2Characters For each character, you should know: Description Important ActionsFriends/allies or enemies of importanceWho they parallel in Russian historyHow they parallel Russian historyCharacters: Old Major, Napoleon, Snowball, Boxer, Clover, Benjamin, Mollie, Squealer, Moses, Minimus, Frederick, Pilkington
3Old MajorIs a very important character in the story, although he is only present in the first chapter.He came up with the idea of Animalism and gave the big speech in the beginning of the novel.Declared all men enemies and all animals comrades.He inspired the revolution, but died before it happened.He symbolizes Marx and Lenin because they came up with the idea of Communism
4Napoleon A large pig who became the tyrant leader of Animal Farm. He was a “behind the scenes” type of leader.Napoleon had a pack of dogs around him at all times for protection.He was responsible for many changes on the farm that went against Animalism.He had Snowball run off the farm and killed other animals for associating with Snowball (used him as a scapegoat).At the end of the novel he changed the name of the farm back to Manor FarmHe represents StalinHe drove out Snowball, like Stalin exiled Trotsky
5Snowball Other pig lead during the revolution. Snowball is a good leader who makes lots of speeches and is a military mastermindCommanded Battle of CowshedHe wanted to build the windmill and to make the farm betterDoesn’t like Napoleon – competes with him for leadership until he is run off the farmParallels Trotsky
6BoxerHard working horse and is very loyal to whoever the leader is, kind of stupidWorked overtime to build windmill – nearly worked himself to deathFriends with Benjamin and CloverWorks hard for the communist goalsSays, “I will work harder” and “Napoleon is always right”Is sent to the slaughter house instead of the hospitalRepresents the blind followers of Communism and the working class
7CloverClover is a kind horse who questions some of the pigs’ behavior.She notices when the commandments change, but can’t read themClose friends with Boxer
8Benjamin Old, stubborn donkey who doesn’t believe in Animalism He doesn’t think Animalism will make any difference. He does not change his behavior after the revolution.He is the only one who realizes that Boxer is being sent to the slaughter house.He finally reads the single commandment to Clover at the end of the novelThe only friend he had was BoxerHe represents the cynics who don’t believe in communism
9Mollie Mollie is a horse who only cares about herself. She did not want to rebel and did not help during the Battle of Cowshed.She only cares about being able to wear ribbons and eat lump sugarShe does not work for Animal Farm, and finally runs awayShe represents the upper class people in the Russian revolution who do not support communism – they want to keep their money and luxuries for themselves
10SquealerPig who is in charge of explaining changes to the other animalsGet excited very easily – skips around and moves his tail when talking to the other animalsTells animals to always believe in Napoleon.Changes commandments as the pigs change the rulesIs faithful to NapoleonRepresents the use of propaganda during the Russian revolution (the pigs need the milk and apples, instilling fear that Jones might come back, etc)
11MosesMoses is a raven who spreads the good word of Sugar Candy Mountain – where he believes animals go when they dieRepresents the Russian Orthodox Church – neutral toward the idea of AnimalismIn the revolution the priests dreamed of good things like mosses dreams of a good place.He does no work but he still gets food and beer
12Other Animals to KnowMinimus - Pig who writes songs and poems for NapoleonFrederick – neighboring farmer who pays counterfeit money for the timber, then blows up the 2nd windmillPilkington – neighboring farmer who gets mad at Napoleon when he sells timber to Frederick – tells Napoleon, “Serves you right,” when the windmill is attacked
13Class Discussion Topics What changes occur on Animal Farm?Why can the pigs get away with these changes?How are Napoleon and Jones alike?What does “some animals are more equal than others” mean?Explain the last line of the book – why is it difficult to distinguish the pigs from the men?
14Changes on Animal Farm7 commandment arrive, but get changed throughout the novelFarm changed from Manor Farm to Animal Farm, then back againAt first, more food/successful harvests; then things change for the worseNew Flag (flag with horn and hoof representing the communist hammer and sickle); later is just a green flagAll the animals are happier at first, then just happy to be working for themselves and free of humansThe pigs were not considered equal to other animals – they had many privilegesCommitteesReading and writing classesBuilding the windmill and rebuilding itDoing business with outside farms through Mr. WhymperTaking eggs from the hensMore work, less leisure timeNo one ever retires
15Why can the pigs get away with these changes? Because the pigs are smarter and can trick the other animalsThe other animals can’t remember the past very wellSquealer is extremely convincing and uses propagandaThe pigs told the animals that if they were not in power that Jones would returnThings are still better than when Jones was on the farm and in chargeThe animals are happy to be working for themselves even if the conditions aren’t great
16How are Napoleon and Jones alike? They are both Tyrants and need powerThey are both get more food, rest, luxuries and powerThey are both do less work than the rest of the farm workersThey are both wear clothes, and walk on two legs, carry a whip, and are tyrantsThey are both cruel leaders.
17What does “some animals are more equal than others” mean? That some animals are “BETTER” than other animals such as the pigs and dogsNot every animal is equal because the pigs get many more privileges (eat apples, milk, drink alcohol, sleep in beds, walk on their hind legs)Some animals are more the same than others and deserve more than others
18Explain the last line of the book – why is it difficult to distinguish the pigs from the men? That the pigs have become so corrupt with power that they look exactly like man, fat drunk and tyrannicalThis passage is also saying how humans can act like pigs by being greedy, rude, etc.
19TermsBe able to define these terms and explain how they relate to Animal FarmAllegoryFableSymbolismSatire
20AllegoryA symbolic story where the characters and plot are to be understood as representing something else that occurred. There is a hidden meaning behind the story.Animal farm is symbolic of the rise and decline of communism and the Russian revolution. The animals represent specific people from history. The story is not really about animals on a farm.
21FableA short story meant to teach a lesson and usually end with a moral. Characters are usually animals.Animal farm is a fable – the characters are animals and the author is teaching lessons not only about communism, but about human nature and the desire for power and greed.
22SatireThe use of irony, sarcasm, ridicule, to expose or criticize human vices.Animal Farm exposes the thoughtless, reckless behavior of humankind in general and specific to the rise and fall of Communism
23SymbolismThe use of people or objects to represent other real- life objects, ideas or themesAnimal Farm uses TONS of symbolismanimals symbolize people (ex. Snowball symbolizes Trotsky)objects symbolize past struggles (ex. The windmill symbolizes the desire for industrialization in Russia)
24PropagandaKnow each the following techniques, decide if they are used in the novel and when:Rhetorical QuestionsEmotional AppealLogical LiesFearFinger PointingLyingUsing confusing/complicated language