Presentation on theme: "Human Development Great Oaks From Little Acorns Grow -English Proverb."— Presentation transcript:
Human Development Great Oaks From Little Acorns Grow -English Proverb
Developmental Psychology is the study of the changes that occur as people grow up and grow older. The study of YOU from womb to tomb.
Objectives Physical, Cognitive, Social Development across the life span Enduring Issues in Psychology Nature-Nurture Continuity-stages Stability-Change
Prenatal Development Conception begins with the drop of an egg and the release of about 200 million sperm. The sperm seeks out the egg and attempt to penetrate the eggs surface. PHYSICAL Development
Once the sperm penetrates the egg- we have a fertilized egg called…….. The Zygote The first stage of prenatal development. Lasts about two weeks and consists of rapid cell division. PHYSICAL Development
After two weeks, the zygote develops into an…. Lasts about 6 weeks. Heart begins to beat and the organs begin to develop. Embryo PHYSICAL Development
Fetus By nine weeks a fetus is formed. By about the 6 th month, the stomach and other organs have formed enough to survive outside of mother. At this time the baby can hear (and recognize) sounds and respond to light. PHYSICAL Development
In the Beginning, the Competent Newborn Born with Reflexes Rooting Grasping Sucking MoroSee Moro Video… Born with ability to sense…have to learn to perceive Do you remember the definitions? Sensation Perception Learning PHYSICAL Development
Healthy Newborns Turn head towards voices. See 8 to 12 inches from their faces. Gaze longer at human like objects right from birth. PHYSICAL Development
Mary, Mary, Quite Contrary… How do Babies Grow? Babies growth = Maturation + Learning …We learned about learning… …So whats Maturation????
Maturation Defined: The growth over which we have no control Maturational readiness 18 months walking 2.5 talking What will hinder maturation? Lack of food, stimulation, physical movement
Physical and Motor Development
Schemes help us learn Schema - a plan for knowing Assimilation Fit the world into our scheme Stacking blocks per usual Accommodation Changing the scheme to fit the world Changing the way you stack the blocks COGNITIVE Development
Jean Piaget Father of Developmental Psychology
Piaget Born August 9, 1896 in Neuchatel, Switzerland Died September 16, 1980 in Geneva, Switzerland Got his first degree in zoology (specifically mollusks) Published his first paper at age 11 - it was about albino sparrows... So what does that tell you?
Piaget Interested in Natural Sciences. Studied/worked in BINETs lab (developer of the intelligence test) Got married to Valentine Chatenay in 1923 and had three children Studied his own kids???? Based theories on his studies… Whats up with that?
Piaget Fundamental Question: How does knowledge grow Answer: In stages from lower, less logical to higher, more powerful Conclusions: Children are not mini-adults Childrens logic and cognitive processes are entirely different than that of adults
Key Concepts Object Permanence Representational Thought Conservation Egocentrism
COGNITIVE Development Piaget father of Cognitive Psychology Object permanence - understanding objects exist even when it cant be seen or held
COGNITIVE Development Piaget father of Cognitive Psychology Egocentrism – Inability to see anothers perspective Representational thought - ability to picture in minds eye
All of this is COGNITIVE Development Piaget father of Cognitive Psychology Conservation - appearance change doesnt mean the quantitity changed
Conservation - appearance change doesnt mean the quantity changed 4.5 yrs 6.5 Years
Conservation - appearance change doesnt mean the quantity changed 4.5 yrs 6.5 Years
Tasks To Measure Conservation
Cognitive Development Piagets Theory and Current Thinking
Examples of Concrete Thinking Better to be safe than _____ Punch a third grader Its always darkest before _____ Day light savings Dont bite the hand that _____ Looks dirty You cant teach an old dog _____ New math The pen is mightier than the _____ pigs A penny saved is _____ Not much
Children Say the Darndest Things …contd Laugh and the world laughs with you, cry and ______ You have to blow your nose Children should be seen and not _____ spanked Better late than _____ Pregnant
Harry Harlow SOCIAL Development SOCIAL Development
Harry Harlow Touch is critical in forming attachments. There is a critical period for forming attachments.
Types of Attachment Mary Ainsworths Strange Situation. Three types of attachment: 1.Secure-secure in knowledge that caregiver will be there to help in distress 2.Avoidant – avoid caregiver 3.Anxious/ambivalent – no difference between caregiver and stranger
Sigmund Freud We all have a libido (sexual drive). Our libido travels to different areas of our body throughout our development. If we become preoccupied with any one area, Freud said we have become fixated on it. Together Freud called these stages our Psychosexual Stages of Development.
Oral Stage Seek pleasure through out mouths. Babies put everything in their mouths (0-2). People fixated in this stage tend to overeat, smoke or have a childhood dependence on things.
Anal Stage Develops during toilet training (2-4). Libido is focused on controlling waste and expelling waste. A person fixated may become overly controlling (retentive) or out of control (expulsive).
Phallic Stage Children first recognize their gender (4-7). Causes conflict in families with the Oedipus and Electra Complexes. Fixation can cause later problems in relationships.
Latency Stage Libido is hidden (7-11). Cooties stage. Freud believed that fixation in this stage could lead to sexual issues.
Genital Stage Libido is focused on their genitals (12- death). Freud thought fixation in this stage is normal.
Exploring the Unconscious Psychosexual Stages
Erik Erikson A neo-Freudian Worked with Anna Freud Thought our personality was influenced by our experiences with others. Stages of Psychosocial Development. Each stage centers on a social conflict.
Trust v. Mistrust Can a baby trust the world to fulfill its needs? The trust or mistrust they develop can carry on with the child for the rest of their lives.
Autonomy V. Shame & Doubt Toddlers begin to control their bodies (toilet training). Control Temper Tantrums Big word is NO Can they learn control or will they doubt themselves?
Initiative V. Guilt Word turns from NO to WHY? Want to understand the world and ask questions. Is there curiosity encouraged or scolded?
Industry v. Inferiority School begins We are for the first time evaluated by a formal system and our peers. Do we feel good or bad about our accomplishments? Can lead to us feeling bad about ourselves for the rest of our lives…inferiority complex.
Identity v. Role Confusion In our teenage years we try out different roles. Who am I? What group do I fit in with? If I do not find myself I may develop an identity crisis.
Intimacy v. Isolation Have to balance work and relationships. What are my priorities?
Generativity v. Stagnation Is everything going as planned? Am I happy with what I created? Mid –life crisis!!!
Integrity v. Despair Look back on life. Was my life meaningful or do I have regret?
It is time for the psychology final exam. Ms. Smith administers a multiple-choice test and monitors the test carefully for the first 40 minutes. At that point, another teacher knocks on the door and asks for a conference. Ms. Smith stands in the doorway, her back to the class and confers with her colleague. Crystal quickly pulls out her cheat sheet and adjusts some of her answers. To her left sits Sam, who has never cheated in his academic career. Sam notices her behavior but quickly averts his eyes, focusing only on his own work. Pat, who studied all night to catch up on reading for the course, sits to the right of Crystal. Pat notices Crystals behavior but commits to a confidential conversation with Ms. Smith after the exam. Pat intends to report Crystals behavior during the interruption. WHAT WOULD YOU DO?
Moral Development Kohlberg Born 1927 in New York. Attended Phillips Academy in Andover. Out of high school joined Merchant Marines. Part of a project that, during WWII, smuggled shiploads of refugee European Jews into Palestine. Then BA in Psych in 1 year… Interested in Psychology and Philosophy, particularly Ethics. Caught an intestinal bug that caused him much sickness during his life.
Heinz Dilemma In a European town, a woman is near death from a special kind of cancer; a new drug, discovered by a druggist in the town, might save her, but he is a profiteer and charges ten times what it costs him to make the medicine. Heinz, the womans husband, can borrow only half the amount and pleads with the druggist to cut his price, but the druggist refuses. Heinz thinks about breaking in and stealing the drug to save his wifes life. 1. Should he? 2.Why or why not? 3.Does he have a duty or obligation to steal the drug? 4. Should he steal the drug for his wife if he doesnt love her? 5. What if the person dying were a stranger - should Heinz steal the drug for him? 6.It is against the law to steal; does that make it morally wrong?...and so on 21 QUESTIONS in THE HEINZ DILEMMA
Kohlberg: Stages of Moral Development Egocentric/Preconventional Naïve Moral Realism Pramatic Moral Realism Sociocentric/Conventional Socially Shared Perspectives Social System Morality Independent/Postconventional Human Rights and Social Welfare Morality Universal Ethical Principles
Kohlberg …and Finally Kohlberg had two dreams...neither of which he met. 1. Kohlberg worked with prisoners to try and raise their moral reasoning to stage four. 2. Kohlberg worked with adolescents in schools in Boston to try and do much the same hed been trying to do with prisoners. His health was deteriorating (intestinal parasite). He became deeply depressed. Discussed the moral issue of suicide On January 17, 1987, his car was found was a tidal pool outside of Boston In April, his body washed up at Logan Airport.
Theories of Adolescence Hall Time of storm and stress Mead Culture important Havinghurst 9 tasks… A. Freud Mental Illness? Elkind All Grown Up & No Place to go. Pipher Saplings in the storm
Old Age and Sexuality Just as young people tend to think sexual activity diminishes at midlife, they often believe it ceases altogether in old age. Yet the majority of people over the age of 65 continue to be interested in sex.
Percentage of Older Population
Changes in Mental Functioning John Horn (1982) has proposed two types of intelligence: –Crystallized intelligence–the ability to use accumulated knowledge and learning in appropriate situations. Increases with age/experience. –Fluid intelligence–the ability to solve abstract relational problems and to generate new hypotheses. Declines with age.
Senile Dementia Alzheimers disease is an affliction more commonly seen among the elderly. Alzheimers is a neurological disease marked by a gradual deterioration of cognitive functioning.
Biopsychosocial Influences on Successful Aging
Dying and Death
Elisabeth Kubler-Ross Stages of Dying and Death Denial Peoples most common reaction to learning that they have a terminal illness is shock and numbness, followed by denial. They react by saying, No, it cant be happening to me, or Ill get another opinion.
Elisabeth Kubler-Ross Stages of Dying and Death Anger They feel anger–at fate, at the powers that be, at every person who comes into their life. At this stage, they are likely to alienate themselves from others, for no one can relieve the anger they feel at their shortened life span and lost chances. During the second stage, anger, the reaction of dying people is Why me?
Elisabeth Kubler-Ross Stages of Dying and Death Bargaining During the stage of bargaining, people change their attitude and attempt to bargain with fate. For example, a woman may ask God for a certain amount of time in return for good behavior. She may promise a change of ways, even a dedication of her life to the church. This stage is relatively short.
Elisabeth Kubler-Ross Stages of Dying and Death Depression During depression, dying people are aware of the losses they are incurring (for example, loss of body tissue, loss of job, loss of life savings). Also, they are depressed about the loss that is to come: they are in the process of losing everybody and everything. Kübler-Ross suggests that it is helpful to allow such people to express their sadness and not to cover up the situation or force them to act cheerfully.
Elisabeth Kubler-Ross Stages of Dying and Death Acceptance The struggle is over, and they experience a sense of calm. In some cases, the approach of death feels appropriate or peaceful. They seem to become detached intentionally so as to make death easier.
Elisabeth Kubler-Ross Stages of Dying and Death Not all terminal patients progress through the stages that Kübler-Ross describes. Some people may go through the stages but in different order, or they may repeat some stages. Critics note that individuals are unique and sometimes do not follow predictable patterns of behavior.
DEGENERATIVE NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS LATER IN LIFE Alzheimers Disease Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Huntingtons Disease Parkinsons Disease EARLIER IN LIFE Friedrichs Ataxia Spinal Muscular Atrophy