Presentation on theme: "Great Oaks From Little Acorns Grow -English Proverb"— Presentation transcript:
1Great Oaks From Little Acorns Grow -English Proverb Human DevelopmentGreat OaksFrom Little Acorns Grow-English Proverb
2Developmental Psychology is the study of the changes that occur as people grow up and grow older.The study of YOU from womb to tomb.
3ObjectivesPhysical, Cognitive, Social Development across the life spanEnduring Issues in PsychologyNature-NurtureContinuity-stagesStability-Change
4PHYSICAL DevelopmentPrenatal DevelopmentConception begins with the drop of an egg and the release of about 200 million sperm.The sperm seeks out the egg and attempt to penetrate the egg’s surface.
5PHYSICAL DevelopmentOnce the sperm penetrates the egg- we have a fertilized egg called……..The ZygoteThe first stage of prenatal development. Lasts about two weeks and consists of rapid cell division.
6After two weeks, the zygote develops into an…. Lasts about 6 weeks.Heart begins to beat and the organs begin to develop.PHYSICAL DevelopmentEmbryo
7Fetus By nine weeks a fetus is formed. PHYSICAL DevelopmentBy nine weeks a fetus is formed.By about the 6th month, the stomach and other organs have formed enough to survive outside of mother.At this time the baby can hear (and recognize) sounds and respond to light.
8In the Beginning, the Competent Newborn PHYSICAL DevelopmentIn the Beginning, the Competent NewbornBorn with ReflexesRootingGraspingSuckingMoro See Moro Video…Born with ability to sense…have to learn to perceiveDo you remember the definitions?SensationPerceptionLearning
9Healthy Newborns Turn head towards voices . PHYSICAL DevelopmentTurn head towards voices .See 8 to 12 inches from their faces.Gaze longer at human like objects right from birth.
10Mary, Mary, Quite Contrary… How do Babies Grow? Babies growth = Maturation + Learning…We learned about learning……So what’s Maturation????
11Maturation Defined: The growth over which we have no control Maturational readiness18 months walking2.5 talkingWhat will hinder maturation?Lack of food, stimulation, physical movement
13Schemes help us learn Schema - a plan for knowing Assimilation COGNITIVE DevelopmentSchemes help us learnSchema - a plan for knowingAssimilationFit the world into our schemeStacking blocks per usualAccommodationChanging the scheme to fit the worldChanging the way you stack the blocks
15Piaget Born August 9, 1896 in Neuchatel, Switzerland Died September 16, 1980 in Geneva, SwitzerlandGot his first degree in zoology (specifically mollusks)Published his first paper at age 11 - it was about albino sparrows...So what does that tell you?
16Piaget Interested in Natural Sciences. Studied/worked in BINET’s lab (developer of the intelligence test)Got married to Valentine Chatenay in 1923 and had three childrenStudied his own kids???? Based theories on his studies…What’s up with that?
17Piaget Fundamental Question: Answer: Conclusions: How does knowledge growAnswer:In stages from lower, less logical to higher, more powerfulConclusions:Children are not mini-adultsChildren’s logic and cognitive processes are entirely different than that of adults
18Key Concepts Object Permanence Representational Thought Conservation Egocentrism
19COGNITIVE Development Piaget father of Cognitive PsychologyObject permanence - understanding objects exist even when it can’t be seen or held
20COGNITIVE Development Piaget father of Cognitive PsychologyEgocentrism – Inability to see another’s perspectiveRepresentational thought - ability to picture in mind’s eye
21All of this is COGNITIVE Development Piaget father of Cognitive PsychologyConservation - appearance change doesn’t mean the quantitity changed
22Conservation - appearance change doesn’t mean the quantity changed 4.5 yrs6.5 Years
23Conservation - appearance change doesn’t mean the quantity changed 4.5 yrs6.5 Years
25Cognitive Development Piaget’s Theory and Current Thinking
26Examples of Concrete Thinking Better to be safe than _____Punch a third graderIt’s always darkest before _____Day light savingsDon’t bite the hand that _____Looks dirtyYou can’t teach an old dog _____New mathThe pen is mightier than the _____pigsA penny saved is _____Not much
27Children Say the Darndest Things …cont’d Laugh and the world laughs with you, cry and ______You have to blow your noseChildren should be seen and not _____spankedBetter late than _____Pregnant
30Harry Harlow Touch is critical in forming attachments. There is a critical period for forming attachments.
31Types of Attachment Mary Ainsworth’s Strange Situation. Three types of attachment:Secure-secure in knowledge that caregiver will be there to help in distressAvoidant – avoid caregiverAnxious/ambivalent – no difference between caregiver and stranger
34Sigmund Freud We all have a libido (sexual drive). Our libido travels to different areas of our body throughout our development.If we become preoccupied with any one area, Freud said we have become fixated on it.Together Freud called these stages our Psychosexual Stages of Development.
35Oral Stage Seek pleasure through out mouths. Babies put everything in their mouths (0-2).People fixated in this stage tend to overeat, smoke or have a childhood dependence on things.
36Anal Stage Develops during toilet training (2-4). Libido is focused on controlling waste and expelling waste.A person fixated may become overly controlling (retentive) or out of control (expulsive).
37Phallic Stage Children first recognize their gender (4-7). Causes conflict in families with the Oedipus and Electra Complexes.Fixation can cause later problems in relationships.
38Latency Stage Libido is hidden (7-11). Cooties stage. Freud believed that fixation in this stage could lead to sexual issues.
39Genital Stage Libido is focused on their genitals (12-death). Freud thought fixation in this stage is normal.
41Erik Erikson A neo-Freudian Worked with Anna Freud Thought our personality was influenced by our experiences with others.Stages of Psychosocial Development.Each stage centers on a social conflict.
42Trust v. Mistrust Can a baby trust the world to fulfill its needs? The trust or mistrust they develop can carry on with the child for the rest of their lives.
43Autonomy V. Shame & Doubt Toddlers begin to control their bodies (toilet training).Control Temper TantrumsBig word is “NO”Can they learn control or will they doubt themselves?
44Initiative V. Guilt Word turns from “NO” to “WHY?” Want to understand the world and ask questions.Is there curiosity encouraged or scolded?
45Industry v. Inferiority School beginsWe are for the first time evaluated by a formal system and our peers.Do we feel good or bad about our accomplishments?Can lead to us feeling bad about ourselves for the rest of our lives…inferiority complex.
46Identity v. Role Confusion In our teenage years we try out different roles.Who am I?What group do I fit in with?If I do not find myself I may develop an identity crisis.
47Intimacy v. Isolation Have to balance work and relationships. What are my priorities?
48Generativity v. Stagnation Is everything going as planned?Am I happy with what I created?Mid –life crisis!!!
49Integrity v. Despair Look back on life. Was my life meaningful or do I have regret?
51What Would You Do?It is time for the psychology final exam. Ms. Smith administers a multiple-choice test and monitors the test carefully for the first 40 minutes. At that point, another teacher knocks on the door and asks for a conference. Ms. Smith stands in the doorway, her back to the class and confers with her colleague. Crystal quickly pulls out her cheat sheet and adjusts some of her answers. To her left sits Sam, who has never cheated in his academic career. Sam notices her behavior but quickly averts his eyes, focusing only on his own work. Pat, who studied all night to catch up on reading for the course, sits to the right of Crystal. Pat notices Crystal’s behavior but commits to a confidential conversation with Ms. Smith after the exam. Pat intends to report Crystal’s behavior during the interruption.
52Moral Development Kohlberg Born 1927 in New York. Attended Phillips Academy in Andover.Out of high school joined Merchant Marines. Part of a project that, during WWII, smuggled shiploads of refugee European Jews into Palestine.Then BA in Psych in 1 year…Interested in Psychology and Philosophy, particularly Ethics.Caught an intestinal bug that caused him much sickness during his life.
53Heinz DilemmaIn a European town, a woman is near death from a special kind of cancer; a new drug, discovered by a druggist in the town, might save her, but he is a profiteer and charges ten times what it costs him to make the medicine. Heinz, the woman’s husband, can borrow only half the amount and pleads with the druggist to cut his price, but the druggist refuses. Heinz thinks about breaking in and stealing the drug to save his wife’s life.1. Should he?2. Why or why not?3. Does he have a duty or obligation to steal the drug?4. Should he steal the drug for his wife if he doesn’t love her?5. What if the person dying were a stranger - should Heinz steal the drug for him?6. It is against the law to steal; does that make it morally wrong?...and so on 21 QUESTIONS in THE HEINZ DILEMMA
54Kohlberg: Stages of Moral Development Egocentric/PreconventionalNaïve Moral RealismPramatic Moral RealismSociocentric/ConventionalSocially Shared PerspectivesSocial System MoralityIndependent/PostconventionalHuman Rights and Social Welfare MoralityUniversal Ethical Principles
57Kohlberg …and FinallyKohlberg had two dreams...neither of which he met.1. Kohlberg worked with prisoners to try and raise their moral reasoning to stage four.2. Kohlberg worked with adolescents in schools in Boston to try and do much the same he’d been trying to do with prisoners.His health was deteriorating (intestinal parasite).He became deeply depressed.Discussed the moral issue of suicideOn January 17, 1987, his car was found was a tidal pool outside of Boston.In April, his body washed up at LoganAirport.
61Theories of Adolescence HallTime of storm and stressMeadCulture importantHavinghurst9 tasks…A. FreudMental Illness?ElkindAll Grown Up & No Place to go.PipherSaplings in the storm
62Old Age and SexualityJust as young people tend to think sexual activity diminishes at midlife, they often believe it ceases altogether in old age. Yet the majority of people over the age of 65 continue to be interested in sex.
64Changes in Mental Functioning John Horn (1982) has proposed two types of intelligence:Crystallized intelligence–the ability to use accumulated knowledge and learning in appropriate situations. Increases with age/experience.Fluid intelligence–the ability to solve abstract relational problems and to generate new hypotheses. Declines with age.
65Senile DementiaAlzheimer’s disease is an affliction more commonly seen among the elderly.Alzheimer’s is a neurological disease marked by a gradual deterioration of cognitive functioning.
69Elisabeth Kubler-Ross Stages of Dying and Death DenialPeople’s most common reaction to learning that they have a terminal illness is shock and numbness, followed by denial. They react by saying, “No, it can’t be happening to me,” or “I’ll get another opinion.”
70Elisabeth Kubler-Ross Stages of Dying and Death AngerDuring the second stage, anger, the reaction of dying people is “Why me?” They feel anger–at fate, at the powers that be, at every person who comes into their life.At this stage, they are likely to alienate themselves from others, for no one can relieve the anger they feel at their shortened life span and lost chances.
71Elisabeth Kubler-Ross Stages of Dying and Death BargainingDuring the stage of bargaining, people change their attitude and attempt to bargain with fate. For example, a woman may ask God for a certain amount of time in return for good behavior.She may promise a change of ways, even a dedication of her life to the church.This stage is relatively short.
72Elisabeth Kubler-Ross Stages of Dying and Death DepressionDuring depression, dying people are aware of the losses they are incurring (for example, loss of body tissue, loss of job, loss of life savings).Also, they are depressed about the loss that is to come: they are in the process of losing everybody and everything.Kübler-Ross suggests that it is helpful to allow such people to express their sadness and not to cover up the situation or force them to act cheerfully.
73Elisabeth Kubler-Ross Stages of Dying and Death AcceptanceThe struggle is over, and they experience a sense of calm. In some cases, the approach of death feels appropriate or peaceful. They seem to become detached intentionally so as to make death easier.
74Elisabeth Kubler-Ross Stages of Dying and Death Not all terminal patients progress through the stages that Kübler-Ross describes. Some people may go through the stages but in different order, or they may repeat some stages. Critics note that individuals are unique and sometimes do not follow predictable patterns of behavior.
75DEGENERATIVE NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS LATER IN LIFEAlzheimer’s DiseaseAmyotrophic Lateral SclerosisHuntington’s DiseaseParkinson’s DiseaseEARLIER IN LIFEFriedrich’s AtaxiaSpinal Muscular AtrophyFriedrichs Ataxia – between 5 and 15 Difficulty walkingMuscle weaknessSpeech problemsInvoluntary eye movementsScoliosisHeart palpitationsSpinal Msclar – childhood disease, 6-18 months, genetic, motor neurons in spinal cord die