Apostrophe a sudden turn from the general audience to address a specific group or person or personified abstraction absent or present. Ex: For Brutus, as you know, was Caesar's angel. Judge, O you gods, how dearly Caesar loved him.
Oxymoron apparent paradox achieved by the juxtaposition of words which seem to contradict one another. EX: I must be cruel to be kind.
Paradox an assertion seemingly opposed to common sense, but that may yet have some truth in it. A statement that appears to contradict itself Ex: What a pity that youth must be wasted on the young. ~George Bernard Shaw
Pun a play on words or the humorous use of a word emphasizing a different meaning or application. Ex: “Ask for me tomorrow and you shall find me a grave man.” Mercutio
Assonance repetition of the same vowel sound in words close to each other. Ex: Tilting at windmills Thy kingdom come/ thy will be done
Connotation is the emotional and imaginative association surrounding a word. Ex: Home- safe, warm, protected, family, relaxed
Denotation The most specific or direct meaning of a word Ex: Home-a house, apartment, or other shelter that is the usual residence of a person, family, or household
Hyperbole an exaggeration used in speaking or in writing to create an effect and not meant to be taken literally. He is older than the hills. The garbage was piled so high it almost touched the sky. My backpack weighs a ton!
Metaphor a figure of speech that suggests a likeness by speaking of one thing as if it were another; a comparison without the use of "like" or "as.“ Her hair is silk. His home was a prison. You are the sunshine of my life.
Personification a figure of speech in which a thing or idea is represented as having human characteristics. The saw bit off my finger. “…the houses along Gilman Street began to look more defensive…more exhausted” (from A Separate Peace)
Simile a figure of speech in which one thing is compared to another different thing by using the word "like" or "as.“ The pain engulfed him like a mighty flame. Those girls are like two peas in a pod. His toes are as awkward as small plums.
Irony a method of humorous or sarcastic expression in which the intended meaning of a word is the direct opposite of its usual sense; or what happens in a story is the opposite of what is expected to happen. Verbal irony—words are used to suggest the opposite of what is meant. Dramatic irony—there is a contradiction between what a character thinks and what the reader or audience knows to be true. Situational irony—an event occurs that directly contradicts the expectations of the characters, the reader or the audience.
Imagery words in poetry, etc., which produce a mental picture. Mary touches the harp-like morning-glory strings and plays some tenderness.
Symbol the use of a person, place, event or object that has a meaning in itself but suggests other meanings as well (symbol)
Alliteration the repetition of beginning consonant sounds in a line of poetry; a sound device. Example: silence surged softly Katy kicked the kicker. Monkey master. Tired Timmy taught the tired teacher. Cocky Ken kicked the can.
Onomatopoeia the use of words that sound like the things they name or describe; a sound device. The fly buzzed past. The arrow whistled in the still air. The wind whistled and wailed. Dave whooshed down the hill.
Allusion an implied or indirect reference, as in a famous person's name used to refer to someone with similar character traits. She was no Scrooge, but she seldom purchased anything except the bare necessities. The girl's love of sweets was her Achilles heel. It’s a story as old as Cain and Abel.