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1. 2 Disc Brake System Components and Operation Chapter 12 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

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Presentation on theme: "1. 2 Disc Brake System Components and Operation Chapter 12 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc."— Presentation transcript:

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2 2 Disc Brake System Components and Operation Chapter 12 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

3 3 Objectives Identify the components of a disc brake. Identify the two main types of rotors. Identify the three types of front caliper piston arrangements. Identify and explain the operation of fixed and floating calipers. Identify floating caliper mounting methods. Identify and explain the operation of rear calipers. Identify brake pad materials and construction. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

4 4 Disc Brake Rotor RotorRotor provides a smooth braking surface for disc brake pad contact.disc brake pad Stationary pads contact spinning rotor: Friction slows rotor. Wheel rotation stops. Rotor absorbs and dissipates frictional heat. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

5 5 Rotor Construction Majority made of cast iron. Sizes vary between vehicles. Sides machined to provide smooth braking surface. Same thickness throughout: Variations would cause pulsation when brakes applied. Ventilated or solid. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

6 6 Rotor Construction Size of rotor depends on intended use: Larger diameter rotors provide more braking area and expose more area to air for dissipation. Rotors must have sufficient metal to absorb heat. Extra metal thickness allows for machining or turning:machiningturning Minimum thickness usually stamped on hub or inner part of body. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

7 7 Rotor Construction © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. This rotor has its minimum allowable thickness stamped on the hub. (General Motors)

8 8 Rotor Construction Solid rotorsSolid rotors: No openings between machined surfaces. Cooled by air passing over outside surfaces. Smaller than ventilated rotors. Ventilated rotorsVentilated rotors: Have internal fins between friction surfaces. As rotor spins, fins draw air into center of rotor and discharge it from edges. Variation of ventilated rotor, has internal fins and holes drilled into braking surfaces. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

9 9 Ventilated Rotor © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. (Saab)

10 10 Cross-Drilled Rotor © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. (Porsche)

11 11 Rotor Attachment Rotor must be accurately attached to hub: Rotor must rotate without lateral runout. Most rotors are separate from hub, held in place by lug nuts and/or wheel studs. Some rotors are integral with hub: Common on front brakes of rear-wheel drive vehicles. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

12 12 Rotor Attachment © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Secured to hub with wheel studs. (Chrysler)

13 13 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Rotor Attachment Rotor and hub integrated into single unit. (Chrysler)

14 14 Splash Shield Splash shieldSplash shield deflects water and debris from rotor and brake assemblies. Covers part or all of rotor’s inner surface. Usually fastened to spindle/steering knuckle. Allows air circulation over rotor: Some designed as air scoops to direct air over the rotor as vehicle moves. Holds emergency brake shoes on some rear disc brake assemblies. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

15 15 Front Disc Brake Caliper CaliperCaliper provides housing for: Hydraulic components. Brake pads. Made of cast iron or aluminum. Usually attached to the spindle assembly. Dust bootsDust boots cover pistons to: Keep dust and water away from inner seals. Reduce possibility of piston sticking. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

16 16 Front Disc Brake Caliper © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. (Chrysler)

17 17 Caliper Operation Master cylinder develops hydraulic pressure. Pressure travels to caliper: Piston seal prevents leaks between piston and housing. Piston moves outward. Piston forces pads into contact with rotor. Friction slows rotor and vehicle. Piston seal retracts when pressure removed: Linings just clear rotor. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

18 18 Caliper Operation © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. (Delco)

19 19 Higher Pedal Effort Disc brakes have no servo action: Wheel rotation does not help brakes apply. Disc brakes require more pedal force than drum brakes. Power assist units commonly used with disc brakes. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

20 20 Pad-to-Rotor Clearance Disc brakes have almost no clearance between lining and rotor when brakes released: Even with low clearances, there is almost no brake drag or wear. Low-drag calipers have more clearance: Removal of all brake drag increases fuel economy. Use quick take-up master cylinders. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

21 21 Caliper Types Two methods of mounting disc brake calipers, depending on piston arrangement: Most common type are floating calipers.floating calipers Fixed calipers used on high-performance vehicles. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

22 22 Floating Caliper Construction Use one or two pistons located on same side of caliper. Caliper can move back and forth in relation to rotor. Caliper slides on mounting bolts called guide pins or slider pins.guide pinsslider pins Guide pins contact bushings to reduce wear of caliper metal:bushings Actual movement between bolts and caliper is through bushings. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

23 23 Floating Caliper Construction On some vehicles, sliding takes place between machined ways: Flat surface machined smooth. Caliper and spindle ways move against each other with minimum friction. Caliper movement over ways controlled by supports, called keys: Held in place by single mounting screw. Leaf spring, called clip, cuts down on caliper rattling. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

24 24 Floating Caliper Construction © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Caliper slides on machined ways. (Ford)

25 25 Floating Caliper Construction © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Caliper slides on locating pins and insulators. (Ford)

26 26 Floating Caliper Operation Pressure builds in cylinder bore behind piston and seals. Pressure forces piston outward: Piston forces inner brake pad into contact with rotor. Seal is deformed outward by piston movement. Pad-rotor contact prevents more outward piston movement. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

27 27 Floating Caliper Operation © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. (Cadillac)

28 28 Floating Caliper Operation When inner pad contacts rotor, it takes less pressure to push caliper backward than to push piston out: Caliper slides inward on bolts or ways. Outer brake pad contacts rotor. Pad pressure equalizes on both sides. Rotor slows. When brakes are released, outer seal draws piston in: Pads move away from rotor. Caliper floats back to resting position. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

29 29 Floating Caliper Operation © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. (Chrysler)

30 30 Fixed Caliper Construction Rigidly bolts to spindle: Does not move during braking. Modern fixed calipers have four pistons: Two on each side. Older fixed calipers used two pistons: One on each side. Transfer tubes or internal passages direct pressure between the sides. Caliper body may be one piece or split. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

31 31 Fixed Caliper Construction © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. (Kelsey-Hayes)

32 32 Fixed Caliper Operation When brakes applied: All four pistons are pressurized at once. Pistons move outward, deforming piston seals outward. Pistons force brake pads into contact with spinning rotor. Rotor slows. When brakes released: Hydraulic pressure decreases. Pistons are pulled clear of rotor by piston seals. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

33 33 Rear Disc Brake Calipers Do same job and have same components as front brake calipers: Usually smaller. Most are single piston floating designs. May include a parking brake mechanism to apply the pads: Screw type. Ball-and-ramp type. Cam type. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

34 34 Disc Brake Pads Disc brake pads: Create friction when pressed against rotor. Composed of the lining and shoe.liningshoe Lining designed to: Absorb heat and transfer it to shoe assembly. Give best coefficient of friction with acceptable wear, smoothness, and quiet operation. Shoe: Provides support for lining material. Provides rigid area for pistons to push against. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

35 35 Lining Construction Constructed by mixing heat resistant materials with bonding agents: Mixture is controlled to create proper coefficient of friction. Mixture is molded, compressed, and heated. Finished pad is machined to smooth surface. Some pads are grooved to: Provide self-cleaning. Increase air transfer for cooling. Reduce noise. Indicate wear. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

36 36 Shoe Construction Shoe is made of flat, heavy gauge steel: Punched or cast to match caliper mounting and lining. May have alignment dowels stamped into metal. Anti-noise springs or clips: Reduce rattles and squeal. May be riveted or welded to shoe. May snap on shoe. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

37 37 Lining-to-Shoe Attachment Lining may be attached to shoe by riveting:riveting Brass rivets attach lining to shoe. Brass rivets cause less damage if lining wears and contacts rotor. Lining may be attached to shoe by bonding:bonding Special high temperature cement or epoxy resin placed between lining and shoe. Lining and shoe pressed together until cement dries or cures. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

38 38 Noise Reduction Devices Brake noise may be reduced by: Anti-rattle clips. Springs. Flexible heat-resistant material, called insulators. Anti-squeal compounds applied to the back of pad before installation. Mechanical noise reduction devices form tension fit with pad and other parts of brake assembly when pad installed. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

39 39 Noise Reduction Devices © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. A—Shims and springs. B—Anti-rattle springs. C—Anti-squeal springs. (Chevrolet)

40 40 Lining Wear Warning Devices Wear indicatorWear indicator: Small piece of flat spring steel attached to one shoe. When pads are excessively worn, high-pitched squeal produced when brakes not applied. Electrical indicator: Electrical lead attached to a sensor next to pad or molded into pad. When brakes are worn, applying brakes completes circuit and illuminates dashboard warning light. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

41 41 Wear Indicator © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. A—New pads. B—Excessively worn pads. (Chevrolet)

42 42 Electric Wear Sensor © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. (Bendix)

43 43 Review Questions The disc brake rotor provides a(n) ______ braking surface for the pads. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. smooth

44 44 Review Questions A solid rotor provides less cooling than a(n) __________ rotor. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. ventilated

45 45 Review Questions A disc brake caliper with four pistons is a(n) _____ type. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. fixed

46 46 Review Questions True or False? Many floating calipers are mounted to the spindle with special mounting bolts that allow the caliper to slide on them. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. True.

47 47 Review Questions Screw and cam are types of disc _______ brakes. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. parking

48 48 Review Questions The disc brake lining is attached to a(n) ____ made of heavy metal. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. shoe

49 49 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Glossary Anti-rattle clip One or more metal components designed to keep brake pads from vibrating and rattling. Anti-squeal compound Chemical insulation that can be applied to the metal side of brake pads. Bonding Process that glues the lining to the pad or shoe. Bushing A tubular friction bearing, used to guide and reduce friction of moving parts.

50 50 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Glossary Caliper Disc brake component that forms cylinder and houses piston and brake pads (linings). It creates clamping action on rotating disc to stop car. Disc brake pad Disc brake friction lining. Designed to stop the vehicle when forced into contact with the rotor. Dust boot Rubber seal that keeps dust and water out of calipers and wheel cylinders.

51 51 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Glossary Fixed caliper Brake caliper that is rigidly bolted to the spindle and does not move during braking. Floating caliper A caliper that can move or “float” back and forth in relation to the rotor. Guide pins Mounting bolts that allow the caliper to move over them. Also called slider pins.

52 52 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Glossary Lining The actual brake material on a brake pad. Machining The removal of a layer of metal from a rotor or drum to restore the surface finish. Also referred to as cutting or turning. Riveting Process using brass rivets to attach the lining to the pad or shoe. Rotor A flat metal disc that serves as the friction surface for the front brake assemblies.

53 53 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Glossary Shoe The metal lining support on a brake pad. Slider pins Mounting bolts that allow the caliper to move over them. Also called guide pins. Solid rotor A brake rotor that has no openings between the friction surfaces. Splash shield Sheet metal stamping or molded plastic assembly installed over the inner surface of a rotor.

54 54 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Glossary Turning Also referred to as cutting or machining. The removal of a layer of metal from a rotor or drum to restore the surface finish. Ventilated rotor A rotor that has internal fins and/or holes drilled between the two friction surfaces. Way A flat surface designed to allow smooth movement between itself and another component that slides over it.

55 55 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Glossary Wear indicator A small piece of flat spring steel attached to one of the brake pads. As the pad linings wear down, the end of the spring contacts the spinning rotor, notifying the driver of the need for brake service.


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