Presentation on theme: "The Great Awakening A Colonial Source to U. S. Identity."— Presentation transcript:
The Great Awakening A Colonial Source to U. S. Identity
Books To Read Thomas S. Kidd, Jon Butler, Sydney E. Ahlstrom, Rhys Isaac
The Great Awakening Series of Religious Revivals from 1730s through 1760s. SourcesContinental Pietism, Scots-Irish Presbyterianism, Anglo-American Puritanism. Outcomesprotean Evangelicalism; Baptists and Methodists movements. Outcomesambiguous challenge to and affirmation of the social and ecclesiastical orders Outcomesencouraged Democratic tenor in British North America ResponsesAnti-revivalists; moderate evangelicals; radical evangelicals
Manifestations Theodorus Jacobus Frelinghuysen (1691-1747) Dutch Calvinistministered in New Jerseys Raritan Valley. emphasized pietism, conversion, repentance, strict moral standards, private devotions, excommunication, and church discipline Brought revivalism to middle colonies and worked closely with Gilbert Tennent.
Manifestations Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758) Northampton, Mass., revival1734 (reality of sin and sovereignty of God in salvation) A Narrative of the Surprising Work of God (1736) Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God (1741) Affirmation of Revivalism
Manifestations George Whitefield (1714-1770) Parish minister in Savannah in 1738 Grand Itinerant (1739) Benjamin Franklin printed his sermons Emphasis on New Birth (John 3:1-8) Moderate Calvinism/Revivalism
Manifestations Gilbert Tennent (1703-1764) On the Dangers of an Unconverted Ministry Extended the work of the Log College (forerunner of Princeton University) in ministerial education.
Manifestations Samuel Davies (1723-1761) Educated in Pennsylvania and licensed to preach as a dissenting minister in Virginia Converted many Anglicans to Presbyterianism emphasis on New Birth Converted slaves in 1750s in Va. Ran afoul of Establishment With Tennent, traveled to England to raise money to bail out the fledgling Princeton University
05/09/201010 Middle Colonies Course of Awakening 1720s: Theodore Fruelinghausen N. New Jersey Dutch pastor – Rariton River Valley He noticed some of his Deacons were becoming converted New Brunswick, NJ – Presbyterians William Tennent and his Irish sons
05/09/201011 William Tennent 1673-1745 Presbyterian evangelist Log College
05/09/201012 Northern Course of Awakening 1734-37: Connecticut River Valley - Congregationalists: Northampton to the Atlantic Died down for 3 years Enflamed under Whitefield: Boston, Salem, Portsmouth, all of New England Leadership and writings of Jonathan Edwards
05/09/201013 Evangelicalism Premise: conversion, new birth Puritans: public profession 1730s, 40s: Awakenings Colonies, England, Wales, Scotland Mass conversions, open air preaching of the Word Split churches: New Lights/New Side vs. Old Lights/Old Side
05/09/201014 Southern Course of Awakening Presbyterians in N. Virginia Baptists (Separate Congregationalists) in New England (Connecticut) expands to Separate Baptists in N. Carolina From 6,000 – 20,000 in 3 years, foundation of Southern Baptists
05/09/201015 Baptists In America since 17 th century Galvanized by Great Awakening
05/09/201017 George Whitefield 1714 - 1770 In 1738 made 1st of 7 visits to the America Ordained Anglican Great Itinerant Member of Wesleys Oxford Holy Club Popular as G. Washington Huge crowds: 30,000
05/09/201018 Preaching in the Field Collapsible Field pulpit
05/09/201019 The New Birth John 3:1-8 Whitefield: How this glorious Change is wrought in the Soul cannot easily be explained."
05/09/201020 Ben Franklin on Whitefield Heard Whitefield preach in Colonies & England: Philadelphia Hall Georgia orphanage Size of crowds Pleased with discourse
05/09/201021 John Wesley 1703 - 1791 a brand plucked from the burning
05/09/201022 Wesley vs. Whitefield Son of Anglican rectorSon of tavern keeper Strict religious upbringingWorldly influences Conversion: Aldersgate, 35Oxford, 21 Preaching: Intellectual, doctrinalDramatic, emotional Arminian (semi-Augustinian)Calvinistic Exceptional organizerExceptional preacher
05/09/201026 Jonathan Edwards 1703-1758 Interpreter of and apologist for the Great Awakening
05/09/201027 First Churches, Northampton Fifth Meeting House
05/09/201028 Jonathan Edwards In memory of Jonathan Edwards Minister of Northampton From Feb 15, 1727 to June 22, 1750 The law of truth was in his mouth, and iniquity was not found in his lips: he walked with me in peace and equity, and did turn many away from iniquity Malachi 2:6
05/09/201029 Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God. Enfield, July 8, 1741
05/09/201033 Denominationalism Primary expression of American Christianity, post 1740s Based, in part, on freedom to differ Denomination vs. Sect Inclusive vs. Exclusive The true church cannot be identified with any single ecclesiastical structure Seed planted by Reformers: not of bishops but of believers Architected by Congregationalists at Westminster Assembly
05/09/201034 Effects of the Great Awakening 80% of Americans unified in common understanding of Christian life and faith Dissent/dissenters enjoyed greater respect: Baptists, Methodists, Presbyterians Emphasis on education: Univ. of Penn, UNC
05/09/201035 Effects of the Great Awakening, cont Preaching to Indians and Slaves Reinterpreted Covenant: mans response Dissolution of Theocracy: disestablishment in VA & NC, democratization Breakdown in theological consensus: New/Old Lights
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