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Modern Church History 1703-2003 1 The Church in the 18 th Century.

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Presentation on theme: "Modern Church History 1703-2003 1 The Church in the 18 th Century."— Presentation transcript:

1 Modern Church History The Church in the 18 th Century

2 Modern Church History Expanding vision 1. Philanthropic enterprises 1. Philanthropic enterprises 2. Early missions 2. Early missions 3. The Americas 3. The Americas 4. William Carey 4. William Carey 5.The Baptist Missionary Society, The Baptist Missionary Society, 1792 a) Carey preached on Isaiah 54:2 (enlarge the place of thy tent…lengthen thy cords) a) Carey preached on Isaiah 54:2 (enlarge the place of thy tent…lengthen thy cords) b) His motto: Attempt great things for God; expect great things from God. b) His motto: Attempt great things for God; expect great things from God.

3 Modern Church History The Evangelical Revival George Whitefield( ) George Whitefield( ) 1) childhood 1) childhood 2) Oxford 2) Oxford a) servitor a) servitor b) Holy Club b) Holy Club 3) study of drama 3) study of drama 4) conversion 4) conversion

4 Modern Church History Whitefields ministry 5) Ordination as CE deacon/ priest 5) Ordination as CE deacon/ priest 6) Georgia 6) Georgia 7) Conversion of Wesley brothers 7) Conversion of Wesley brothers 8) Open air preaching 8) Open air preaching 9) The Great Awakening in America ( ) 9) The Great Awakening in America ( )

5 Modern Church History The Great Awakening Whitefields integral role Whitefields integral role Results in church splits Results in church splits in New England Congregationalism, in New England Congregationalism, in Middle colony Presbyterianism, in Middle colony Presbyterianism, –b) increased church membership; Baptists begin to grow –c) higher moral consciousness and social reforms –d) renewed interest in Indian missions –e) more schools, basically for training of more ministers: –f) colonies drawn closer together by new spiritual bond and recognized intercolonial leaders

6 Modern Church History Summary of ministry Whitefields continuing work in England Whitefields continuing work in England Large-scale preaching throughout the homeland Large-scale preaching throughout the homeland Countess of Huntingdon Countess of Huntingdon Summary of Whitefields accomplishments Summary of Whitefields accomplishments 1) not an organizer, yet powerful influence 2) great fund raiser for schools and orphanages 1) not an organizer, yet powerful influence 2) great fund raiser for schools and orphanages 3) Influence on Wesleys 3) Influence on Wesleys 4) established Welsh Methodists 4) established Welsh Methodists

7 Modern Church History Wesley/Whitefield split Arminian/Calvinist controversy Arminian/Calvinist controversy Whitefield writes a pamphlet in defence of the Sovereignty of God in salvation (1740) Whitefield writes a pamphlet in defence of the Sovereignty of God in salvation (1740) Wesley attacks Calvinism as an obstacle to the sinners hope Wesley attacks Calvinism as an obstacle to the sinners hope The battle raged more hotly after Whitefields death -Augustus Toplady (Rock of Ages) published books showing that the CoE was originally Calvinistic and he edited the Gospel Magazine in opposition to The battle raged more hotly after Whitefields death -Augustus Toplady (Rock of Ages) published books showing that the CoE was originally Calvinistic and he edited the Gospel Magazine in opposition to Wesleys The Arminian Quarterly Wesleys The Arminian Quarterly

8 Modern Church History Wesleys relation to the CE 1) Wesleys attitude: I will live and die in the CE. 1) Wesleys attitude: I will live and die in the CE. –a) conservative, holding to the divine right of Kings –b) early Methodist services never competed with CE services 2) attitude of Bishops of CE: opposed enthusiast or popularist or jealous? 3) Wesleys struggle over providing ordained leadership 3) Wesleys struggle over providing ordained leadership

9 Modern Church History Outcomes of Revival American Methodism becomes independent of England with rapid growth: in 60 years, from 18,000 to 1,000,000 American Methodism becomes independent of England with rapid growth: in 60 years, from 18,000 to 1,000,000 Establishment of the Methodist Episcopal Church in America Establishment of the Methodist Episcopal Church in America Renewal of many denominations Renewal of many denominations Social and moral reforms Social and moral reforms Penal reforms Penal reforms Clapham Sect of England (1) Basically, aristocratic, evangelical yet conservative movement within the CoE (2) promoted Abolitionist movement, missionary enterprises, and broader educational Clapham Sect of England (1) Basically, aristocratic, evangelical yet conservative movement within the CoE (2) promoted Abolitionist movement, missionary enterprises, and broader educational opportunities; the English slave trade was abolished in 1807, and slavery in 1833 (3) leading luminaries: -John Newton, William Wilberforce, Charles Simeon, Grenville Sharp opportunities; the English slave trade was abolished in 1807, and slavery in 1833 (3) leading luminaries: -John Newton, William Wilberforce, Charles Simeon, Grenville Sharp

10 Modern Church History Meanwhile… Spread of Rationalism to Germany Spread of Rationalism to Germany 1. applied to sacred writings and church dogma; the Bible studied objectively as an historical and 1. applied to sacred writings and church dogma; the Bible studied objectively as an historical and literary document literary document 2. Immanuel Kant ( ) 2. Immanuel Kant ( ) –a. born into a pietistic German home –b. set limits on the ability of human knowledge 1) God cannot be known by rational proofs 1) God cannot be known by rational proofs 2) metaphysical knowledge is impossible, thus making faith necessary to know theunknowable God. 2) metaphysical knowledge is impossible, thus making faith necessary to know theunknowable God. –c. To Kant, Faith was a leap in the dark –d. God was the highest good we can conceive


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