Presentation on theme: "Institutional influences on equity and sports participation"— Presentation transcript:
1 Institutional influences on equity and sports participation
2 Topics Community and school sport page 359 Sport in the community page 359Sport in schools page 360School and community influence on sports’ popularity page 369Sports rules and regulations page 371Religious institutions page 372
3 Community and school sport Back tochapter overviewCommunity and school sportPage 359
4 Community and school sport Figueroa’s institutional level examines how effective institutions within the community are at providing opportunities to access sport and physical recreation pursuits.Two major areas:Community sporting associationsEducational institutionsSchools
5 Back tochapter overviewSport in the communityPage 359
6 Sport in the communityApproximately 4.4 million Australians aged over 15 participate in activities organised through sporting associationsSporting ClubsBuilds community spiritRole ModelsClosely knit social networkAttract new familiesParent & Volunteers involvedSense of belongingPersonal reflectionIs your family involved in a local sports club or association?
7 Community sporting facilities Types of facilities in communities will varyFactors which will impact are:LocationPhysical environmentCommunity traditionsThis will impact on opportunities availableSuccessful individuals within a community can increase:Government fundingParticipation ratesPersonal reflectionWhat sports facilities are available in your community? Do you use them?
9 Sport in schoolsSchools are a powerful socialising agent where essential personal and social skills are developedSport is compulsory for all Yr 8&9 students in Qld120 minutes each weekMany attitudes towards physical activity are influenced by experiences at schoolTypes of sports playedSchool sporting culture
10 School facilitiesQuantity and quality of facilities will vary from school to schoolMany schools utilise community facilities to increase access to a wider range of activitiesSchools can provide venues for community organisations to conduct their competitions.IntegrationIf money was available, what sporting facilities would you like to see developed in your school?
11 School traditionsSport can be a major factor to develop school pride and statusPrestige associated with being a member of the “first” teamInequitable recognition and status of sports within a schoolReinforces the marginalisation of other sports
12 School cultures require: Winning cultureStaff members with a passion for that sportSuccessIntegrationList the sports in which your school is known for its sporting excellence.What effect has the school’s success in these sports had on your participation?
13 School and community influence on sports’ popularity Page 369
14 School and community influence on sports’ popularity Some of the most popular school sports do not achieve high levels of participation amongst school leaversPercentage of 5–14 year olds and main sports participated in, by genderPercentage of 15+ year olds and main physical activities participated in, by gender
15 School and community influences continued Why the discrepancies?Access to facilitiesLack of suitable competition format/structureMedia promotes a product that is more “TV friendly”Indoor volleyball versus beach volleyballPlayer burnoutAthletes choosing a different sportFinancial benefits
16 Sports rules and regulations Back tochapter overviewSports rules and regulationsPage 371
17 Sport rules and regulations An agreed set of principles, policies and standards of conduct which govern a sport or physical activity.Rules and regulations often set by a governing body.These are often steeped in tradition.Can become inflexible.Equity and access issues can arise:ClothingCostsReligious beliefsConditions for participating
18 Personal reflectionDo any rules at your school deter particular individuals or groups from participating in sport?
20 Religious institutions Australia is a multicultural societyUnderstanding various religious beliefs and cultureAll religions encourage physical activityDecrease ignoranceIncrease opportunities for all Australians
21 Now that you have finished ... Back tochapter overviewNow that you have finished ...Answers
22 1 a Outline how schools provide opportunities for participation in physical activity. Compulsory HPE in year 8 (Key Learning Area)120 minutes of physical activity each week (Smart Moves)School sportSocial sportInterschool sportState-wide competitions:Vicki Wilson Cup—NetballBill Turner Cup—FootballBroncos Cup—Rugby LeagueRepresentative sportElective subjects in school curriculumSenior physical educationRecreational practicesJunior health and physical education
23 Cultural Structural Institutional Interpersonal School traditions 1 b Referring to relevant levels of Figueroa’s framework, explain why different schools will provide different sport and physical activity opportunities.CulturalSchool traditionsSuccessful sportsStructuralGovernment fundingInstitutionalFacilities availableLocationInterpersonalTeachersPast studentsStudent population
24 2 a Explain how school traditions can cause some sports to become dominant at the expense of others. For many schools, sport plays a large role in developing and sustaining a school culture and pride. Schools that have a successful sporting history often promote their sporting achievements to future students and their parents, as well as to current and former students. Schools use their web pages to outline their successful sporting history. A culture of winning and competing at the highest level is extremely marketable.Coaches will often use “tradition” as a motivating factor to exhort their students to achieve excellence. Students can gain prestige by being a member of the “first team”. Students from many schools have their sporting representative honours embroidered upon their school blazers.Equitable recognition amongst all sports within a school environment is rare. Individuals can become frustrated by the promotion of specific sports over others within a school culture. Students involved in non dominant sports can often feel ostracised, perceiving that certain individuals playing dominant sports receive special treatment. Resentment to the perception of special treatment given to the sports stars of the dominant teams, real or not, can see participation numbers in other sports decrease as recognition is not always equitable.
25 2 a Continued.Marginal sports in schools will remain marginal, whilst the recognition and promotion of its achievements is consumed by the dominant sports. One plausible reason for this could simply be which teachers are at the school and how much effort they put into promoting their sport. A school with one passionate teacher can create a culture of success for their sport. Two teachers with the same drive for their sport can create more support for their sport. Teachers can raise the school profile by developing a squad of players and creating opportunities to participate in this sport.The impetus creating a new culture is the dedication and commitment from the school leaders, or in this case, the teacher. Some initial success is achieved and this creates more motivation for everyone to become involved. From here, the sport’s credibility gains momentum and can become a significant part of the school. There is often a correlation between the student population of a school and the opportunities that exist. More students results in the need for more teachers and consequently, a greater number of teachers with passions for differing sports broadens opportunities for student participation.
26 Captains for each school sport to promote their sport 2 b What strategies can schools put in place to provide more equitable recognition of all sports?School parades:Select different teams each week to provide details about their competition resultsNewsletters:Regular competitive and social updates from all sports:Competition statusPlayer profileAchievementsBenefitsCaptains for each school sport to promote their sportA greater diversity of visiting coaches/regional directorsOpen school days highlighting various sports played
27 2 c Do you believe that schools should have to recognise all sports equally? Why? AGREEDISAGREEThere is value in all sportsParticipation is a worthy achievementEach sport requires dedication and the pursuit of excellence should be recognisedRecognition for achievement can increase an individual’s self esteemPromotion of excellence in sports which are culturally valuedBetter use of teaching/coaching staff to develop consistent approach across wider year levels which will ensure further chances of successMarketing purposes to attract future talented students and potential sponsors
28 3. Referring to Figures 11. 10 and 11 3 Referring to Figures and 11.11, consider the discrepancies in participation rates in netball and rugby league between children (aged 5–14) and adults (15 years and older). Discuss the factors in the cultural, structural and institutional level of Figueroa’s framework that might have led to these discrepancies.
29 3 Discuss the factors in the cultural, structural and institutional level of Figueroa’s framework that might have led to these discrepanciesCulturally both sports have a strong support base and are valued by parents, hence the high participation rates as juniors.Both sports reflect stereotypical views as gender-based sports compared to gender-neutral sports such as swimming, tennis, basketball and athletics.Structurally, both sports have strong support through government funding for developing juniors.Institutional level: both sports have strong facility bases due to significant junior numbers.There are limited opportunities to continue sport into adulthood as a full-time career; as a result, sports which have maintained or increased their numbers can be performed individually and at any time suitable to the individual.Institutional: Both sports would have high levels of parental involvement as coaches/administrators (not reflected in tables).
30 4 a Which has had the greatest effect on your personal sports participation—community or school sport? Explain why.Answers will vary.
31 Minimal cost to students 4 b Which should cater for the grassroots level of sports participation—community or school sport? What extra support is required to ensure success?The school has greater flexibility to ensure that a broad range of sports and physical activities can be delivered.Minimal cost to studentsSchools have funding provided to purchase suitable equipment for a range of sports:Gross body activitiesBall gamesRacquet sportsTeachers have knowledge to impart basic skills to all studentsTo increase success the following would help:Funding for more equipment (general and specialist)Professional development for teachersRegional and community sport associations coordinating expo days to promote their sports / activities
32 Increased support network base Parents Community members 4 b Which should cater for the grassroots level of sports participation—community or school sport? What extra support is required to ensure success?Community sport has potential to cater for a greater number of students due to:Increased support network baseParentsCommunity membersLocal teams (F.R.E.D.)FacilitiesLarger space availablePromote family involvementProvides excellent opportunity for “free time”Create pathways for future participationRepresentative and professional levelFuture successCommunity involvementSubsidise costs for familiesGovernment funding for facilities and equipment
33 5 Every student from Year 1 to Year 12 should participate in compulsory physical activity. Develop a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis for this statement to determine whether compulsory participation would cause long-term participation rates to rise and obesity levels to decrease.
34 5 Compulsory physical activity Compulsory physical activity for years 1-12StrengthsIncreased activity levelsDevelop lifelong practicesOpportunities to develop life skillsSchool system has flexibility for sportStaff with expertise to supervise and implementWeaknessesSome teachers do not value sport as highly as others, hence lead to possible negative experiencesCrowded curriculum especially in high school yearsDifferent priorities for education in senior school yearsThreatsCosts associated with sportCurriculum requirements which has already seen some schools remove opportunities for students in years 11 and 12Individual needs and values will differContrasting sporting values from influential role modelsOpportunitiesPositive experiences could lead students to continue sport in community structuresUse influence of peers in high school to participate
35 Australia is a multicultural society 6 Provide three reasons why religious and cultural beliefs should be considered when developing policies for sports participation.Australia is a multicultural societyAlmost 25% of Australians born overseasMore than 40% of Australians have at least one parent born overseasApproximately 16% of Australians speak another languageDemonstrates respect for individuals’ beliefs, values and customsIncrease opportunities for greater participation by scheduling activities that cater for religious beliefsImprove cultural tolerance and understanding through participating in sport.