3Key Concept:The behavior plan must specify reactive strategies across four stages:2) Mid-behavior stage: The problem behavior is fully present and now requires staff to handle the behavior safely through an individualized, careful deescalating of the behavior. This might include specific techniques, calming words, presenting of choices, distraction, and redirection. Each technique will likely be unique to the student. What has worked in the past is important to discuss. Some staff deescalate the student better than others and this should be considered.
5Key Concept:The behavior plan must specify reactive strategies across four stages:3) Problem-solving/Debriefing stage: Debriefing with the student is to review what happened, practice the alternative behavior again, and plan what to do next.4) Required consequences stage: Clearly written consequences or other team determined actions because of the behavior are important, e.g., school and district disciplinary required actions; calling parents; notifying probation department; attendance at special seminars, detention, and so forth.
6Requirement:All implementers must be clear on specifically how to handle behavior to assure safety of all and that the intervention matches the stage of escalation.Method:The behavior team will need to discuss what has worked in the past to alter the problem behavior, and what interventions are required at all four stages of problem behavior.
7Example of reactive strategies: Billy Billy’s Behavior Support Plan includesthe four stages of reactive strategiesas follows:1. Beginning Behavior Stage: Use gestures Billy has been taught that are cues to Billy to use the alternative protest, i.e., call the teacher over to protest hard work. Follow the “Stop and Think” gestural system taught to teachers and students at this school.Howard Knoff, Stop & Think Social Skills Program,
8Example of reactive strategies: BillyBilly’s Behavior Support Plan includesthe four stages of reactive strategiesas follows:2. Mid-behavior Stage: Increase proximity to Billy, point to the work on the floor, get on eye level, use calm voice requiring work to be replaced on desk, wait patiently for compliance and praise in accordance with the teacher training on “4 step procedure-One Minute Skill Building.” If Billy is too agitated to work, invite him to take a “Time Away” in a specified classroom area. Praise his return when he is ready to work.
9Example of reactive strategies: BillyBilly’s Behavior Support Plan includesthe four stages of reactive strategiesas follows:3. Debriefing Stage: Ask Billy why he chose the old form of protest rather than his new alternative. Have Billy help fill out the daily report card communicating the poor choice he made and what Billy and the teacher will do next time to help assure the new behavior to protest is selected.
10Example of reactive strategies: Billy’s Daily Report Card
11Example of reactive strategies: BillyBilly’s Behavior Support Plan includesthe four stages of reactive strategiesas follows:4. Consequences Stage: If the behavior escalates to loud swearing, Billy will be sent to the counselor to complete a written process, “My Inappropriate Behavior,” which may or may not result in a suspension or other school disciplinary procedures given by the Vice Principal for the disruptive behavior.
12Example of reactive strategies: Billy’s “My Inappropriate Behavior” (see handouts)
13Positive Behavioral Support Principle: On-going communication needs to be between all important stakeholders in the student’s life.Key Concept:The behavior plan must specify who communicates with whom, how frequently and in what manner. Two-way communication between message senders and recipients is important.
14Requirement:The communication needs to be frequently enough to result in the continuous teaming necessary to achieve success.Method:Communication ideas: sent home in writing, through messages on or voice mail, through posting on a teacher’s answering machine in school (if information can be communicated in codes to assure confidentiality) or face-to-face.
15Example of Communication between important stakeholders:BillyBilly’s team decided on the following communication provisions:1. Communication between: parents, teacher, school counselor, therapist from Department of Mental Health, school principal
16Example of Communication between important stakeholders:Billy’s team decided on the followingcommunication provisions:2. Frequency:a. Daily: Report card on use of replacement behavior will be sent home; parents report back on praise or other reinforcers for accomplishment they gave Billy each day.b. Weekly: Teacher will send weekly summary of Billy’s behavior to principal, school counselor, parents and therapist through .
17Example of Communication between important stakeholders: Billy’s team decided on the followingcommunication provisions:2. Frequency:c. Per Incident: Episodes of protest that include throwing furniture or loud swearing will be reported to the school counselor, who will debrief and send “My Inappropriate Behavior” analysis sheet to the principal, therapist, family, teacher. Therapist and parents will communicate any discussions with Billy about the incident which have yielded important insights about future interventions to counselor, who will inform others as needed.
18Example of Communication between important stakeholders:Billy’s team decided on the followingcommunication provisions:Manner:a. Daily: written report hand carried by Billy to parentsb. Weekly: summaries using a report chartc. Per Incident: paper copy to principal, teacher. scanned copy to therapist, family
19What does the BSP QE measure? Extent to which this plan reflects a team developed plan in alignment with principles of behavioral change from the field of applied behavior analysisThose are the behaviorchange principles we justreviewed !
21What the QE does NOT measure Whether the new behaviors, interventions, environmental changes, and reinforcers fitthe studentWhether this plan is developmentally appropriatefor this studentAsking Mikey to eat in the cafeteria
22Who is this student? Current developmental stage Skill mastery levels Personality, temperament, andother unique characteristicsTeam members must know the student well to develop an effective planAsking Mikey to eat in the cafeteria
23What the QE does NOT measure Whether the hypothesized function is correct
24What the QE does NOT measure Whether the plan was or will be implemented consistently and skillfully
25The BSP QE Analysis Areas _____ A. Problem Behavior_____ B. Predictors of Behavior_____ C. Analyzing What is Supporting Problem Behavior_____ D. Environmental Changes_____ E. Predictors Related to Function_____ F. Function Related to Replacement Behaviors_____ G. Teaching Strategies_____ H. Reinforcement_____ I. Reactive Strategies_____ J. Goals and Objectives_____ K. Team Coordination_____ L. Communication_____ Total Score (X /24)
26The BSP QE Analysis Results Fewer than 12 points = Weak PlanThis plan may affect some change in problem behavior but the written plan only weakly expresses the principles of behavior change. This plan should be rewritten. 13 – 16 points = Underdeveloped PlanThis plan may affect some change in problem behavior but would require a number of alterations for the written plan to clearly embody best practice. Consider alterations. 17 – 21 points = Good PlanThis plan is likely to affect a change in problem behavior and elements of best practice are present. 22 – 24 points = Superior PlanThis plan is likely to affect a change in problem behavior and embodies best practice.
27Layout of the Scoring Guide Area Eval-uated& BSPLineA-LScoring Criteria0-2ActualExamplesStudent who refuses to do workKeyConceptsClarify scoring or extend your understanding
33Scoring Problems“Logically related” means that you can grasp the connection between the items.DON’T OVERANALYZE!
34Scoring SuggestionsScore leniently if you have reason to believe that the principles and key concepts are there.
35Scoring ProblemWriting a “gold standard” goal and objective in the era of accountability6 Key Components for Scoring A Complete Goal or Objective1) observable and measurable,2) specifies what the student will do,3) by when will criteria be reached,4) under what conditions,5) at what level of proficiency,6) how and by whom mastery will be measured
36Example Goals: What is the score? Mike will stop fighting on the playgroundBy Mike will use appropriatebehaviors on the playgroundBy Mike will substituteappropriate behaviors (seeking help,walking away or verbally problem-solving as taught by the counselor) in lieu of physical aggression as measured by counselor observations and recording on an IEP team designed record sheet for 90% of yard observations.
38PB1 PB3 PB2 F Scoring Problem 1 Student uses multiple behaviors for one function# each of the problem behaviorsCorrelate behavior #s withinterventions and reactive strategies appropriate for each behaviorWrite your plans with these correlations.FRemind: some of the intervention #s will likely be the same-- but the reactive strategies will need to clearly communicate when and how to respond to each problem behavior when it occurs and numbers are really important here.
39Screams, hits, runs away to escape Scoring Problem 1PB1PB3PB2Screams, hits, runs away to escapeExample of Reactive Strategiescorrelated with each behavior:When he screams - remind touse the new behaviorWhen he hits - block hit, thenuse student specific calming words3. When he runs away - use student specific enticements, do not chaseF
40PB1 PB3 PB2 F Multiple behaviors for one function Two Strands for PositiveBehavioral SupportTeach an alternative – a new behavior to express needEnvironment – change tasks, use visual schedules, provide more reinforcement, etc.F
41PB F2 F1 F1 1 F2 2 Scoring Problem 2 Student uses one behavior for multiple functionsCorrelate function #s withinterventions #s and reactive strategies #smatches interventionWrite one plan, number the functions and correlatewith the interventions, or, write a separate plan for eachfunction.F2F1F11F22
42Example for Scoring Problem 2: PBExample for Scoring Problem 2:Screams for multiple functions1. When it is for AttentionTeach - 1. guide touse hand raising to get attention,Environment - 1. Recognize & reinforce frequently (>2x in 15 min),Reactive Strategy - 1. use gestures to prompt hand raising, guide hand raising, initiate new taskF1F2
43PB F2 F1 Example 2: Screams for multiple functions 2. When it is for EscapeTeach - 2. teach asking for a breakEnvironment - 2. Reduce task demandsReactive Strategies - 2. use student specific enticements, do not chase
44PB1 PB2 F2 F1 Scoring Problem 3 Student uses multiple behaviors for multiple functionsNumber the behaviorsCorrelate each behaviorwith each function then match to interventions and reactive strategiesConsider writing multiple plans, or write one plan for each behavior/function. Focus on Pivotal SkillsF2F1
45PB1 PB2 F2 F1 Example 3: PB1 Screams, PB2 Runs away Multiple behaviors with multiple functionsPB1 Screams, PB2 Runs awayF2F1Behavior 1 ScreamsFunction 1 AttentionTeach - 1. Remind to use the new behavior of calling teacher over to his desk to get attention.Environment - 1. Call on student more frequently, allow to work with a buddy.Reactive Strategies -1. Use gestures to signal “stop and think” how the student can get teacher attention appropriately.
46PB1 PB2 F1 F2 Example 3: PB1 Screams, PB2 Runs away Multiple behaviors with multiple functionsPB1 Screams, PB2 Runs awayF1F2Behavior 2 Runs awayFunction 2 EscapeTeach - 2. Teach how to use a time away spot.Environment - 2. Establish time away spot.Reactive Strategies - 2. Use gestures then verbal prompts to orient student to use the time away spot when he is about to escape.
58Tom 5th grader, General Education student ADHD with 504 plan Swears, refuses to do work
59Tom - A. Line 1; B. Line 5; C. Lines 6 & 5 Line 1: Work refusal, esp. written workhe thinks will take a long time to complete.Work refusal often escalates to defiance,e.g., You can’t make me!” Also, verbal aggressionCan occur, such as swearing, calling the teacherNames and asking challenging questions, such as“Why do I have to do this dumb work, huh, HUH!!
60Line 5Teacher assigning work, especially work he thinks will take a long time to completeLine 6Tasks are not yet being broken down and sequenced for Tom. There is currently no agreed upon way for Tom to express his inability to structure the task himself. Verbal negotiation skills have not yet been taught. Opportunities for choice within a structure is not yet offered.