Presentation on theme: "Organic Chemistry Revision Grade 10. What is crude oil? It is a mixture of hydrocarbons."— Presentation transcript:
Organic Chemistry Revision Grade 10
What is crude oil? It is a mixture of hydrocarbons.
How was crude oil formed? From the buried remains of animals and plants over millions of years High pressure and temperature.
What are hydrocarbons? Are compounds made up of hydrogen and carbon only.
What is the name of the process used for separating crude oil? Fractional distillation
What is the name of the apparatus used for separating crude oil? Fractionating column
Name four fractions produced by fractional distillation. Refinery gas Petrol Gasoline Kerosene Diesel bitumen
Referring to the size of the hydrocarbon, which one fraction will be collected at the top? At the bottom of the fractionating tower? Short fractions at the top Long fractions at the bottom
What are the products of the complete combustion of a hydrocarbon? Carbon dioxide and water vapour
What are the products of the incomplete combustion of a hydrocarbon? Carbon monoxide and water vapour
What is the name of the poisonous gas produced by incomplete combustion? Carbon monoxide
What is the effect of this gas on health? Carbon monoxide is a poisonous gas. It decreases the oxygen carriers in blood. It may cause death if its level in blood is high.
How can you break long chain hydrocarbons? By cracking
What is the difference between cracking and fractional distillation? Cracking is a chemical process while fractional distillation is a physical process.
What are the conditions for cracking? High temperature catalyst
What is a homologous series? Members of the series have the Same general formula. Similar chemical properties Successive members differ by CH 2 similar physical properties such as appearance, melting/boiling points,
What is the general formula of alkanes? C n H 2n+2
What is the general formula of alkenes? C n H 2n
Give the molecular formula of: ethane propene butene methane C 2 H 6 C 3 H 6 C 4 H 8 C H 4
Draw the structural formula of propane
Draw the structural formula of butene
What is the chemical test used to differentiate between alkanes and alkenes? what is the result? Bromine water test The bromine will decolorize in alkenes and stays orange brown in alkanes.
Write the polymerization reaction of polyethene. C C n C C n
Name two other polymers and draw their monomers then name them. Polypropene polychloroethene C C H CH 3 H H C C H Cl H H