Presentation on theme: "The Process of Translating"— Presentation transcript:
1The Process of Translating When we are translating, we translate with four level :The SL text level : the level of language,The referential level: imaginary, objects or eventsThe cohesive level: grammatical, tone,The level of naturalness: common language appropriate to the writer or the speaker in certain situation.
2The Relationship of Translating to Translation Theory The purpose of this theory of translating is to be of service to the translator.It is designed to be continuous link between translation theory and practice.Translation theory framework which proposes that when the main purpose of the text is to convey information and conceive the reader, a method of translation must be natural.The theory of translating is dealt with ‘naturalness’ which has both grammatical and lexical and is a touchstone at every level of a text, from paragraph to word, from title to punctuation.
3A Functional Theory of Language Translation PracticeThree language functionExpressive informative vocativeTranslation theorySemantic communicativeFrame of referenceProblem Contextual FactorTheory of translatingTextualReferential levelCohesiveNatural
4The approach There are two approaches to translating: You start translating sentence by sentence: to get the feel and the feeling tone of the text.You read the whole text two or three times, and find the intention, register, tone, mark the difficult words and passage and start translating.
5Textual levelWorking on the text level, you automatically make certain conversions; you transpose the SL grammar (clauses or groups) into their ‘ready’ TL equivalent and you translate the lexical unit into the sense that appears immediately appropriate in the context of the sentence.
6The referential levelYou should not read a sentence without seeing it on the referential level. Whether a text is technical or literary or institutional, you have to make up your mind, what it is about, what it is an aid of. For each sentence, when it is not clear, when there is an ambiguity, when writing is abstract or figurative, you have to ask your self. What is actually happening here?, and why?, for what reason, for what purpose, can you see it on your mind? Can you visualize? All languages have polysemous words and structures which can be finally solved only on the referential level.
7Cohesive level The cohesive level divided into three levels: 1. The structure through the connective words such as, conjunction, definite article, referential synonym, punctuation marks.2. Mood: dialectical factor moving such as, positive and negative, emotive, neutral3. Thought through the connectives and the feeling tone. It deals with the length of paragraphs and sentences.
8The level of naturalness Your translation makes sense.It reads naturally, that it is written in ordinary language, the common grammar, idioms and words that meet that kind of situation.
9Noun PhraseWater : Air Some water : Sedikit air Some fresh water : Sedikit air segar Some fresh drinking water : Some fresh drinking water from the well:
10As a subjectThe use of natural fertilizer has long been conducted to crops.(Penggunaan pupuk alami telah lama dilakukan terhadap palawija)As an objectThe company designed an electric car which enables us to have a maximum speed of 150 miles per hour.(perusahaan itu merancang mobil listrik yang memungkinkan kita mamacu kecepatan maksimum 150 mil per jam)As a complementHis hobbies are swimming and collecting stamps.(Hobinya berenang dan mengumpulkan perangko)As an adverb with prepositionThe anchor delivers the news in the studio.(Penyiar itu menyampaikan berita di studio)As an appositiveSherina, a talented singer, is producing her new album.(Sherina, artis telanta, sedang memproduksi album barunya)
11Pre-modifier and post-modifier Pre-modifier + Noun: A beautiful lady Noun + Post-modifier Sand in the bucker Birds flying in the sky Pre-modifier + Noun + Post-modifier A beautiful artist singing on TV
12Determiner Article: a/an, the Demonstrative: this, these, that, those. Quantitative: all, some, any, both, a few, few, much, many, either, neither,Possessive: my, your, his, herNumeral: cardinal/ordinal number
13Form of noun phrase Determiner + Adv. + Adj/ V-ing/V3+ Noun The newly married couple.(Pasangan baru menikah)The fast growing industry.(industri yang berkembang dengan cepat)A well-designed room(sebuah ruangan yang dirancang dengan baik)The one-handed woman(Wanita bertangan satu)a bald headed professor(Seorang profesor berkepala botak)The new canned food(Makanan kaleng baru)Determiner + Adv. + Adj/ V-ing/V3+ NounDeterminer + Adv. + Noun-ed + Noun
14Noun + Post-modifier Noun + Prepositional Phrase The books on the table.(buku-buku yang berada di atas meja itu)The woman with the red hat.(wanita dengan topi merah)Noun + Participle PhraseNoun + Ving : yang me/ber..Noun + V-ed : yang di….The car parked under the tree.(Mobil yang di parkir di bawah pohon)Two cats fighting against each other.(Dua kucing yang saling berkelahi)
15Noun + to infinitive/ to be V-ed Five miles to walk(Jarak lima mil yang harus dijalani)An extremely complicated problem to solve(Suatu masalah yang sangat rumit untuk dipecahkan)A good service to be given to the customer(Suatu layanan yang baik untuk diberikan kepada para pelanggan)Noun + AdjectiveSomething important(Sesuatu yang penting)The chairs available(Kursi-kursi yang tersedia)Noun + AdverbBooks alike(Buku-buku sejenis)The hotel nearby(Hotel di tempat sekitar)Noun + NounThe book store(toko buku)World class(kelas dunia)
16Exercise Two dozen of the eggs on the table. The meeting of all members on July 26 in Paris.His wife’s dependence on him in every way.His strong rule over the country for many years.
17Very large animals.A nine-year-old childThe collation between a motorcycle and a carThe bins providedThe main purpose of the government to build more vocational schoolA light moving rapidly across the skyThe first commercially successful steamboat.A small car-factory