Presentation on theme: "The Process of Translating When we are translating, we translate with four level : 1.The SL text level : the level of language, 2.The referential level:"— Presentation transcript:
The Process of Translating When we are translating, we translate with four level : 1.The SL text level : the level of language, 2.The referential level: imaginary, objects or events 3.The cohesive level: grammatical, tone, 4.The level of naturalness: common language appropriate to the writer or the speaker in certain situation.
The Relationship of Translating to Translation Theory The purpose of this theory of translating is to be of service to the translator. It is designed to be continuous link between translation theory and practice. Translation theory framework which proposes that when the main purpose of the text is to convey information and conceive the reader, a method of translation must be natural. The theory of translating is dealt with ‘naturalness’ which has both grammatical and lexical and is a touchstone at every level of a text, from paragraph to word, from title to punctuation.
A Functional Theory of Language Translation Practice Three language function Expressive informativevocative Frame of reference Problem Contextual Factor Translation theory Semantic communicative Theory of translating Textual Referential level Cohesive Natural
The approach There are two approaches to translating: 1.You start translating sentence by sentence: to get the feel and the feeling tone of the text. 2.You read the whole text two or three times, and find the intention, register, tone, mark the difficult words and passage and start translating.
Textual level Working on the text level, you automatically make certain conversions; you transpose the SL grammar (clauses or groups) into their ‘ready’ TL equivalent and you translate the lexical unit into the sense that appears immediately appropriate in the context of the sentence.
The referential level You should not read a sentence without seeing it on the referential level. Whether a text is technical or literary or institutional, you have to make up your mind, what it is about, what it is an aid of. For each sentence, when it is not clear, when there is an ambiguity, when writing is abstract or figurative, you have to ask your self. What is actually happening here?, and why?, for what reason, for what purpose, can you see it on your mind? Can you visualize? All languages have polysemous words and structures which can be finally solved only on the referential level.
Cohesive level The cohesive level divided into three levels: 1. The structure through the connective words such as, conjunction, definite article, referential synonym, punctuation marks. 2. Mood: dialectical factor moving such as, positive and negative, emotive, neutral 3. Thought through the connectives and the feeling tone. It deals with the length of paragraphs and sentences.
The level of naturalness 1.Your translation makes sense. 2.It reads naturally, that it is written in ordinary language, the common grammar, idioms and words that meet that kind of situation.
Noun Phrase Water: Air Some water: Sedikit air Some fresh water: Sedikit air segar Some fresh drinking water: Some fresh drinking water from the well:
As a subject The use of natural fertilizer has long been conducted to crops. (Penggunaan pupuk alami telah lama dilakukan terhadap palawija) As an object The company designed an electric car which enables us to have a maximum speed of 150 miles per hour. (perusahaan itu merancang mobil listrik yang memungkinkan kita mamacu kecepatan maksimum 150 mil per jam) As a complement His hobbies are swimming and collecting stamps. (Hobinya berenang dan mengumpulkan perangko) As an adverb with preposition The anchor delivers the news in the studio. (Penyiar itu menyampaikan berita di studio) As an appositive Sherina, a talented singer, is producing her new album. (Sherina, artis telanta, sedang memproduksi album barunya)
Pre-modifier and post-modifier Pre-modifier + Noun: A beautiful lady Noun + Post-modifier Sand in the bucker Birds flying in the sky Pre-modifier + Noun + Post-modifier A beautiful artist singing on TV
Determiner Article: a/an, the Demonstrative: this, these, that, those. Quantitative: all, some, any, both, a few, few, much, many, either, neither, Possessive: my, your, his, her Numeral: cardinal/ordinal number
Form of noun phrase The newly married couple. (Pasangan baru menikah) The fast growing industry. (industri yang berkembang dengan cepat) A well-designed room (sebuah ruangan yang dirancang dengan baik) The one-handed woman (Wanita bertangan satu) a bald headed professor (Seorang profesor berkepala botak) The new canned food (Makanan kaleng baru) Determiner + Adv. + Adj/ V-ing/V3+ Noun Determiner + Adv. + Noun-ed + Noun
Noun + Post-modifier Noun + Prepositional Phrase The books on the table. (buku-buku yang berada di atas meja itu) The woman with the red hat. (wanita dengan topi merah) Noun + Participle Phrase Noun + Ving : yang me/ber.. Noun + V-ed: yang di…. The car parked under the tree. (Mobil yang di parkir di bawah pohon) Two cats fighting against each other. (Dua kucing yang saling berkelahi)
Noun + to infinitive/ to be V-ed Five miles to walk (Jarak lima mil yang harus dijalani) An extremely complicated problem to solve (Suatu masalah yang sangat rumit untuk dipecahkan) A good service to be given to the customer (Suatu layanan yang baik untuk diberikan kepada para pelanggan) Noun + Adjective Something important (Sesuatu yang penting) The chairs available (Kursi-kursi yang tersedia) Noun + Adverb Books alike (Buku-buku sejenis) The hotel nearby (Hotel di tempat sekitar) Noun + Noun The book store (toko buku) World class (kelas dunia)
Exercise 1.Two dozen of the eggs on the table. 2.The meeting of all members on July 26 in Paris. 3.His wife’s dependence on him in every way. 4.His strong rule over the country for many years.
Very large animals. A nine-year-old child The collation between a motorcycle and a car The bins provided The main purpose of the government to build more vocational school A light moving rapidly across the sky The first commercially successful steamboat. A small car-factory