Presentation on theme: "Chapt. 11 & 12 Chapt. 11- Growth & Expansion Chapt. 12- The Jackson Era Required visuals: Lowell’s Factory System (McGraw-Hill)"— Presentation transcript:
Chapt. 11 & 12 Chapt. 11- Growth & Expansion Chapt. 12- The Jackson Era Required visuals: Lowell’s Factory System (McGraw-Hill)
Technology & The Industrial Revolution In colonial times, people lived and worked at home. Anything they needed they made with their hands and simple tools. In the mid 1700’s people started producing goods faster with the power of flowing water, “waterpower”. Initially in Britain, cloth makers built factories on rivers to harness this waterpower. These factories were called mills and contained large numbers of machines which needed people to run them. People started to leave homes and farms to work in these mills in large numbers. This major change in work/lifestyle was called the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution reached the US around the 1800s. The New England area of the country benefitted the most with its high amounts of rivers to power factories, and many ports for shipping goods. Also, farming was difficult in the north so many people preferred factory work over farming in such poor soil conditions of the north. Inventions such as the Water Frame, Spinning Jenny, and Power Loom made the process of creating cloth quicker and cheaper. Eli Whitney invented the Cotton Gin which quickly and easily removed seeds from cotton and increased production of cotton immensely. He invented the concept of interchangeable parts for guns when he was asked to manufacture 10,000 guns for the government in two years.
Rise of the Factories Patent Law was passed by government to protect the rights of inventors in the 1790’s but this didn’t stop Samuel Slater from stealing factory machine designs from British factories where he worked. He memorized the design of the machines and later built copies in the US that made cotton thread. Francis Cabot Lowell improved on Slater’s mill in 1814 by creating a factory system by combining all of the manufacturing steps in one place. [See Lowell’s Factory System] The Growth of Agriculture The Industrial Revolution led to many Americans moving to factories but still most families farmed. As the country expanded West, continued to farm in the new lands while taking their work styles and traditions with them. Northern families expanded west NORTH of the Ohio river and focused on raising pork and cash crops such as corn and wheat. Southerners on the other hand saw demand for cotton grow steadily and the cotton gin allowed farmers to plant larger swaths of land. Between 1790 and 1820 cotton production soared from 3,000 to 300,000 bales per year in the South. This growth in demand for cotton also led to a growth in demand for slavery. From 1790 to 1810, the number of slaves grew from 700,000 to 1.2 million. As southern farmers moved west, their work styles and traditions also moved west with them. What is the main difference between the economy of the north and the economy of the South?
Ch. 11 Lesson 2: Growth of the West In the beginning only the most rugged Americans lived in the west. At that time the west was anything west of the Appalachian Mountains. In 1763 Daniel Boone was one of the first pioneers to explore those lands. He explored a Native American trail called the “Warriors Path” which led to a break in the mountains called the Cumberland Gap. After two years of exploration of the land he and 30 other skilled foresters widened “Warriors Path” for other settlers by clearing rocks and trees and marking the path. It became known as the “Wilderness Path”. Between 1775 and 1790 100,000 people used it. The growth westward continued and Turnpikes were built by private companies. Tolls were charged to travelers who used them to help pay for them. Some roads were made with crushed stone and some used “Corduroy Roads” or roads with logs lined up side by side like the ridges of corduroy cloth. Traveling on Rivers River travel was faster and more comfortable but most rivers flowed from North to South and most people were traveling from East to West. What does this mean? Steam engines were not strong enough until private investment money from Robert Livingston went to hire Robert Fulton to design and create a powerful steamboat engine. Fulton’s steamboat “The Clermont” was launched in 1807 and was able to make the trip from NYC to Albany, NY in 32 hours. It used to take 4 days (96 hours). By 1850, there were more than 700 steamboats being used in the US to carry cargo and people.
New Water Ways Steamboats made traveling by water faster but were limited to the existing natural waterways. Soon canals were being built to connect major water ways. The Erie Canal was one of the first large scale productions connecting the Hudson River with the city of Buffalo on Lake Erie. This canal connected NYC with many other rivers and lakes. The Erie Canal lowered the cost of shipping and traveling which led to an increase in business for NYC. Other cities and towns also noticed the benefits of canals and did the same. This led to other cities and canals also being built along major water canals. US Canals in 1825 Continued Westward Growth Between 1791 and 1803, four new states were admitted to the US: Vermont, Kentucky, Tennessee and Ohio. Between 1816 and 1821, Indiana, Illinois, Mississippi, Alabama, and Missouri were also added. By 1800, only 387,000 white settlers lived west of the Appalachian Mountains. By 1820, that number had grown to 2.4 million people. Early pioneers usually settled into communities containing people from the same culture and homelands in the east. Each different people brought with them their cultures and work/lifestyles. How did this effect the economies of these areas?
Expansion of the US
Unity & Sectionalism After the War of 1812, the US benefitted for a short while from a sense of nationalism and unity. The intense differences that once split the nation seemed gone. This time period was called the “Era of Good Feelings”. Republicans faced no serious opposition for president and James Monroe easily won. The Federalist party was severely weakened for not supporting the War of 1812. Although the Republicans had a clear control on government, the War of 1812 made them realize that Jefferson’s ideal of a small government could not meet the needs of a nation in time of crisis. Monroe urged the congress to guide the growth of trade and industry. Both the Republican president and mostly Republican congress now promoted federal power like the Federalists. Henry Clay a Republican and speaker of the House of Reps. called for higher tariffs (taxes on imported goods), a new Bank of United States, and internal improvements such as roads bridges and canals. Competition from Britain was fierce because the Industrial revolution had begun in Britain. US companies (mostly in New England) had a hard time competing. Congress enacted the Tariff of 1816 which was hoped to encourage more people to purchase US made goods. Who did this help more…the North or the South? Americans protested, specifically southerners, protested as they had few factories in the south and had to import a lot of their goods that were manufactured. They didn’t see their industries being helped by the tariff as much as they saw the prices they paid for imported goods go up. How do you think this affected the relationship between the North and the South?
Sectionalism Differences in goals and interests between different parts of the country soon became sharper. The dispute about tariffs on imported goods was a good example of differences of opinions, goals, and interests. Three distinct areas of the country developed: The North, The South, and The West. Geography, economics, and history all contributed to sectional differences and differing ways of life in the US. Missouri and the Missouri Compromise In 1819, the Missouri Territory asked for admission as a state in the Union. Most people who populated the Missouri Territory were from Tennessee and Kentucky where slavery was permitted so these people believed slavery should be admitted in the new state. A representative in the House of Reps., James Tallmadge, proposed that Missouri gradually abolish slavery to become part of the Union. The House passed the plan but the Senate blocked it. The House was mostly northerners (105) and had less southerners (81). But the Senate had equal representation from both sides. 11 states were slave states and 11 states were free states. The addition of Missouri as a free state would put the south in the minority in the Senate AND the House of Representatives. Debate was very heated and it was feared that a split of the Union was inevitable. Henry Clay, the Republican Speaker of the House proposed what was called the Missouri Compromise which also included the addition of Maine to the Union to maintain a balanced count of Free states (12) to Slave States (12). This compromise also settled the same dispute of slavery in the Louisiana Purchase by creating a line west of the Southern border of Missouri where slavery was permitted south of the line but abolished north of the line. See map on Slide 6.
Florida The Louisiana Purchase doubled the size of the US but the boundaries of the purchase was in question for many years. Many Americans believed that the “Pan Handle” of Florida was included in the Louisiana Purchase (it wasn’t). This area continued to be governed by Spain. In 1810, some Americans took it upon themselves to attack and capture Spain’s Fort San Carlos in present day Baton Rouge Louisiana. Later that year, President Monroe claimed West Florida from the Mississippi river to Perdido River to be part of the Louisiana Purchase. Spain couldn’t fight back because it was at war with France. Spain continued to hold onto the rest of Florida but this angered southern slave holders as escaped slaves went south to Florida where they could not be followed. Also, the Creek Indians also retreated south into Florida as American settlers took their lands. Creek Indians and escaped slaved joined forces This new combination of people called themselves the “Seminole”, meaning “runaway”. The Seminoles and Southern Americans staged raids against each other and Spain could not control its border. Andrew Jackson was ordered by John C. Calhoun, Secretary of War under Monroe, to stop Seminole raids. In 1818, Jackson captured St. Marks and Pensacola. Spain was angered by this but could do nothing so they agreed to the Adams-Onís treaty which ceded Florida to the US. Spain continued to lose power over its lands in the Central and Southern Americas. By 1824 it had lost control of most of its lands in the “New World” (not so new anymore)
The Monroe Doctrine In 1822, France, Russia, Prussia, and Austria discussed a plan to help Spain regain its American holdings. On December 2, 1823, President James Monroe issued a statement saying the US would not get involved in the internal affairs or wars in Europe. He also stated that the US would not interfere with European Colonies in the Americas. At the same time, he also stated that North and South America, “ are henceforth not to be considered as subjects of future colonization by any European powers.” It was a clear warning to European nations to keep out. It also guided American Foreign policy for decades.
The Democratic-Republicans Split After James Monroe, John Quincy Adams defeated Andrew Jackson for the presidency from 1824-1828. He ran the country as a Democratic-Republican and emphasized the economic development of the country through the development of roads, rivers, and harbors but was limited in success. Four years later in the election of 1828 the Democratic-Republican party had spit between the supporters of Andrew Jackson who called themselves the Democrats and the National Republicans who supported J.Q. Adams. The Democrats distrusted central government and supported states rights whereas the National Republicans favored a strong central government.
Removing Native Americans The Native Americans who remained in the east, the Chocktaw, Cherokee, Seminole, Creek, and Chickasaw, were considered to be “civilized” because they developed into successful farming communities. Even though they were considered “civilized”, white Americans still wanted their lands and President Andrew Jackson supported the white Americans in their seizures of the Native American lands. After becoming president, Jackson stated that he wanted to relocate all Native Americans to lands that were west of the Mississippi. Americans at that time believed those lands to be wastelands and never thought Americans would want to live there. Many Americans thought that if all Native Americans moved there conflict with them would end. Jackson pushed the “Indian Removal Act” through congress which allowed the Federal Government to pay Native Americans to move west. Congress later established the Indian Territory in what is now Oklahoma which was to be the new home for all Native Americans from the Southeast region of the US. Most Native Americans felt forced to sale their lands. The Cherokees of Georgia refused to relent to pressure and appealed to the people of the United States: “We are aware, that some persons suppose it will be for our advantage to remove beyond the Mississippi….our people universally think otherwise….We wish to remain on the land of our fathers.” The Cherokee took the government to the Supreme Court in 1832 (Worcester vs. Georgia) and Chief Justice ruled that Ga. Had no right to interfere with the Native Americans. Jackson ignored Marshall’s ruling. He was said to have stated, “Marshall has made his decision…now let him enforce it…” What did he mean by that?
The Trail Where They Cried No one was willing or able to challenge the presidents failure to enforce the court’s ruling. WHY DO YOU THINK THIS WAS SO? By 1835, the Cherokee were divided about what to do. A small amount of them, about 500, signed the Treaty of Echota which agreed to give up all Cherokee land by 1838 while the rest of the Cherokee, about 17,000 did not. Many white Americans also opposed the treaty but it passed the Senate by one vote. When the deadline arrived in 1838 only about 2000 Cherokee had moved West. The rest of the Cherokee in the states of N. Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, and Tennessee were rounded up and forced to move west. More than 4000 of them died in the entire process. About 25% of the Cherokee nation died from illness, hunger, and exposure to the weather. The Trail of Tears