Presentation on theme: "AP LANGUAGE & COMPOSITION"— Presentation transcript:
1AP LANGUAGE & COMPOSITION Rhetorical Terms ReviewSet 1Language Devices
2SynecdocheDefinition: a figure of speech that employs the use of a part for the whole, or the whole for the partExamples:Jack bought a new set of wheels.The Confederates have eyes in Lincoln's government.
3ColloquialDefinition: the characteristic of writing that seeks the effect of informal spoken language as distinct from formal or literary EnglishExample:"If you really want to hear about it, the first thing you'll probably want to know is where I was born, and what my lousy childhood was like, and how my parents were occupied and all before they had me, and all that David Copperfield kind of crap, but I don't feel like going into it, if you want to know the truth." (The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger)
4LitotesDefinition: a figure of understatement in which an affirmative is expressed by a negation of the contrary or oppositeExamples:A few unannounced quizzes are not inconceivable.I'm not forgetful that you served me well.–John Milton
5MetonymyDefinition: a figure of speech in which one word or phrase is substituted for another with which it is closely associatedExamples:Wall Street welcomes the reduction in interest rates.In Shakespeare's time, the crown was anti- Catholic.
6ParadoxDefinition: an assertion seemingly opposed to common sense because it contains a contradiction, but that may yet have some truth in itExamples:“What a pity that youth must be wasted on the young.”—George Bernard Shaw“I can resist anything but temptation .”— Oscar Wilde“Great fiction is a kind of lie that tells the truth, but it's impossible to lie about lies and end up with anything besides more lies. “(Laura Miller, “Why We Haven’t Seen a Great 9/11 Novel, Salon.com, 14 Sept )
7EuphemismDefinition: the use of a word or phrase that is less direct, but that is also less distasteful or less offensive than anotherExamples:She missed class because her grandmother passed away last week.Many people are opposed to the government’s using enhanced interrogation techniques on prisoners.
8HyperboleDefinition: an extravagant exaggeration of fact, used either for serious or comic effectExamples:Ten thousand oceans cannot wash away my guilt."I have seen this river so wide it had only one bank.“—Mark Twain
9AllusionDefinition: a brief or casual reference to a famous person, historical event, place, or work of artExamples:Since my elementary-school days, math has always been my Achilles heel."I have met my Waterloo," the mountain climber said after returning from a failed attempt to conquer Everest.
10IronyDefinition: an expression of something which is contrary to the intended meaning; the words say one thing but mean anotherExamples:"What a beautiful day," Maxine said, opening her umbrella.“Yet Brutus says he was ambitious; And Brutus is an honourable man.”—Marc Antony in Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar
11ApostropheDefinition: a sudden turn from the general audience to address a specific group or person or personified abstraction absent or presentExamples:“For Brutus, as you know, was Caesar's angel. Judge, O you gods, how dearly Caesar loved him.”—Marc Antony in Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar“Death be not proud, though some have called thee Mighty and dreadfull, for, thou art not soe,”— John Donne