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A/P Ch 5 Flash cards. What are the major regions of the skin?

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Presentation on theme: "A/P Ch 5 Flash cards. What are the major regions of the skin?"— Presentation transcript:

1 A/P Ch 5 Flash cards

2 What are the major regions of the skin?

3 1.Epidermis – outermost superficial region 2.Dermis – middle region 3.Hypodermis (superficial fascia) – deepest region

4 Figure 5.1 )

5 Epidermis Dermis Hypodermis (superficial fascia) Hair root Hair shaft Pore Dermal papillae (papillary layer of dermis) Meissner's corpuscle Free nerve ending Reticular layer of dermis Sebaceous (oil) gland Arrector pili muscle Sensory nerve fiber Eccrine sweat gland Pacinian corpuscle Artery Vein Adipose tissue Hair follicle receptor (root hair plexus) Hair follicle Eccrine sweat gland

6 Describe the Epidermis Composed: Cell Types: Cell Layers: Main Function:

7 Describe the Epidermis Composed: keratinized stratified squamous epithelium Cell Layers: Stratum Corneum, Stratum Lucidum, Stratum Granulosum, Stratum Spinosum, Stratum Basale Cell Types:keratinocytes, melanocytes, Merkel cells, and Langerhans cells Main Function: protection

8 Layers of epidermis

9 What is Keratinocytes?

10 produce the fibrous protein keratin

11 What is Melanocytes?

12 produce the brown pigment melanin

13 What is Langerhans cells?

14 epidermal macrophages that help activate the immune system

15 What are Merkel cells?

16 function as touch receptors in association with sensory nerve endings

17 Describe the Stratum Basale

18 Deepest epidermal layer firmly attached to the dermis Consists of a single row of the youngest keratinocytes Cells undergo rapid division

19 Describe Stratum Spinosum

20 Cells contain a weblike system of intermediate filaments attached to desmosomes Melanin granules and Langerhans cells are abundant Prickly Layer

21 Describe Stratum Granulosum

22 Thin; three to five cell layers in which drastic changes in keratinocyte appearance occurs Keratohyaline and lamellated granules accumulate in the cells of this layer

23 Describe the Stratum Lucidum

24 Thin, transparent band superficial to the stratum granulosum Consists of a few rows of flat, dead keratinocytes Present only in thick skin Clear Layer

25 Describe the Stratum Corneum

26 Horny Layer Outermost layer of keratinized cells Accounts for three quarters of the epidermal thickness Functions include: –Waterproofing –Protection from abrasion and penetration –Rendering the body relatively insensitive to biological, chemical, and physical assaults

27 Describe the Dermis

28 Second major skin region containing strong, flexible connective tissue Cell types include: fibroblasts, macrophages, and occasionally mast cells and white blood cells Composed of two layers 1.Papillary 2.reticular

29 Describe the Papillary Layer

30 –Areolar connective tissue with collagen and elastic fibers –Its superior surface contains peglike projections called dermal papillae –Dermal papillae contain capillary loops, Meissners corpuscles, and free nerve endings

31 Describe the Reticular Layer

32 – 80% of the thickness of the skin –Collagen fibers in this layer add strength and resiliency to the skin –Elastin fibers provide stretch-recoil properties

33 What is the Hypodermis?

34 Subcutaneous layer deep to the skin Composed of adipose and areolar connective tissue Fatty Layer

35 What three pigments contribute to skin color

36 What three pigments contribute to skin color? –Melanin – yellow to reddish-brown to black pigment, responsible for dark skin colors Freckles and pigmented moles – result from local accumulations of melanin –Carotene – yellow to orange pigment, most obvious in the palms and soles of the feet –Hemoglobin – reddish pigment responsible for the pinkish hue of the skin

37 Whats the function of sweat glands?

38 Different types prevent overheating of the body; secrete cerumen and milk

39 Describe Eccrine Sweat Glands?

40 found in palms, soles of the feet, and forehead

41 Describe Apocrine sweat glands

42 found in axillary and anogenital areas (arm pits, areola of nipples, and genitals)

43 Describe Ceruminous glands

44 modified apocrine glands in external ear canal that secrete cerumen

45 Describe Mammary glands specialized sweat glands that secrete milk

46 Glands

47 Describe Sebaceous Glands

48 Simple alveolar glands found all over the body Soften skin when stimulated by hormones Secrete an oily secretion called sebum

49 Describe Hair

50 Filamentous strands of dead keratinized cells produced by hair follicles Contains hard keratin Pigmented by melanocytes at the base of the hair

51 Functions of hair include

52 –Helping to maintain warmth –Alerting the body to presence of insects on the skin –Guarding the scalp against physical trauma, heat loss, and sunlight

53 Hair is distributed over the entire skin surface except:

54 –Palms, soles, and lips –Nipples and portions of the external genitalia

55 What is Vellus Hair?

56 pale, fine body hair found in children and the adult female

57 What is Terminal hair?

58 coarse, long hair of eyebrows, scalp, axillary, and pubic regions

59 Describe Hair thinning and balding

60 Alopecia – hair thinning in both sexes True, or frank, baldness –Genetically determined and sex-influenced condition –Male pattern baldness – caused by follicular response to DHT

61 Structure of a Nail

62 Functions of the Integumentary System

63 Protection Body temperature regulation Cutaneous sensation Metabolic functions Blood reservoir Excretion

64 What does the skin protect from?

65 chemical, physical, and mechanical barrier

66 How is Body Temperature is accomplished?

67 –Dilation (cooling) and constriction (warming) of dermal vessels –Increasing sweat gland secretions to cool the body

68 Explain Cutaneous Sensation

69 exoreceptors sense touch and pain

70 Describe Metabolic Functions

71 Synthesis of vitamin D in dermal blood vessels

72 Describe the Blood Reservoir function of the skin

73 skin blood vessels store up to 5% of the bodys blood volume

74 What does the skin Excrete?

75 limited amounts of nitrogenous wastes are eliminated from the body in sweat

76 Briefly describe Skin Canser

77 Most skin tumors are benign and do not metastasize A crucial risk factor for non-melanoma skin cancers is the disabling of the p53 gene Newly developed skin lotions can fix damaged DNA

78 What are the 3 major types of skin cancer?

79 –Basal cell carcinoma –Squamous cell carcinoma –Melanoma

80 Describe Basal Cell Carcinoma

81 Least malignant and most common skin cancer Stratum basale cells proliferate and invade the dermis and hypodermis Slow growing and do not often metastasize Can be cured by surgical excision in 99% of the cases

82 Describe Squamous Cell Carcinoma

83 Arises from keratinocytes of stratum spinosum Arise most often on scalp, ears, and lower lip Grows rapidly and metastasizes if not removed Prognosis is good if treated by radiation therapy or removed surgically

84 Describe Melanoma

85 Cancer of melanocytes is the most dangerous type of skin cancer because it is: –Highly metastatic –Resistant to chemotherapy Chance of survival is poor if the lesion is over 4 mm thick

86 Skin cancers

87 What characteristics does Melanoma Have?

88 (ABCD rule) –A: Asymmetry; the two sides of the pigmented area do not match –B: Border is irregular and exhibits indentations –C: Color (pigmented area) is black, brown, tan, and sometimes red or blue –D: Diameter is larger than 6 mm (size of a pencil eraser)

89 Describe a First Degree Burn

90 only the epidermis is damaged –Symptoms include localized redness, swelling, and pain

91 Describe a Second Degree Burn

92 Epidermis and upper regions of dermis are damaged –Symptoms mimic first degree burns, but blisters also appear

93 Describe a Third Degree Burn Entire thickness of the skin is damaged –Symptoms: Burned area appears gray- white, cherry red, or black; there is no initial edema or pain (since nerve endings are destroyed)

94 What does the Rule of Nines estimate?

95 Estimates the severity of burns Burns considered critical if: –Over 25% of the body has second-degree burns –Over 10% of the body has third-degree burns –There are third-degree burns on face, hands, or feet

96 Rule of Nines

97 Explain Fetal Skin Development

98 Epidermis develops from ectoderm Dermis and hypodermis develop from mesoderm Lanugo – downy coat of delicate hairs covering the fetus Vernix caseosa – substance produced by sebaceous glands that protects the skin of the fetus in the amnion

99 Describe skin development (Adolescent – Adult)

100 Skin and hair become oilier and acne may appear Skin shows the effects of cumulative environmental assaults around age 30 Scaling and dermatitis become more common

101 Describe skin development (old-age)

102 Epidermal replacement of cells slows and skin becomes thinner Skin becomes dry and itchy Subcutaneous fat layer diminishes, leading to intolerance of cold Decreased elasticity and loss of subcutaneous tissue leads to wrinkles Decreased numbers of melanocytes and Langerhans cells increase the risk of skin cancer

103 Questions from the Textbook and Lab Homework

104 What type of granules are extruded from the kerationocytes prevent water loss by diffusion through the epidermis?

105 Lamellated

106 What produces the fibers in the dermis?

107 Fibroblast

108 What type of glands respond to rising androgen levels?

109 Apocrine glands

110 Phagocytic cells that occupy the epidermis are called?

111 Langerhans Cells

112 A unique touch receptor formed from a stratum basale cell and nerve fiber is a …..

113 Merkel disc

114 What layer is present in thick skin but not in thin skin?

115 Stratum Lucidum

116 What cell-to-cell structures hold the cells of the stratum spinosum tightly together?

117 Desmosomes

118 What substance is manufactured in the skin that plays a role in calcium absorption in the body?

119 Vitamin D

120 Which epidermal cell type is most numerous?

121 Keratinocyte

122 which cell functions as part of the immune system

123 An epidermal dendritic cell

124 the epidermis provides a physical barrier due largely to the presence of

125 Collagen

126 skin color is determined by

127 -the amount of blood -pigments -oxygenation level

128 the sensations of touch and pressure are picked up by receptors located in

129 The stratum spinosum

130 Skin surface markings that reflect points of tight dermal attachment to underlining tissues are called?

131 Flexure Lines


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