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mmcl2003 1111 2222 3333 4444 5555 6666 7777 8888 9999 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25.

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Presentation on theme: "mmcl2003 1111 2222 3333 4444 5555 6666 7777 8888 9999 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25."— Presentation transcript:

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2 mmcl

3 mmcl A FUEL is …… A chemical that burns to release heat energy answer

4 mmcl2003 The reaction of a substance with oxygen giving out energy. Another name for burning answer 2 COMBUSTION is …….

5 mmcl2003 What is the test for oxygen ? Oxygen relights a GLOWING taper answer 3

6 mmcl2003 What are the main components of air? Air is about 20% OXYGEN and 80% NITROGEN answer 4

7 mmcl2003 What is an EXOTHERMIC reaction? An exothermic reaction that produces heat energy answer 5

8 mmcl2003 What is a FINITE resource? A finite resource is one which cannot be replaced and will eventually run out answer 6

9 mmcl2003 What is a FOSSIL FUEL? A fuel e.g. coal, crude oil or natural gas, formed from plant or animal remains answer 7

10 mmcl2003 Describe how COAL was formed? Coal was formed from dead vegetation (trees and plants) which was covered by layers of sediment and changed over millions of years by heat, pressure and bacteria. answer 8

11 mmcl2003 Describe how CRUDE OIL was formed? Crude oil was formed from dead marine (sea) animals and plants which were covered by layers of sediment and changed over millions of years by heat, pressure and bacteria. answer 9

12 mmcl2003 What are HYDROCARBONS? Hydrocarbons are compounds of HYDROGEN and CARBON only. answer 10

13 mmcl2003 What is CRUDE OIL? The mixture of hydrocarbons as it comes from the ground or sea-bed. answer 11

14 mmcl2003 What is FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION? The process in which a mixture of substances (eg crude oil) is heated and separates according to the boiling points of the substances. answer 12

15 mmcl2003 What is a FRACTION? A group of hydrocarbon compounds with boiling points within a given range. answer 13

16 mmcl2003 What is the BOILING POINT of a liquid? The temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a gas. answer 14

17 mmcl2003 What is FLAMMABILITY? Flammability is a measure of how easily a fuel ignites and how well it burns. The flammability of crude oil fractions decreases as their chain length increases. answer 15

18 mmcl2003 What is VISCOSITY? Viscosity is a measure of the thickness of a liquid. The viscosity of crude oil fractions increases as their chain length increases. answer 16

19 mmcl2003 What is the test for water? Water boils at C and freezes at 0 0 C. answer 17

20 mmcl2003 What is the test for carbon dioxide? Carbon dioxide turns lime water milky. answer 18

21 mmcl2003 Name the typical fractions obtained from crude oil and their chain length Refinery Gases : 1 to 4 Gasoline (Naphtha): 5 to 12 Kerosine (Paraffin): 10 to 16 Gas Oil: 12 to 25 Residue: 25+ answer 19

22 mmcl2003 What happens when HYDROCARBONS are burned ? Hydrocarbons burn to form CARBON DIOXIDE and WATER answer 20

23 mmcl2003 What happens when hydrocarbons are burned in limited supply of air ? Hydrocarbons burn incompletely to form carbon (soot) and carbon monoxide (a poisonous gas) (Incomplete combustion) answer 21

24 mmcl2003 Give examples of pollutants released into the atmosphere by burning hydrocarbons Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulphur; Carbon Monoxide; Unburned hydrocarbons; Lead from some petrols answer 22

25 mmcl2003 Give examples of how air pollutants from burning hydrocarbons can be reduced Removal of SULPHUR when fuels are made; Use of CATALYTIC CONVERTORS in cars; Decreasing the FUEL to AIR ratio of engines. answer 23

26 mmcl2003 Why is carbon monoxide dangerous? Carbon Monoxide (CO) is poisonous. It combines with the haemoglobin in the blood stopping oxygen from being transported around the body answer 24

27 mmcl2003 Give some uses of the typical fractions obtained from crude oil Petroleum Gas : Bottled Gases Gasoline: Petrol, Chemical Production Kerosine: Aviation Fuel Gas Oil: Diesel, Central Heating Fuel, Lubricating Oils Residue : Bitumen for roads and roofs answer 25


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