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The Great Awakening A Colonial Source to U. S. Identity.

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Presentation on theme: "The Great Awakening A Colonial Source to U. S. Identity."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Great Awakening A Colonial Source to U. S. Identity

2 Books To Read Thomas S. Kidd, Jon Butler, Sydney E. Ahlstrom, Rhys Isaac

3 The Great Awakening Series of Religious Revivals from 1730s through 1760s. SourcesContinental Pietism, Scots-Irish Presbyterianism, Anglo-American Puritanism. Outcomesprotean Evangelicalism; Baptists and Methodists movements. Outcomesambiguous challenge to and affirmation of the social and ecclesiastical orders Outcomesencouraged Democratic tenor in British North America ResponsesAnti-revivalists; moderate evangelicals; radical evangelicals

4 Manifestations Theodorus Jacobus Frelinghuysen ( ) Dutch Calvinistministered in New Jerseys Raritan Valley. emphasized pietism, conversion, repentance, strict moral standards, private devotions, excommunication, and church discipline Brought revivalism to middle colonies and worked closely with Gilbert Tennent.

5 Manifestations Jonathan Edwards ( ) Northampton, Mass., revival1734 (reality of sin and sovereignty of God in salvation) A Narrative of the Surprising Work of God (1736) Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God (1741) Affirmation of Revivalism

6 Manifestations George Whitefield ( ) Parish minister in Savannah in 1738 Grand Itinerant (1739) Benjamin Franklin printed his sermons Emphasis on New Birth (John 3:1-8) Moderate Calvinism/Revivalism

7 Manifestations Gilbert Tennent ( ) On the Dangers of an Unconverted Ministry Extended the work of the Log College (forerunner of Princeton University) in ministerial education.

8 Manifestations Samuel Davies ( ) Educated in Pennsylvania and licensed to preach as a dissenting minister in Virginia Converted many Anglicans to Presbyterianism emphasis on New Birth Converted slaves in 1750s in Va. Ran afoul of Establishment With Tennent, traveled to England to raise money to bail out the fledgling Princeton University

9 Freylinghuysen, Edwards, Whitfield, Tennent, Davies

10 05/09/ Middle Colonies Course of Awakening 1720s: Theodore Fruelinghausen N. New Jersey Dutch pastor – Rariton River Valley He noticed some of his Deacons were becoming converted New Brunswick, NJ – Presbyterians William Tennent and his Irish sons

11 05/09/ William Tennent Presbyterian evangelist Log College

12 05/09/ Northern Course of Awakening : Connecticut River Valley - Congregationalists: Northampton to the Atlantic Died down for 3 years Enflamed under Whitefield: Boston, Salem, Portsmouth, all of New England Leadership and writings of Jonathan Edwards

13 05/09/ Evangelicalism Premise: conversion, new birth Puritans: public profession 1730s, 40s: Awakenings Colonies, England, Wales, Scotland Mass conversions, open air preaching of the Word Split churches: New Lights/New Side vs. Old Lights/Old Side

14 05/09/ Southern Course of Awakening Presbyterians in N. Virginia Baptists (Separate Congregationalists) in New England (Connecticut) expands to Separate Baptists in N. Carolina From 6,000 – 20,000 in 3 years, foundation of Southern Baptists

15 05/09/ Baptists In America since 17 th century Galvanized by Great Awakening

16 05/09/ The 3 Ws Whitefield EdWardsWesley

17 05/09/ George Whitefield In 1738 made 1st of 7 visits to the America Ordained Anglican Great Itinerant Member of Wesleys Oxford Holy Club Popular as G. Washington Huge crowds: 30,000

18 05/09/ Preaching in the Field Collapsible Field pulpit

19 05/09/ The New Birth John 3:1-8 Whitefield: How this glorious Change is wrought in the Soul cannot easily be explained."

20 05/09/ Ben Franklin on Whitefield Heard Whitefield preach in Colonies & England: Philadelphia Hall Georgia orphanage Size of crowds Pleased with discourse

21 05/09/ John Wesley a brand plucked from the burning

22 05/09/ Wesley vs. Whitefield Son of Anglican rectorSon of tavern keeper Strict religious upbringingWorldly influences Conversion: Aldersgate, 35Oxford, 21 Preaching: Intellectual, doctrinalDramatic, emotional Arminian (semi-Augustinian)Calvinistic Exceptional organizerExceptional preacher

23 05/09/ Methodism Hierarchical Episcopal

24 05/09/ Methodists: Francis Asbury Leader in 2 nd Great Awakening

25 05/09/201025

26 05/09/ Jonathan Edwards Interpreter of and apologist for the Great Awakening

27 05/09/ First Churches, Northampton Fifth Meeting House

28 05/09/ Jonathan Edwards In memory of Jonathan Edwards Minister of Northampton From Feb 15, 1727 to June 22, 1750 The law of truth was in his mouth, and iniquity was not found in his lips: he walked with me in peace and equity, and did turn many away from iniquity Malachi 2:6

29 05/09/ Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God. Enfield, July 8, 1741

30 05/09/ Revival of Northampton

31 05/09/ Jonathan Edwards, A Life

32 02/14/201032

33 05/09/ Denominationalism Primary expression of American Christianity, post 1740s Based, in part, on freedom to differ Denomination vs. Sect Inclusive vs. Exclusive The true church cannot be identified with any single ecclesiastical structure Seed planted by Reformers: not of bishops but of believers Architected by Congregationalists at Westminster Assembly

34 05/09/ Effects of the Great Awakening 80% of Americans unified in common understanding of Christian life and faith Dissent/dissenters enjoyed greater respect: Baptists, Methodists, Presbyterians Emphasis on education: Univ. of Penn, UNC

35 05/09/ Effects of the Great Awakening, cont Preaching to Indians and Slaves Reinterpreted Covenant: mans response Dissolution of Theocracy: disestablishment in VA & NC, democratization Breakdown in theological consensus: New/Old Lights

36 05/09/ Word Summary PilgrimsSeparatists PuritansSaints DenominationsInclusive WhitefieldDramatic WesleyMethodism EdwardsGlory Great AwakeningFire



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