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The American Brahman: Crossbreedings Common Denominator 17 th World Brahman Congress Joe C. Paschal Professor and Livestock Specialist Texas A&M AgriLife.

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Presentation on theme: "The American Brahman: Crossbreedings Common Denominator 17 th World Brahman Congress Joe C. Paschal Professor and Livestock Specialist Texas A&M AgriLife."— Presentation transcript:

1 The American Brahman: Crossbreedings Common Denominator 17 th World Brahman Congress Joe C. Paschal Professor and Livestock Specialist Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Corpus Christi, Texas

2 700 million head of cattle 33% of world’s beef 20% of world’s milk

3 Brahman cattle are known for their tropical adaptability Advantages –Longevity (teeth) –Hot climate adaptability –Internal/external parasite tolerance –Resistance to some disease –Maternal ability –Ability to digest coarse forages –Mineral conservation –Maternal calving ease –Energetic efficiency –Highest hybrid vigor (heterosis) in crosses with non Bos indicus Disadvantages –Muscling –Marbling –Gain –Temperament –Tenderness

4 Brahman cattle are well known for their high level of hybrid vigor in crosses with non-Bos indicus breeds Hybrid vigor is caused by the interaction effects of individual genes Highest for traits with low breeding value (early in life) and lowest for those with high breeding value (late in life) Effects are cumulative over a lifetime Hybrid vigor is highest in Brahman – non Brahman crosses

5 Total Animal Value, $ (20 years-1367 hd) University of Florida Johnson and Elzo 2012

6 Preweaning efficiency of Brahman vs. Bos taurus crossbred maintenance energy intake Trait Angus/Hereford Brahman x Peak milk yield, lb/d (+8%) Total milk yield, lb (+18%) Calf BW, lbs (-8%) Calf wt gain, lbs (+19%) Cow intake, Mcal ME (+15%) Cow Efficiency* (+4%) *lbs calf weight weaned /Mcal of ME consumed (energy intake) (adapted from Jenkins and Ferrell, 2004)

7 Crossbreeding Production Efficiencies SystemAdvantage 1 2 Breed Rotation16 3 Breed Rotation20 2 Breed Sire Rotation12 3 Breed Sire Rotation16 2 Breed Composite Breed Composite Breed Terminal (complete)9 3 Breed Terminal (complete)20 3 Breed Terminal (buy F1 females)28 3 Breed Sire Rotation (or Composite 2 + Terminal)24 1 Average percent increase over straightbreeding in lbs of calf weaned per cow exposed using only Bos taurus breeds. Crossing Bos Taurus and Bos indicus breeds can increase these values 50 to 100% 2 Substituting a combination breed for a composite reduces the values slightly to moderately depending on the amount of heterosis retained.

8 Fertility and Productivity in Bos indicus F 1 Cows (Riley et al. 2001a) Breed of Cow Pregnancy Rate (%) Calf Crop (%) Calf Survival Weaning % Angus G. Brahman Gir Indu Brazil Nelore R. Brahman

9 Terminal Cross Calves Produced by Bos indicus F 1 Cows (Riley et al. 2001a) Breed of CowCalving Difficulty Birth Wt. (kg) Weaning Wt. (kg) Angus 50.3 a 39 a 227 G. Brahman 19.7 ab 37 abc 257 Gir 14.8 b 35 c 256 Indu Brazil 12.4 b 37 abc 256 Nelore 4.8 b 37 bc 257 R. Brahman 8.4 b 37 ab 261 Columns with different superscripts differ P<.05.

10 Lifetime Production and Fertility of Bos indicus F 1 Cows (Riley et al. 2001a ) Sire Breed of Cow P.P. % C.C. %C.S. % C.W. % Angus 87.4 a 86.7 a 96.3 b 83.3 a G. Brahman 96.4 b 95.6 b 92.3 ab 88.4 ab Gir 96.0 b 94.6 ab 96.8 b 91.5 ab Indu Brazil 91.0 ab 92.8 ab 87.1 a 81.0 a Nelore 97.0 b 97.1 c 98.9 b 96.1 b R. Brahman 93.8 ab 92.7 ab 93.0 ab 86.0 a Columns with different superscripts differ P<.05.

11 Average Age of Bos indicus F 1 Cows at Culling (Riley et al. 2001b) Sire Breed of Cow Age (yrs) Angus 12.4 G. Brahman 12.3 Gir 13.8 Indu Brazil 11.9 Nelore 13.7 R. Brahman 12.3

12 Determining Value

13 Medicine, Feed and Total Cost of Gain (Paschal et al. 2003a) Columns with different superscripts differ P<.05.

14 Feeding and Marketing Margins and Net Return (Paschal et al. 2003a) Columns with different superscripts differ P<.05.

15 On Feed and Final Weight, ADG and DOF by Percent Brahman (Paschal et al. 2003a) Columns with different superscripts differ P<.05.

16 Carcass Weight, Dressing Percent, Fat Thickness, Ribeye Area, REA/cwt, and USDA Yield Grade by Percent Brahman (Paschal et al. 2003b) Columns with different superscripts differ P<.05.

17 USDA Marbling Scores and Quality Grades by Percent Brahman (Paschal et al, 2003b) Columns with different superscripts differ P<.05.

18 Warner Bratzler Shear Force by Percent Brahman (Paschal et al 2003b) *Shear force based on a limited number of purebred or straightbred steers.

19 Percentage Exceeding Tenderness of 4 Kg by Percent Brahman (Paschal et al 2003b) *Shear force based on a limited number of purebred or straightbred steers.

20 Feedyard Performance TraitMeanSD Slaughter age546 d51 d ADG1.49 kg/d.23 kg Slaughter weight 557 kg56 kg (Franke, et al. 2006)

21 Carcass Yield TraitMeanSD Hot carcass weight 336 kg37 kg Fat thickness.86 cm.43 cm REA89.1 sq cm9.0 sq cm USDA YG2.3.7 (Franke, et al. 2006)

22 Carcass Quality TraitMeanSD Marbling score SL 9062 USDA QGSE 7744

23 Tenderness TraitMeanSD Calpastatin4.51 u/g1.22 u/g 7 d WBSF4.59 kg1.23 kg 14 d WBSF3.86 kg.86 kg

24 Hump Height TraitMeanSD Hump height 19.3 cm3.3 cm

25 ABBA Carcass Evaluation Program Muscle/Frame M2 On Feed Wt 246 kg Off Feed Wt 593 kg DOF 174 ADG 1.32 kg Carcass Wt 369 kg Dress % 64.8 Fat 1.04 cm REA 87.1 cm sq REA/cwt 24.3 cm sq Marbling SL 87 Yield Grade 2.8 Quality Grade SE+ Hump 21.4 cm WBS 3.88 kg

26 Improving Carcass Value Avoid stress Change cut style Improve technique Reduce shrink Improve chilling Allow carcass to age –Whole carcass –Cuts (wet/dry) Electrical stimulation

27 Heritability and Genetic and Phenotypic Correlations TraitADGSLWTFTREAMSQGYGCALPSF7SF14HUMP ADG SLWT FT REA MS QG YG CALP SF SF HUMP

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29 Milk Production Bos indicus and Dairy Crosses in Tropical Wet and Dry Conditions CrossMilk Yield LactationCalving Int. Age 1 st Calf Service Conception 1/41.71 F / F Galukande, 2003

30 Advantage/Disadvantage of Dairy Cross Calves and Carcasses Fertility Milk Growth Mature size Carcass weight Muscling Dressing percent Marbling Tenderness

31 In Summary Percentage Brahman genetics offer higher levels of hybrid vigor for traits low in heritability to improve adaptability, fertility, maternal ability and longevity. Purebred Brahman genetics offer superior beef genetics to tropical production systems for both beef and dairy.

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