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Presentation on theme: "AP LANGUAGE & COMPOSITION"— Presentation transcript:

Rhetorical Terms Review Set 1 Language Devices

2 Synecdoche Definition: a figure of speech that employs the use of a part for the whole, or the whole for the part Examples: Jack bought a new set of wheels. The Confederates have eyes in Lincoln's government.

3 Colloquial Definition: the characteristic of writing that seeks the effect of informal spoken language as distinct from formal or literary English Example: "If you really want to hear about it, the first thing you'll probably want to know is where I was born, and what my lousy childhood was like, and how my parents were occupied and all before they had me, and all that David Copperfield kind of crap, but I don't feel like going into it, if you want to know the truth." (The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger)

4 Litotes Definition: a figure of understatement in which an affirmative is expressed by a negation of the contrary or opposite Examples: A few unannounced quizzes are not inconceivable. I'm not forgetful that you served me well.–John Milton

5 Metonymy Definition: a figure of speech in which one word or phrase is substituted for another with which it is closely associated Examples: Wall Street welcomes the reduction in interest rates. In Shakespeare's time, the crown was anti- Catholic.

6 Paradox Definition: an assertion seemingly opposed to common sense because it contains a contradiction, but that may yet have some truth in it Examples: “What a pity that youth must be wasted on the young.”—George Bernard Shaw “I can resist anything but temptation .”— Oscar Wilde “Great fiction is a kind of lie that tells the truth, but it's impossible to lie about lies and end up with anything besides more lies. “(Laura Miller, “Why We Haven’t Seen a Great 9/11 Novel,, 14 Sept )

7 Euphemism Definition: the use of a word or phrase that is less direct, but that is also less distasteful or less offensive than another Examples: She missed class because her grandmother passed away last week. Many people are opposed to the government’s using enhanced interrogation techniques on prisoners.

8 Hyperbole Definition: an extravagant exaggeration of fact, used either for serious or comic effect Examples: Ten thousand oceans cannot wash away my guilt. "I have seen this river so wide it had only one bank.“—Mark Twain

9 Allusion Definition: a brief or casual reference to a famous person, historical event, place, or work of art Examples: Since my elementary-school days, math has always been my Achilles heel. "I have met my Waterloo," the mountain climber said after returning from a failed attempt to conquer Everest.

10 Irony Definition: an expression of something which is contrary to the intended meaning; the words say one thing but mean another Examples: "What a beautiful day," Maxine said, opening her umbrella. “Yet Brutus says he was ambitious; And Brutus is an honourable man.”—Marc Antony in Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar

11 Apostrophe Definition: a sudden turn from the general audience to address a specific group or person or personified abstraction absent or present Examples: “For Brutus, as you know, was Caesar's angel. Judge, O you gods, how dearly Caesar loved him.”—Marc Antony in Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar “Death be not proud, though some have called thee Mighty and dreadfull, for, thou art not soe,”— John Donne


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