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Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Chapter 12 Cardiac Disorders
Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Cardiovascular System Heart fully functioning by 8 th week of gestation Fetal circulation: placenta is the organ of oxygenation –Ductus venosus –Ductus arteriosus –Foramen ovale The birthing process begins closure of fetal shunts Heart defects are the most common birth defect –Leading cause of birth defect-related deaths 12-2
Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Congenital Heart Disease Description –A defect in the structure of the heart or in one or more of the large blood vessels that lead to and from the heart –Multifactorial Result of genetic-environmental interactions Four classifications –Based on defect’s effect on blood flow Hemodynamics: study of blood circulation Shunting: flow of blood through abnormal openings –Defects with increased pulmonary blood flow –Obstructive defects –Defects with decreased pulmonary blood flow –Mixed defects 12-3
Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.12-4
Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) Diagnostic tools –Not all testing is necessary for each child –Lab tests, electrocardiogram, halter monitor, event recorder, chest radiography, echocardiogram, MRI, cardiac catherization Cardiac catherization is an invasive procedure Provides information about anatomy, cardiac pressure, oxygen saturation, cardiac function Sedation is necessary Entry site kept straight 4-6 hours after procedure 12-5
Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) Signs and symptoms –Depend on location and type of heart defect –Child may be small for age, condition may be classified as a physiologic failure to thrive –Exercise intolerance noticed anywhere from infancy to toddler age –Clubbing of the fingers –Frequent respiratory infections because of pulmonary vascular congestion –Squatting position (TET spell) –Polycythemia: Body compensates for hypoxemia by increasing number of RBCs 12-6
Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.12-7 Clubbed fingers
Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) Early symptoms –Lack of infant weight gain –Difficulty feeding/ sucking due to air hunger –Infant irritability and fatigue –Tachycardia/tachypnea –Increased work of breathing Progressive symptoms –Periorbital/facial edema –Vein distention –Hepatomegaly –Splenomegaly –Decreased urine output –Diaphoresis –Mottling –Cyanosis –Pallor 12-8
Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Defects with Increased Pulmonary Blood Flow Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) –Passageway connecting pulmonary artery to aorta, avoiding fetal lungs –Failure to close causes oxygenated blood to recycle through the lungs Overburdens pulmonary circulation Makes heart work harder One of the most common cardiac anomalies –Symptoms Machine-like murmur, dyspnea, bounding pulses on exertion, failure to thrive, frequent respiratory infections –Treatment Indomethacin/ibuprofen in premature infants to close ductus Amplatzer PDA device Surgical repair 12-9
Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Defects with Increased Pulmonary Blood Flow Atrial septal defect (ASD) –Abnormal opening between right and left atria –Common congenital heart anomaly –Symptoms Generally asymptomatic Cyanosis if blood flow is reversed by heart failure Large openings may cause failure to thrive –Treatment Open heart surgery Percutaneous occluding devices 12-10
Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Defects with Increased Pulmonary Blood Flow Ventricular septal defect (VSD) –Opening between right and left ventricles –75% of small VSDs close spontaneously by age 10 –Symptoms Loud, harsh murmur Systolic tremor Moderate/large defects may present CHF symptoms –Treatment Percutaneous transcatheter closure Occluder devices 12-11
Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Obstructive Defect Coarctation (tightening) of the aorta –Symptoms Increased pressure proximal to the defect Decreased pressure distal to the defect High blood pressure CHF symptoms –Treatment Balloon angioplasty Surgical intervention; anastomosis Risk of developing subacute bacterial endocarditis 12-12
Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Defect with Decreased Pulmonary Blood Flow Tetralogy of Fallot –The most common cyanotic heart defect –Four defects Stenosis (narrowing of pulmonary artery) Hypertrophy of the right ventricle Over-riding aorta VSD –Symptoms Cyanosis/hypoxemia episodes with hyperpnea, irritability Hypoxia –Treatment Open heart surgery to correct defects 12-13
Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Mixed Defect Transposition of the great arteries (TGA) –Pulmonary artery leaves left ventricle –Aorta leaves the right ventricle –Other defects (septal defects, PDA) must be present to exchange blood which sustains life –Survival impossible without surgery –Symptoms CHF symptoms Any murmur present is caused by other defects, not TGA –Treatment Prostaglandin E 1 (keeps PDA open) Balloon atrial septotomy (opens septal wall) Corrective surgery –Performed within the first 2 weeks of life 12-14
Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Mixed Defect Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) –Left side of the heart is underdeveloped –Hypoplasia of aorta, left ventricle, mitral valve –Systemic circulation provided by right side of the heart (Rt ventricle is force of circulation) –Ductus arteriosus and foramen ovale must remain patent to survive with HLHS –Treatment PGE 1 is administered to maintain a PDA Surgery in several stages –Norwood, Glenn, Fontan 12-15
Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Congenital Heart Disease Treatment and nursing care –Nursing goals in the care of the newborn infant can be adapted for all children with heart defects Reduce the work of the heart Improve respiration Maintain proper nutrition Prevent infection Reduce the anxiety of the patient Support and instruct the parents 12-16
Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Congenital Heart Disease Treatment and nursing care (continued) –Change child’s position frequently to prevent respiratory complications –Threat of cerebral thrombosis –Chest tubes may be used after surgery System must be airtight Drainage containers always kept below the level of the chest –Avoid unnecessarily disturbing the child; they need to conserve energy Common medications –Digoxin (Lanoxin) –Dopamine, dobutamine, epinephrine –Amrinone, milrinone –ACE inhibitors –Angiotensin II receptor blockers –Diuretics 12-17
Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Congenital Heart Disease Treatment and nursing care (continued) –Infective endocarditis (IE) High risk for children with complex cyanotic heart diseases or children who have had heart surgery Organisms grow on the endocardium or areas of turbulent blood flow –Symptoms Fever, fatigue, headache, nausea, vomiting –Diagnosis and treatment Blood cultures determine causative organism Antibiotics 12-18
Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Congenital Heart Disease Home care –Family must understand medication administration –Family must identify symptoms requiring medical attention –Provide a normal environment within child’s limits –Avoid allowing the child to gain control of the home Limit setting –Integrate the child into family life –Explain the possible need for frequent hospitalization to parents and child 12-19
Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Question 12.2 Which of the following is NOT one of the four classifications of congenital heart disease? A.Defects with increased pulmonary blood flow B.Congestive heart failure C.Defects with decreased pulmonary blood flow D.Mixed defects 12-20
Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Acute Rheumatic Fever Description –Follows infection with certain strains of Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci Signs and symptoms –Abdominal pain, fever, pallor, fatigue, anorexia, unexplained nosebleeds –Jones criteria aid in diagnosis of rheumatic fever –ECG is sometimes a useful diagnostic 12-21
Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.12-22
Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.12-23
Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Acute Rheumatic Fever Treatment and nursing care –Elimination of the initial infection is followed by long-term chemo-prophylaxis (prevention of disease by drugs) –Intramuscular penicillin G benzathine (Bicillin), given as an intramuscular injection every 28 days –Anti-inflammatory drugs are used to decrease pain and inflammation 12-24
Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Acute Rheumatic Fever Home care –Bed rest during the initial attack is not necessary but is recommended if carditis is present –Nurse must verify that parent and child understand activity limitations Parents should provide interesting quiet activities –Long-term chemo-prophylaxis 12-25
Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Acute Rheumatic Fever Prevention –The nurse is involved in prevention of rheumatic fever in the community by recognizing signs and symptoms of streptococcal infections, doing screening, and referring for treatment 12-26
Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Chapter 12 Cardiac Disorders.
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