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Head and Spinal Injuries

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Presentation on theme: "Head and Spinal Injuries"— Presentation transcript:

1 Head and Spinal Injuries

2 Severe scalp wounds may be accompanied by:
Bleed profusely because the scalp has a rich blood supply and the blood vessels there do not constrict Severe scalp wounds may be accompanied by: Concussion Skull fracture Impaled object Spinal injury

3 Care for Scalp Wounds Control bleeding by gently applying direct pressure with dry, sterile dressing If you suspect a skull fracture- apply pressure around edged rather than on the center of the wound Keep head and shoulders slightly elevated to help control bleeding if no spinal injury is suspected Seek medical care

4 Scalp Wounds Click to edit the outline text format
Second Outline Level Third Outline Level Fourth Outline Level Fifth Outline Level Sixth Outline Level Seventh Outline Level Eighth Outline Level 5/11/10

5 Recognizing a Skull Fracture
Difficult to determine except by X-ray unless the skull deformity is severe. Signs and Symptoms of a skull fracture include: Pain at the point of injury Deformity of the skull Bleeding from the ears or nose Clear,pink,watery Cerebrospinal fluid leaking from ear or nose. (halo sign) on white cloth will form pink ring around slightly blood-tinged center Discoloration around eyes (raccoon eyes) Discoloration behind an ear (Battles sign) Heavy scalp bleeding if skin is broken- may expose skull or brain tissue.

6 Recognizing Skull Fracture
Click to edit the outline text format Second Outline Level Third Outline Level Fourth Outline Level Fifth Outline Level Sixth Outline Level Seventh Outline Level Eighth Outline Level 5/11/10

7 Care for Skull Fracture
Monitor the victim’s breathing and provide appropriate care Stabilize the victims neck to prevent movement Slightly elevate victims head and shoulders to help control bleeding Cover wounds with sterile dressing To control bleeding, apply pressure around edges of the wound. DO NOT: Stop the flow of blood from an ear or nose-could increase pressure within the skull Remove impaled object Press on fractured area

8 Brain Injuries Causes short-and long-term problems
Most are a result of motor vehicle crashes and falls 50,000 people die in the US of head trauma and 2x that have brain injuries that leave them with permanent damage Brain injuries are difficult first aid emergencies to handle, victim is often confused, or unresponsive making assessment difficult Brain will swell from bleeding when its injured Unlike other tissues, however the brain is confined in the skull- interferes with brain functioning Nerve cells of the brain and spinal cord unlike most other cells in the body, are unable to regenerate-once dead, they are lost forever and can not be replaced.

9 3 Types of Common Occurring Brain Injuries
Concussion- temporary loss of brain function, usually without permanent damage Contusion- bruising of brain tissue Hematoma – localized collection of blood as a result of a broken blood vessel

10 Concussion temporary loss of brain function, usually without permanent damage No bleeding in brain occurs Person can be unconscious or have amnesia Longer the victim is unconscious, or the longer the memory loss lasts, the more serious the concussion Unlikely-but can cause death Grade 1- no loss of consciousness, symptoms or mental status abnormalities resolve in less than 15 minutes Grade 2- no loss of consciousness, symptoms or mental status abnormalities last more than 15 minutes Grade 3 – Any loss of consciousness

11 Concussion Concussion Football Concussion Double KO

12 Care for Brain Injury Seek immediate medical care
Stabilize the victims head - Suspect a spinal injury in an unresponsive victim until proven otherwise Grasp victims head over the ears and hold head and neck until EMS arrives If long wait, kneel with victims head between your knees Monitor victims breathing Control bleeding Brain-injury victims tend to vomit. Roll victim onto his/her side while stabilizing neck Monitor level or responsiveness- best indicator of neurologic function

13 Further Care Several signs appearing within 48 hours of a head injury indicate a need to seek medical care Headache lasting 1 or 2 days or increases in severity Nausea, vomiting Drowsiness- wake victim every 2 hours to check consciousness and sense of orientation Vision problems Mobility Speech Seizures

14 Eye Injuries Penetrating eye injuries: sharp object, such as knife or needle penetrates eye Care: Seek immediate medical care Stabilize object

15 Blows to the Eye Blows to the eye – blood vessels around the eye rupture Care Apply ice or cold pack for about 15 minutes Seek medical care if there is double vision, or reduced vision

16 Cuts of the Eye or Lid Signs: Cut appearance of the cornea
Inner liquid filling of the eye Lid is cut Care: If eyeball is cut do not apply pressure If only eyelid is cut, apply sterile dressing with gentle pressure Bandage both eyes lightly Seek medical care immediately

17 Eye Avulsion Knocking the eye from its socket Care
Eye Avulsion Injuries bone/photos-ecs70070f1- 78af8f4e205936f4.html X_5zIXxKEU&feature=related Basketball Eye Avulsion ANtDOk6FCk Knocking the eye from its socket Care Cover eye loosely with sterile dressing that has been moistened Do not try to push eyeball back into socket Cover undamaged eye with patch to stop movement Seek medical care immediately

18 Broken Nose Signs Care Pain, swelling, and possible crooked appearance
Bleeding and difficulty breathing through nostrils Black eyes appearing 1-2 days after injury Care Seek medical care If bleeding is present give care as for a nosebleed Apply ice Do not try to straighten

19 Knocked-Out Tooth Common dental emergency
To prevent tooth from drying and protect ligament fibers from damage reimplantation needs to be done within 30 minutes Care Place rolled gauze pad in socket where tooth came out to control bleeding Place tooth in Milk if available. Preferably whole milk Take victim and tooth immediately to dentist

20 Broken Teeth Frequently broken by falls or direct blows Care
Gently clean dirt and blood from injured area Apply ice pack on the face in the area of the injured tooth Seek immediate dental care

21 Spinal Injuries Spine- column of vertebrae stacked on one another from tailbone to base of the skull Each vertebra has a hollow center through which spinal cord passes *If a broken vertebra pinches spinal nerves, paralysis can result A mistake in handling a spinal injury victim could mean a lifetime of paralysis for the victim Falls Diving accidents Motor vehicle crashes

22 Recognizing Spinal Injuries
Pain radiating into arms or legs Neck or Back pain Numbness, tingling weakness, burning, or lessened sensation in the arms or legs Loss of bowel or bladder control Paralysis of the arms or legs Deformity: odd looking angle of victims head and neck

23 Checking for Spinal Injuries
Have victim wiggle fingers Squeeze fingers and ask if they can feel it Squeeze victims hand Ask victim to wiggle toes Have victim push foot against rescuers hand Pinch victims hand for response

24 Care for a Spinal Injury
Monitor breathing Stabilize victim to prevent movement Call 9-1-1

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