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CHAPTER 15: INFORMATIONAL READING Courtney Fisher2011.

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1 CHAPTER 15: INFORMATIONAL READING Courtney Fisher2011

2 What? Informational text is…  Expository Text that communicates facts about the natural or social world; (Duke 2006)  Found in many types and format;  Organized to steer readers to understanding and identifying key information and make connections among ideas;  Ranges from Cookbooks to magazines; textbooks to internet websites;  More of a challenge for the reader;  Lastly, uses diverse ranges of reading strategies to understand. Honig, Diamond, Gutlohn 2008

3 What? Text Structure  Informational Text Structure and Signal Words Text StructureSignal Words or Phrases Description Explains, defines, illustrates a concept or topic For example, for instance, main parts, such as, this particular Compare-Contrast Presents similarities & differences between two or more objects, places, events, or ideas Compare: like, alike, just as, similar, both, also, too Contrast: unlike, differ, but, in contrast, on the other hand, however Cause-Effect Presents the reason an event happened and its results Because, due to, since, therefore, so, as a result, consequently, lead to, this is why, the reason, result in, consequences Problem/Solution Poses a problem and suggests ;possible solutions Problem: problem, question, the trouble Solution: solution, answer, in response Time Ordered (Sequence) Groups ideas by order or time First, next, then afterward, later, last finally, not, after, before, stages, steps Honig, Diamond, Gutlohn 2008

4 What? Graphic Organizers  Graphic Organizers can aid in Informational reading by helping students to: a) Record information about underlying text structures; b) See how concepts fit within text structures; c) Focus on the most important ideas; d) Examine relationships among text concepts; e) Recall key text information; f) &, write well organized summaries. Honig, Diamond, Gutlohn 2008

5 What? Considerate Texts  Ideas for choosing Informational Text Structural Clues Text Structure apparent to reader Aspects of text that suggest, indicate, or emphasize its structure Coherence Clarity of writing…does it make sense? Features: Main ideas are easy to find and clearly stated Information supports the main idea Events and ideas are in logical order Signal words are used to illuminate relationships between events and ideas Precise wording is used Transitions are smooth between topics Audience Appropriateness Builds on the word knowledge students already have New concept introduction is appropriate for word knowledge of student Honig, Diamond, Gutlohn 2008

6 What? Comprehension Strategies  Strategy Application  All comprehension strategies apply.  Text that is close to the content-area shows greater build in comprehension strategies.  Students learning informational reading strategies are more likely to utilize the different skills when techniques are valuable and can be used in new learning situations. Honig, Diamond, Gutlohn 2008 Students can avoid this situation by understanding text structures…

7 What? Recognition of Structure  Text structure allows students to locate and organize information being presented.  Using clues such as:  Signal words,  Physical features, Headings Boldface type Tables  & Graphic organizers Students will be able to “see” the text structure for understanding and comprehension. Honig, Diamond, Gutlohn 2008

8 What? Monitoring Comprehension  Students need to understand if the text is making sense and know how to handle comprehension issues when they come up.  Tools such as searching, scanning and skimming are helpful to build understanding.  Text Search Model is one tool for understanding text.  See Chart page 688 Honig, Diamond, Gutlohn 2008

9 What? Connecting to Word Knowledge  Information is learned by creating connections with information learned in the past.  Word knowledge shapes a readers perception of text.  Teacher guidance helps encourage understanding when new information does not link to previous word knowledge.  K-W-L charts are often used to stimulate word knowledge of a topic. For example see page 689. Honig, Diamond, Gutlohn 2008

10 What? Word Knowledge Tools  Predicting:  Making an informed guess of what the content contains.  Asking Questions:  Elaborative Interrogation= students create hypotheses as a way to remember facts.  Useful in Math and Science  Answering Questions:  Question-Answer Relationships Framework is a tool for students and teachers to use when answering questions based on a text. See chart page 691.  Constructing Mental Images:  Mental images are created as the reading is done, thus creating a visual mental image that can change as the content becomes more intricate.  Summarizing:  Students use one of three strategies to come the main idea of a text. Dependent upon the strategy being taught, students may use a series of steps of techniques to come the main idea of the text. Honig, Diamond, Gutlohn 2008

11 What? Multiple-Strategy Instruction Program  Collaborative Strategic Reading= creates students that use self monitoring comprehension strategies that support their understanding of informational text.  Reader Response utilizes two techniques to create understanding.  Discussion-Oriented Instruction focuses the student on content by engaging them through questioning.  Writing for Content-Area Learning utilizes students ability to respond to informational texts through their own written response, review of text, improving text, as well as producing their own informational text. Honig, Diamond, Gutlohn 2008

12 What? Motivation and Engagement  “Engaged readers are strongly motivated to learn from what they are reading- taking satisfaction in successful reading, believing in their reading skills, and persisting in the face of difficulty.” (Honig, Diamond, Gutlohn 2008)  Students who show understanding through comprehension subsequently show understanding in content area.  Engaged informational readers are:  Motivated,  Knowledge-driven,  Socially interactive,  & strategic in how they go about reading.  Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) employ five motivational practices of: 1. Relevance, 2. Choice, 3. Collaboration, 4. Success, 5. & Conceptual theme. Honig, Diamond, Gutlohn 2008

13 What? Web-Based Text  Web-based text is:  Able to supply options for greater comprehension;  Engaging when carefully chosen;  Encompasses a vast majority of student use;  Challenging due to timing, navigation understanding, distractions from outside sources, and harder to judge for credibility;  & A tool requiring a strategies to be manipulated for the content.  Strategy Application Chart provides many ideas for the direct application of informational text reading strategies on the web. See page 697. Honig, Diamond, Gutlohn 2008

14 Why? Informational Reading  Informational reading helps young readers to:  Build content knowledge and vocabulary;  Profit from students interest, curiosities, and experiences;  Provide opportunities for students to develop areas of expertise;  Prepare students for the texts they will see and use frequently as adults;  Support students in finding answers and creating questions;  &, serve as a tool for both serving and posing problems. (Honig, Diamond, Gutlohn 2008)

15 When? To Teach, Assess, & Intervene Teach: Primary Grades Assess: Frequently Intervene: When misusing or not using strategy Informational Text provides interest reading in the primary grades…even when being read to the student. Assessing comprehension of Informational Text requires the use of several formats. Intervention of comprehension strategies can be practiced through re-teaching strategies. Honig, Diamond, Gutlohn 2008

16 How? Question-Answer Relationships  Question-Answer Relationships (QAR)  Research Based  Helps students to understand text relationships Text- what I read… Personal- what I believe in my head… Honig, Diamond, Gutlohn 2008

17 How? Paragraph Shrinking 1.Identify who or what (person, animal, place or thing) a paragraph is mostly about. 2. Identify the most important information about the who or what.3. Shrink all the information into one main-idea statement of 10 words or less. Paragraph shrinking allows students to make summaries for identifying information learned in order to synthesize and restate the concept objective. Steps of Paragraph Shrinking Honig, Diamond, Gutlohn 2008 See Page 712

18 How? Collaborative Strategic Reading  Combination of two instructive strategies:  Comprehension Strategy Instruction  Cooperative Learning  Teacher models each strategy in whole group setting. Students eventually learn to collaboratively use the strategies where each student knows his/her role. Before Reading: Preview Scan-Brainstorm What You Know-Predict What You Will Learn During Reading: Click and Clunk-Get the Gist See Page 720 After Reading: Wrap Up Ask and Answer Questions-Review What You Learned Honig, Diamond, Gutlohn 2008

19 How? Questioning the Author  Focus on text content through teacher-directed discussions.  Ability to engage in discussions to tackle text meaning.  Ability to recognize the intentions, biases, and fallibility of authors.  Ability to recognize that poor comprehension may be due to poorly written text.  Works both in whole class and small group reading strategies. See page 733 for sample plan Honig, Diamond, Gutlohn 2008

20 How? Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction  Science instruction is paired with the strategic reading of informational and narrative texts, supported through student writing. (Honig, Diamond, Gutlohn 2008)  Objectives:  Increase students’ reading comprehension, science knowledge, and motivation to read independently.  Comprehension Strategies Include:  Activating Background Knowledge  Questioning  Organizing Graphically  Structuring Story  Summarizing Honig, Diamond, Gutlohn 2008 See Page 739

21 Informational Reading is: Expository Text that communicates facts about the natural or social world. Used to reach content areas generally found in more specific areas of Math and Science. Best used when aspects such as reading level, word knowledge, and content area are clearly understood and structure is reviewed. Found in many sources for student comprehension. Taught through many different styles and strategies to increase comprehension strategies in whole group, small group and individual learning styles. Conclusion

22 Honig, Diamond, Gutlohn (2008) Teaching Reading Sourcebook, 2 nd Ed. California: Arena Press Bibliography


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