European style army and Russia’s 1st navy Systematized laws Revised tax structure Built up metallurgy and mining to support military Western styles


18 What Peter didn’t change
Limited urbanization = no real middle class Gender roles remain the same Serfs lives do not change Non-military technology does not change Didn’t attempt to increase international trade

19 Catherine the Great Catherine the Great wrote her own epitaph, or gravestone inscription. “When she had ascended to the throne of Russia, she wished to do good and tried to bring happiness, freedom, and prosperity to her subjects. She forgave easily and hated no one. She was good natured and easy going; she had a cheerful temprament, republican sentiments, and a kind heart. She had friends. Work was easy for her; she loved sociability and the arts.”

20 Catherine the Great Practiced selective westernization
Advocated a strong monarchy Claimed to be an “Enlightened Despot” Built a bureaucracy mostly from the nobility (aristocracy, not middle class) Landlords maintained control over peasants

21 Catherine the Great Refused to emancipate the serfs
Put down the Pugachev rebellion

22 Catherine the Great Patronized western styled art
Encouraged nobility to get educated in Europe Fought Ottoman Empire to win a port on the Black Sea Partitioned Poland with Austria and Prussia

23 Catherine the Great When the French Revolution began in 1789, Catherine, fearing revolution spilling into Russia, isolated the empire from the west

24 Major Themes Serfdom: majority of people were serfs who did agricultural work Law passed in 1785 allowed landlords to harshly punish serfs for major offenses Very limited trade, aimed at strengthening military Extremely limited middle class

25 Major Themes Most people were loyal to the Czar, but hated their landlords Empire expanded east, west, and south

26 How Russia differed from the West
Very feudal, local lords exercised incredible power Did not experience cultural growth like the West Because it wasn’t Catholic, no involvement in Protestant Reformation

27 Changes in Russia by 1750 Gained warm water ports on Baltic and Black Seas Sought and gained cultural access to the West Unlike China and Japan, Russia wanted to engage with and emulate aspects of the West


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