Presentation on theme: "Institutional influences on equity and sports participation."— Presentation transcript:
Institutional influences on equity and sports participation
Topics Community and school sport page 359 Community and school sport Sport in the community page 359 Sport in the community Sport in schoolspage 360 Sport in schools School and community influence on sports’ popularity page 369 School and community influence on sports’ popularity Sports rules and regulationspage 371 Sports rules and regulations Religious institutionspage 372 Religious institutions
Community and school sport Page 359
Community and school sport Figueroa’s institutional level examines how effective institutions within the community are at providing opportunities to access sport and physical recreation pursuits. Two major areas: Community sporting associations Educational institutions Schools
Sport in the community Page 359
Sport in the community Approximately 4.4 million Australians aged over 15 participate in activities organised through sporting associations Sporting Clubs Builds community spirit Role Models Closely knit social network Attract new families Parent & Volunteers involved Sense of belonging Personal reflection Is your family involved in a local sports club or association?
Community sporting facilities Types of facilities in communities will vary Factors which will impact are: Location Physical environment Community traditions This will impact on opportunities available Successful individuals within a community can increase: Government funding Participation rates Personal reflection What sports facilities are available in your community? Do you use them?
Sport in schools Page 360
Sport in schools Schools are a powerful socialising agent where essential personal and social skills are developed Sport is compulsory for all Yr 8&9 students in Qld 120 minutes each week Many attitudes towards physical activity are influenced by experiences at school Types of sports played School sporting culture
School facilities Quantity and quality of facilities will vary from school to school Many schools utilise community facilities to increase access to a wider range of activities Schools can provide venues for community organisations to conduct their competitions. Integration If money was available, what sporting facilities would you like to see developed in your school?
School traditions Sport can be a major factor to develop school pride and status Prestige associated with being a member of the “first” team Inequitable recognition and status of sports within a school Reinforces the marginalisation of other sports
School cultures require: Winning culture Staff members with a passion for that sport Success Integration List the sports in which your school is known for its sporting excellence. What effect has the school’s success in these sports had on your participation?
School and community influence on sports’ popularity Page 369
School and community influence on sports’ popularity Some of the most popular school sports do not achieve high levels of participation amongst school leavers Percentage of 5–14 year olds and main sports participated in, by gender Percentage of 15+ year olds and main physical activities participated in, by gender
School and community influences continued Why the discrepancies? Access to facilities Lack of suitable competition format/structure Media promotes a product that is more “TV friendly” Indoor volleyball versus beach volleyball Player burnout Athletes choosing a different sport Financial benefits
Sports rules and regulations Page 371
Sport rules and regulations An agreed set of principles, policies and standards of conduct which govern a sport or physical activity. Rules and regulations often set by a governing body. These are often steeped in tradition. Can become inflexible. Equity and access issues can arise: Clothing Costs Religious beliefs Conditions for participating
Personal reflection Do any rules at your school deter particular individuals or groups from participating in sport?
Religious institutions Page 372
Now that you have finished... Answers
1a Outline how schools provide opportunities for participation in physical activity. Compulsory HPE in year 8 (Key Learning Area) 120 minutes of physical activity each week (Smart Moves) School sport Social sport Interschool sport State-wide competitions: Vicki Wilson Cup—Netball Bill Turner Cup—Football Broncos Cup—Rugby League Representative sport Elective subjects in school curriculum Senior physical education Recreational practices Junior health and physical education
1b Referring to relevant levels of Figueroa’s framework, explain why different schools will provide different sport and physical activity opportunities. Cultural School traditions Successful sports Structural Government funding Institutional Facilities available Location Interpersonal Teachers Past students Student population
2a Explain how school traditions can cause some sports to become dominant at the expense of others. For many schools, sport plays a large role in developing and sustaining a school culture and pride. Schools that have a successful sporting history often promote their sporting achievements to future students and their parents, as well as to current and former students. Schools use their web pages to outline their successful sporting history. A culture of winning and competing at the highest level is extremely marketable. Coaches will often use “tradition” as a motivating factor to exhort their students to achieve excellence. Students can gain prestige by being a member of the “first team”. Students from many schools have their sporting representative honours embroidered upon their school blazers. Equitable recognition amongst all sports within a school environment is rare. Individuals can become frustrated by the promotion of specific sports over others within a school culture. Students involved in non dominant sports can often feel ostracised, perceiving that certain individuals playing dominant sports receive special treatment. Resentment to the perception of special treatment given to the sports stars of the dominant teams, real or not, can see participation numbers in other sports decrease as recognition is not always equitable.
2a Continued. Marginal sports in schools will remain marginal, whilst the recognition and promotion of its achievements is consumed by the dominant sports. One plausible reason for this could simply be which teachers are at the school and how much effort they put into promoting their sport. A school with one passionate teacher can create a culture of success for their sport. Two teachers with the same drive for their sport can create more support for their sport. Teachers can raise the school profile by developing a squad of players and creating opportunities to participate in this sport. The impetus creating a new culture is the dedication and commitment from the school leaders, or in this case, the teacher. Some initial success is achieved and this creates more motivation for everyone to become involved. From here, the sport’s credibility gains momentum and can become a significant part of the school. There is often a correlation between the student population of a school and the opportunities that exist. More students results in the need for more teachers and consequently, a greater number of teachers with passions for differing sports broadens opportunities for student participation.
2b What strategies can schools put in place to provide more equitable recognition of all sports? School parades: Select different teams each week to provide details about their competition results Newsletters: Regular competitive and social updates from all sports: Competition status Player profile Achievements Benefits Captains for each school sport to promote their sport A greater diversity of visiting coaches/regional directors Open school days highlighting various sports played
2c Do you believe that schools should have to recognise all sports equally? Why? AGREEDISAGREE There is value in all sports Participation is a worthy achievement Each sport requires dedication and the pursuit of excellence should be recognised Recognition for achievement can increase an individual’s self esteem Promotion of excellence in sports which are culturally valued Better use of teaching/coaching staff to develop consistent approach across wider year levels which will ensure further chances of success Marketing purposes to attract future talented students and potential sponsors
3Referring to Figures and 11.11, consider the discrepancies in participation rates in netball and rugby league between children (aged 5–14) and adults (15 years and older). Discuss the factors in the cultural, structural and institutional level of Figueroa’s framework that might have led to these discrepancies.
3Discuss the factors in the cultural, structural and institutional level of Figueroa’s framework that might have led to these discrepancies Culturally both sports have a strong support base and are valued by parents, hence the high participation rates as juniors. Both sports reflect stereotypical views as gender-based sports compared to gender-neutral sports such as swimming, tennis, basketball and athletics. Structurally, both sports have strong support through government funding for developing juniors. Institutional level: both sports have strong facility bases due to significant junior numbers. There are limited opportunities to continue sport into adulthood as a full- time career; as a result, sports which have maintained or increased their numbers can be performed individually and at any time suitable to the individual. Institutional: Both sports would have high levels of parental involvement as coaches/administrators (not reflected in tables).
4a Which has had the greatest effect on your personal sports participation— community or school sport? Explain why. Answers will vary.
4b Which should cater for the grassroots level of sports participation—community or school sport? What extra support is required to ensure success? The school has greater flexibility to ensure that a broad range of sports and physical activities can be delivered. Minimal cost to students Schools have funding provided to purchase suitable equipment for a range of sports: Gross body activities Ball games Racquet sports Teachers have knowledge to impart basic skills to all students To increase success the following would help: Funding for more equipment (general and specialist) Professional development for teachers Regional and community sport associations coordinating expo days to promote their sports / activities
4b Which should cater for the grassroots level of sports participation—community or school sport? What extra support is required to ensure success? Community sport has potential to cater for a greater number of students due to: Increased support network base Parents Community members Local teams (F.R.E.D.) Facilities Larger space available Promote family involvement Provides excellent opportunity for “free time” Create pathways for future participation Representative and professional level Future success Community involvement Subsidise costs for families Government funding for facilities and equipment
5Every student from Year 1 to Year 12 should participate in compulsory physical activity. Develop a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis for this statement to determine whether compulsory participation would cause long-term participation rates to rise and obesity levels to decrease.
5Compulsory physical activity Strengths Increased activity levels Develop lifelong practices Opportunities to develop life skills School system has flexibility for sport Staff with expertise to supervise and implement Weaknesses Some teachers do not value sport as highly as others, hence lead to possible negative experiences Crowded curriculum especially in high school years Different priorities for education in senior school years Threats Costs associated with sport Curriculum requirements which has already seen some schools remove opportunities for students in years 11 and 12 Individual needs and values will differ Contrasting sporting values from influential role models Opportunities Positive experiences could lead students to continue sport in community structures Use influence of peers in high school to participate Compulsory physical activity for years 1-12
6Provide three reasons why religious and cultural beliefs should be considered when developing policies for sports participation. Australia is a multicultural society Almost 25% of Australians born overseas More than 40% of Australians have at least one parent born overseas Approximately 16% of Australians speak another language Demonstrates respect for individuals’ beliefs, values and customs Increase opportunities for greater participation by scheduling activities that cater for religious beliefs Improve cultural tolerance and understanding through participating in sport.