Presentation on theme: "HEAD AND SPINAL INJURIES"— Presentation transcript:
1HEAD AND SPINAL INJURIES LESSON 12HEAD AND SPINAL INJURIES12-1
2Head and Spinal Injuries May be life threateningMay cause damage to brain or spinal cordAny trauma to head, neck or back may result in serious injuryInjuries that cause unresponsiveness or loss of sensation likely to be seriousSuspect neck or back injury with serious injury..\..\..\Terrible Backflip Faceplant off Vending Machine.mp4..\..\..\Faceplant aftermath.mp4
3Spinal Injury Statistics Motor vehicle crashes leading cause of head and spinal injuries in people < 65Falls leading cause of head and spinal injuries in people > 65Sports and recreation activities another cause of spinal injuries
4Spinal Injury Statistics continued About 12,000 people have spinal injury each yearNearly 300,000 people live with disability resulting from spinal injuryMotor vehicle crashes and falls are leading causes
5Assessing Head and Spinal Injuries Consider mechanism of injury and forces involvedFocus on the physical examinationRecognize possibility of head or spinal injury
6Common Causes Motor vehicle crashes Falls from a height of more than a few feetDiving emergenciesSkiing (and other sport) emergenciesAny forceful blow to head, neck or back
7Risk Factors for Spinal Injuries Victim age 65 or olderChild over age 2 with trauma of head or neckMotor vehicle or bicycle crash involving driver, passenger or pedestrianFalls from more than the person’s standing height
8Risk Factors for Spinal Injuries continued Victim feels tingling in hands or feet, pain in back or neck or muscle weakness or lack of feeling in torso or armsVictim is intoxicated or not alertAny painful injury, particularly of the head, neck or back
9General Signs and Symptoms Lump or deformity in head, neck or backChanging levels of responsivenessDrowsinessConfusionDizzinessUnequal pupils
10General Signs and Symptoms continued HeadacheClear or bloody fluid from nose or earsStiff neckInability to move any body partTingling, numbness or lack of feeling in feet or hands
11Skull FractureCheck for possible skull fracture before applying direct pressure to scalp bleedingDirect pressure could push bone fragments into brainSkull fracture is life threatening
12First Aid for Skull Fracture Call and stay with the victim.Put breathing unresponsive victim in recovery position unless spinal injury is suspected. Monitor breathing and be ready to give CPR.Do not clean wound, press on it or remove impaled object.Cover wound with sterile dressing.
13First Aid for Skull Fracture continued If bleeding, apply pressure only around edges of wound. Use a ring dressing.Do not move victim unnecessarily.
14Brain Injuries May occur with blow to head Likely with skull fracture Cause range of signs and symptomsCall 9-1-1Signs and symptoms may seem mild but may progress and become life threateningSuspect spinal injury
15Late Signs and Symptoms of Brain Injuries Seek medical attention immediately if:Nausea and vomitingSevere or persistent headacheChanging levels of responsivenessLack of coordination, movement problemsProblems with vision or speechSeizures
16Concussion Brain injury involving temporary impairment Usually no head wound or signs and symptoms of more serious head injuryVictim may have been “knocked out” but regained consciousness quicklySecond impact syndrome can be very severe or fatal
17Signs and Symptoms of Concussion HeadacheTemporary confusionMemory loss about eventBrief loss of responsivenessMild or moderate altered mental statusUnusual behavior
18First Aid for Concussion Difficult to determine seriousnessSeek medical care for all suspected brain injuriesCall and keep victim still, give supportive careVictim should never continue with activity (second impact syndrome)
19Spinal Injuries Fracture of neck or back always serious Possible damage to spinal cordEffects of nerve damage depend on nature and location of injuryMovement of head or neck could make injury worse
20Spinal Injuries continued Perform spinal motion restriction.
21Spinal Injuries continued Support victim’s head in position foundDo not move victim’s head to move it in lineIf unresponsive victim must be moved to give CPR, keep head in line with body