Presentation on theme: "Contextualization: Deism Influential school of thought during the colonial, revolutionary and early-national periods (17 th – 18 th c) Enlightenment belief."— Presentation transcript:
Contextualization: Deism Influential school of thought during the colonial, revolutionary and early-national periods (17 th – 18 th c) Enlightenment belief that reason and observation of the natural world (rather than revelation and authority) were enough to determine the existence of god. Subversive: questions the necessity of the church and its officials.
Ben Franklin on George Whitefield Sourcing : What is Franklin’s religious point of view, and why might it lead him to be skeptical of Whitefield? Close Reading : What is Franklin’s argument about Whitefield? Close Reading : What evidence does Franklin marshal in support of and opposed to his argument?
Was there really a “Great Awakening” in mid-eighteenth-century America? Period 2. Key Concept 2.III.ii.
4 What was the Great Awakening? Religious revival movement Evangelicism – “new birth” considered the ultimate religious experience Followers accepted that they were sinners and asked for salvation George Whitefield preaching
5 Before the Great Awakening Before the 1730s, most colonies had two established religions. Congregationalism was the largest religion in New England (Puritans and other dissidents who broke away from the Church of England). Anglicanism was the largest religion in New York and the Southern colonies (same as the Church of England).
6 Old Lights vs. New Lights Old Lights — Congregationalists and Anglicans. Great Awakening challenged authority and hierarchy of these established churches. Great Awakening said that anybody could be converted and born again. You didn’t need traditional church leadership to decide whether or not you belonged. New Lights —Churches that grew as a result of the Great Awakening: Presbyterianism, Methodism, Baptism.
Leaders of the Great Awakening George Whitefield Jonathan Edwards
Great Awakening: America’s first revolution? Severed intellectual and philosophical connections with Europe (Perry Miller) Orthodox vs. liberal Protestantism Lower class protest (John C. Miller, Gary Nash) Farmers vs. merchants First inter-colonial social movement (Richard Hofstadter) Mass communication; broke down sectional/denominational boundaries “the Key to the American Revolution” (William G. McLoughlin) Anti-Old Light Anglican (Church of England, Old Light)
But was there really a “Great Awakening”? Read Jon Butler’s essay, “Enthusiasm Described and Decried: The Great Awakening as Interpretative Fiction” Close reading: Identify: Thesis Argument: claims/warrants Evidence Evaluate: Do you believe that the arguments Jon Butler makes in challenging the validity of the “Great Awakening” are plausible? Is the evidence sufficiently compelling? Is the language persuasive?