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It is time for the psychology final exam. Ms. Smith administers a multiple-choice test and monitors the test carefully for the first 40 minutes. At that.

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Presentation on theme: "It is time for the psychology final exam. Ms. Smith administers a multiple-choice test and monitors the test carefully for the first 40 minutes. At that."— Presentation transcript:

1 It is time for the psychology final exam. Ms. Smith administers a multiple-choice test and monitors the test carefully for the first 40 minutes. At that point, another teacher knocks on the door and asks for a conference. Ms. Smith stands in the doorway, her back to the class and confers with her colleague. Crystal quickly pulls out her cheat sheet and adjusts some of her answers. To her left sits Sam, who has never cheated in his academic career. Sam notices her behavior but quickly averts his eyes, focusing only on his own work. Pat, who studied all night to catch up on reading for the course, sits to the right of Crystal. Pat notices Crystal’s behavior but commits to a confidential conversation with Ms. Smith after the exam. Pat intends to report Crystal’s behavior during the interruption. WHAT WOULD YOU DO?

2 Adolescence Cognitive and Moral Development

3 Cognitive Development Piaget’s stages - now in Formal Operations Can contemplate the future and think abstractly Develop value system Changes in thinking patterns often accompanied by changes in personality and social interactions May see the world as needing to be saved and become impatient with adults Piaget’s stages - now in Formal Operations Can contemplate the future and think abstractly Develop value system Changes in thinking patterns often accompanied by changes in personality and social interactions May see the world as needing to be saved and become impatient with adults

4 Moral Development Kohlberg Born 1927 in New York. Attended Phillips Academy in Andover. Out of high school joined Merchant Marines. Part of a project that, during WWII, smuggled shiploads of refugee European Jews into Palestine. Then BA in Psych in 1 year… Interested in Psychology and Philosophy, particularly Ethics. Caught an intestinal bug that caused him much sickness during his life. Kohlberg Born 1927 in New York. Attended Phillips Academy in Andover. Out of high school joined Merchant Marines. Part of a project that, during WWII, smuggled shiploads of refugee European Jews into Palestine. Then BA in Psych in 1 year… Interested in Psychology and Philosophy, particularly Ethics. Caught an intestinal bug that caused him much sickness during his life.

5 Kohlberg Read Piaget’s work, didn’t agree with Piaget’s research methods. Developed an OBJECTIVE way to measure ETHICS - MORAL DEVELOPMENT. Read Piaget’s work, didn’t agree with Piaget’s research methods. Developed an OBJECTIVE way to measure ETHICS - MORAL DEVELOPMENT.

6 Heinz’s Dilemma In Europe, a woman was near death from cancer. One drug might save her, a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The druggist was charging $2000, ten times what the drug had cost him to make. The sick woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could get together only about half of what it should cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or to let him pay later. But the druggist said no. The husband got desperate and broke into the man's store to steal the drug for his wife. Should the husband have done that? Why?

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8 Level 1 EgoCentric/PreConventional Stage 1. Naive moral realism *Action is based on rules *Motivation is the avoidance of punishment Yes, steal the drug..... if you let your wife die you will be in trouble. No, don’t steal the drug.....you shouldn’t steal because you’ll be caught and sent to jail. Stage 2. Pragmatic morality *Action is based on desire to maximize reward or benefit *Motivation is to minimize negative consequences to oneself or to get reward Yes, steal the drug.....if you do get caught, you can give the drug back and you wouldn’t get much of a sentence, besides it wouldn’t bother you much to serve a short jail term if you have your wife when you get out. No, don’t steal the drug...If you do, your wife will probably die before you get out of jail, so it won’t do you much good.

9 Level 2 SocioCentric/Conventional Stage 3. Socially shared perspectives morality *Action based on anticipated approval/disapproval of others & actual/ imagined feelings of guilt *Motivation is based upon perceived or actual approval or guilt and to win the approval of others. Yes, steal the drug.....No one will think you’re bad if you steal the drug, but if you let your wife die, you’ll never be able to look anybody in the face again. No, don’t steal the drug.....Everyone will think you’re a criminal. After you steal it, you won’t be able to face anyone again. Stage 4. Social system morality *Action and motivation are based on anticipation of formal dishonor (not just disapproval) and guilt over harm done to others. * To acknowledge and show respect for authority. Yes, steal the drug.....If you have any sense of honor, you won’t let your wife die. You’ll always feel guilty that you caused her death if you don’t do your duty to her. No, don’t steal the drug.....You’re desperate and you may not know you’re doing wrong when you steal the drug. But you’ll know it when you’re sent to jail. You’ll always feel guilt for your dishonesty and lawbreaking.

10 Level 3 Independent / PostConventional Stage 5. Human rights and social welfare morality *Action & motivation based on maintaining respect of the community and self-respect. *To show respect for the rights of others. You recognize rules are ‘negotiable’. Yes, steal the drug.....You’d lose other people’s respect if you don’t. If you let your wife die, it would be out of fear, not reason. You’d lose self-respect & the respect of others. No, don’t steal the drug.....You’d lose standing and respect in the community and violate the law. You’d lose respect for yourself if you’re carried away by emotion and forget the long-range point of view Stage 6. Universal ethical principles *Action and motivation determined by equity, fairness, and concern about maintaining one’s own moral principles. You must abide by your own values & morals, regardless of the rules. *Motivation to avoid self-condemnation. Yes, steal the drug.....If you don’t steal the drug and let your wife die, you’d always condemn yourself for it afterward. You wouldn’t be blamed and you would have lived up to the law but not to your own standards of conscience. No, don’t steal the drug.....If you stole the drug, you wouldn't be blamed by other people but you’d condemn yourself because you wouldn't have lived up to your own conscience and standards of honesty.

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12 Kohlberg …and Finally Kohlberg had two dreams...neither of which he met. 1. Kohlberg worked with prisoners to try and raise their moral reasoning to stage four. 2. Kohlberg worked with adolescents in schools in Boston to try and do much the same he’d been trying to do with prisoners. His health was deteriorating (intestinal parasite). He became deeply depressed. Discussed the moral issue of suicide On January 17, 1987, his car was found was a tidal pool outside of Boston In April, his body washed up at Logan Airport. Kohlberg had two dreams...neither of which he met. 1. Kohlberg worked with prisoners to try and raise their moral reasoning to stage four. 2. Kohlberg worked with adolescents in schools in Boston to try and do much the same he’d been trying to do with prisoners. His health was deteriorating (intestinal parasite). He became deeply depressed. Discussed the moral issue of suicide On January 17, 1987, his car was found was a tidal pool outside of Boston In April, his body washed up at Logan Airport.


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