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Great Oaks From Little Acorns Grow -English Proverb

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1 Great Oaks From Little Acorns Grow -English Proverb
Human Development Great Oaks From Little Acorns Grow -English Proverb

2 Developmental Psychology
is the study of the changes that occur as people grow up and grow older. The study of YOU from womb to tomb.

3 Objectives Physical, Cognitive, Social Development across the life span Enduring Issues in Psychology Nature-Nurture Continuity-stages Stability-Change

4 PHYSICAL Development Prenatal Development Conception begins with the drop of an egg and the release of about 200 million sperm. The sperm seeks out the egg and attempt to penetrate the egg’s surface.

5 PHYSICAL Development Once the sperm penetrates the egg- we have a fertilized egg called…….. The Zygote The first stage of prenatal development. Lasts about two weeks and consists of rapid cell division.

6 After two weeks, the zygote develops into an….
Lasts about 6 weeks. Heart begins to beat and the organs begin to develop. PHYSICAL Development Embryo

7 Fetus By nine weeks a fetus is formed.
PHYSICAL Development By nine weeks a fetus is formed. By about the 6th month, the stomach and other organs have formed enough to survive outside of mother. At this time the baby can hear (and recognize) sounds and respond to light.

8 In the Beginning, the Competent Newborn
PHYSICAL Development In the Beginning, the Competent Newborn Born with Reflexes Rooting Grasping Sucking Moro See Moro Video… Born with ability to sense…have to learn to perceive Do you remember the definitions? Sensation Perception Learning

9 Healthy Newborns Turn head towards voices .
PHYSICAL Development Turn head towards voices . See 8 to 12 inches from their faces. Gaze longer at human like objects right from birth.

10 Mary, Mary, Quite Contrary… How do Babies Grow?
Babies growth = Maturation + Learning …We learned about learning… …So what’s Maturation????

11 Maturation Defined: The growth over which we have no control
Maturational readiness 18 months walking 2.5 talking What will hinder maturation? Lack of food, stimulation, physical movement

12 Physical and Motor Development

13 Schemes help us learn Schema - a plan for knowing Assimilation
COGNITIVE Development Schemes help us learn Schema - a plan for knowing Assimilation Fit the world into our scheme Stacking blocks per usual Accommodation Changing the scheme to fit the world Changing the way you stack the blocks

14 Jean Piaget Father of Developmental Psychology

15 Piaget Born August 9, 1896 in Neuchatel, Switzerland
Died September 16, 1980 in Geneva, Switzerland Got his first degree in zoology (specifically mollusks) Published his first paper at age 11 - it was about albino sparrows... So what does that tell you?

16 Piaget Interested in Natural Sciences.
Studied/worked in BINET’s lab (developer of the intelligence test) Got married to Valentine Chatenay in 1923 and had three children Studied his own kids???? Based theories on his studies… What’s up with that?

17 Piaget Fundamental Question: Answer: Conclusions:
How does knowledge grow Answer: In stages from lower, less logical to higher, more powerful Conclusions: Children are not mini-adults Children’s logic and cognitive processes are entirely different than that of adults

18 Key Concepts Object Permanence Representational Thought Conservation

19 COGNITIVE Development
Piaget father of Cognitive Psychology Object permanence - understanding objects exist even when it can’t be seen or held

20 COGNITIVE Development
Piaget father of Cognitive Psychology Egocentrism – Inability to see another’s perspective Representational thought - ability to picture in mind’s eye

21 All of this is COGNITIVE Development
Piaget father of Cognitive Psychology Conservation - appearance change doesn’t mean the quantitity changed

22 Conservation - appearance change doesn’t mean the quantity changed
4.5 yrs 6.5 Years

23 Conservation - appearance change doesn’t mean the quantity changed
4.5 yrs 6.5 Years

24 Tasks To Measure Conservation

25 Cognitive Development Piaget’s Theory and Current Thinking

26 Examples of Concrete Thinking
Better to be safe than _____ Punch a third grader It’s always darkest before _____ Day light savings Don’t bite the hand that _____ Looks dirty You can’t teach an old dog _____ New math The pen is mightier than the _____ pigs A penny saved is _____ Not much

27 Children Say the Darndest Things …cont’d
Laugh and the world laughs with you, cry and ______ You have to blow your nose Children should be seen and not _____ spanked Better late than _____ Pregnant

28 SOCIAL Development Harry Harlow

29 6 minutes

30 Harry Harlow Touch is critical in forming attachments.
There is a critical period for forming attachments.

31 Types of Attachment Mary Ainsworth’s Strange Situation.
Three types of attachment: Secure-secure in knowledge that caregiver will be there to help in distress Avoidant – avoid caregiver Anxious/ambivalent – no difference between caregiver and stranger

32 Ainsworth 5 minutes

33 Parenting Styles Authoritarian Parents Permissive Parents
Authoritative Parents

34 Sigmund Freud We all have a libido (sexual drive).
Our libido travels to different areas of our body throughout our development. If we become preoccupied with any one area, Freud said we have become fixated on it. Together Freud called these stages our Psychosexual Stages of Development.

35 Oral Stage Seek pleasure through out mouths.
Babies put everything in their mouths (0-2). People fixated in this stage tend to overeat, smoke or have a childhood dependence on things.

36 Anal Stage Develops during toilet training (2-4).
Libido is focused on controlling waste and expelling waste. A person fixated may become overly controlling (retentive) or out of control (expulsive).

37 Phallic Stage Children first recognize their gender (4-7).
Causes conflict in families with the Oedipus and Electra Complexes. Fixation can cause later problems in relationships.

38 Latency Stage Libido is hidden (7-11). Cooties stage.
Freud believed that fixation in this stage could lead to sexual issues.

39 Genital Stage Libido is focused on their genitals (12-death).
Freud thought fixation in this stage is normal.

40 Exploring the Unconscious Psychosexual Stages

41 Erik Erikson A neo-Freudian Worked with Anna Freud
Thought our personality was influenced by our experiences with others. Stages of Psychosocial Development. Each stage centers on a social conflict.

42 Trust v. Mistrust Can a baby trust the world to fulfill its needs?
The trust or mistrust they develop can carry on with the child for the rest of their lives.

43 Autonomy V. Shame & Doubt
Toddlers begin to control their bodies (toilet training). Control Temper Tantrums Big word is “NO” Can they learn control or will they doubt themselves?

44 Initiative V. Guilt Word turns from “NO” to “WHY?”
Want to understand the world and ask questions. Is there curiosity encouraged or scolded?

45 Industry v. Inferiority
School begins We are for the first time evaluated by a formal system and our peers. Do we feel good or bad about our accomplishments? Can lead to us feeling bad about ourselves for the rest of our lives…inferiority complex.

46 Identity v. Role Confusion
In our teenage years we try out different roles. Who am I? What group do I fit in with? If I do not find myself I may develop an identity crisis.

47 Intimacy v. Isolation Have to balance work and relationships.
What are my priorities?

48 Generativity v. Stagnation
Is everything going as planned? Am I happy with what I created? Mid –life crisis!!!

49 Integrity v. Despair Look back on life.
Was my life meaningful or do I have regret?


51 What Would You Do? It is time for the psychology final exam. Ms. Smith administers a multiple-choice test and monitors the test carefully for the first 40 minutes. At that point, another teacher knocks on the door and asks for a conference. Ms. Smith stands in the doorway, her back to the class and confers with her colleague. Crystal quickly pulls out her cheat sheet and adjusts some of her answers. To her left sits Sam, who has never cheated in his academic career. Sam notices her behavior but quickly averts his eyes, focusing only on his own work. Pat, who studied all night to catch up on reading for the course, sits to the right of Crystal. Pat notices Crystal’s behavior but commits to a confidential conversation with Ms. Smith after the exam. Pat intends to report Crystal’s behavior during the interruption.

52 Moral Development Kohlberg Born 1927 in New York.
Attended Phillips Academy in Andover. Out of high school joined Merchant Marines. Part of a project that, during WWII, smuggled shiploads of refugee European Jews into Palestine. Then BA in Psych in 1 year… Interested in Psychology and Philosophy, particularly Ethics. Caught an intestinal bug that caused him much sickness during his life.

53 Heinz Dilemma In a European town, a woman is near death from a special kind of cancer; a new drug, discovered by a druggist in the town, might save her, but he is a profiteer and charges ten times what it costs him to make the medicine. Heinz, the woman’s husband, can borrow only half the amount and pleads with the druggist to cut his price, but the druggist refuses. Heinz thinks about breaking in and stealing the drug to save his wife’s life. 1. Should he? 2. Why or why not? 3. Does he have a duty or obligation to steal the drug? 4. Should he steal the drug for his wife if he doesn’t love her? 5. What if the person dying were a stranger - should Heinz steal the drug for him? 6. It is against the law to steal; does that make it morally wrong? ...and so on 21 QUESTIONS in THE HEINZ DILEMMA

54 Kohlberg: Stages of Moral Development
Egocentric/Preconventional Naïve Moral Realism Pramatic Moral Realism Sociocentric/Conventional Socially Shared Perspectives Social System Morality Independent/Postconventional Human Rights and Social Welfare Morality Universal Ethical Principles



57 Kohlberg …and Finally Kohlberg had two dreams...neither of which he met. 1. Kohlberg worked with prisoners to try and raise their moral reasoning to stage four. 2. Kohlberg worked with adolescents in schools in Boston to try and do much the same he’d been trying to do with prisoners. His health was deteriorating (intestinal parasite). He became deeply depressed. Discussed the moral issue of suicide On January 17, 1987, his car was found was a tidal pool outside of Boston. In April, his body washed up at Logan Airport.

58 Adolescence


60 Adolescence

61 Theories of Adolescence
Hall Time of storm and stress Mead Culture important Havinghurst 9 tasks… A. Freud Mental Illness? Elkind All Grown Up & No Place to go. Pipher Saplings in the storm

62 Old Age and Sexuality Just as young people tend to think sexual activity diminishes at midlife, they often believe it ceases altogether in old age.  Yet the majority of people over the age of 65 continue to be interested in sex.

63 Percentage of Older Population

64 Changes in Mental Functioning
John Horn (1982) has proposed two types of intelligence: Crystallized intelligence–the ability to use accumulated knowledge and learning in appropriate situations. Increases with age/experience. Fluid intelligence–the ability to solve abstract relational problems and to generate new hypotheses. Declines with age.

65 Senile Dementia Alzheimer’s disease is an affliction more commonly seen among the elderly. Alzheimer’s is a neurological disease marked by a gradual deterioration of cognitive functioning.

66 Alzheimer’s Disease

67 Biopsychosocial Influences on Successful Aging

68 Dying and Death

69 Elisabeth Kubler-Ross Stages of Dying and Death
Denial People’s most common reaction to learning that they have a terminal illness is shock and numbness, followed by denial.  They react by saying, “No, it can’t be happening to me,” or “I’ll get another opinion.”

70 Elisabeth Kubler-Ross Stages of Dying and Death
Anger During the second stage, anger, the reaction of dying people is “Why me?”  They feel anger–at fate, at the powers that be, at every person who comes into their life. At this stage, they are likely to alienate themselves from others, for no one can relieve the anger they feel at their shortened life span and lost chances.

71 Elisabeth Kubler-Ross Stages of Dying and Death
Bargaining During the stage of bargaining, people change their attitude and attempt to bargain with fate.  For example, a woman may ask God for a certain amount of time in return for good behavior. She may promise a change of ways, even a dedication of her life to the church. This stage is relatively short.

72 Elisabeth Kubler-Ross Stages of Dying and Death
Depression During depression, dying people are aware of the losses they are incurring (for example, loss of body tissue, loss of job, loss of life savings). Also, they are depressed about the loss that is to come: they are in the process of losing everybody and everything. Kübler-Ross suggests that it is helpful to allow such people to express their sadness and not to cover up the situation or force them to act cheerfully.

73 Elisabeth Kubler-Ross Stages of Dying and Death
Acceptance The struggle is over, and they experience a sense of calm.  In some cases, the approach of death feels appropriate or peaceful.  They seem to become detached intentionally so as to make death easier.

74 Elisabeth Kubler-Ross Stages of Dying and Death
Not all terminal patients progress through the stages that Kübler-Ross describes.  Some people may go through the stages but in different order, or they may repeat some stages.  Critics note that individuals are unique and sometimes do not follow predictable patterns of behavior.

LATER IN LIFE Alzheimer’s Disease Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Huntington’s Disease Parkinson’s Disease EARLIER IN LIFE Friedrich’s Ataxia Spinal Muscular Atrophy Friedrichs Ataxia – between 5 and 15 Difficulty walkingMuscle weaknessSpeech problemsInvoluntary eye movementsScoliosisHeart palpitations Spinal Msclar – childhood disease, 6-18 months, genetic, motor neurons in spinal cord die

76 Clip from Suicide Tourist
4 min

3 min

78 The End

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