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Integumentary System Epidermis (epithelial tissue)Dermis (connective tissue) Hypodermis (not part of the skin)
Hypodermis subcutaneous layer (underneath the skin)
Hypodermis contains areolar and adipose tissue
Hypodermis attaches skin to underlying tissues and organs
Hypodermis Conatains pacinian corpuscles ( sensitive to pressure / looks like an onion)
Epidermis Stratified Squamous epithelium 4 different types of cells5 layers
Types of Cells in EpidermisKeratinocytes Melanocytes Langerhans Merkel
Keratinocytes 90% of epidermal cells
Keratinocytes produce the protein keratin which protects the skin and underlying tissues from heat, microbes, and chemicals
Keratinocytes produce lamellar granules which produce a water repellant sealant
Melanocytes 8 % of epidermal cells
Melanocytes Produces the pigment melanin
Melanocytes Transfers melanin granules to keratinocytes
Melanocytes In keratinocytes the melanin granules acts like an umbrella over the DNA in order to protect it from UV light
Langerhans migrate from red bone marrow to epidermis
Langerhans involved in immune response
Merkel sensitive to touch
Merkel located in stratum basale
Merkel Have contact with the flattened process of a sensory neuron (Merkel disc)
5 layers of Epidermis Stratum Basale Stratum SpinosumStratum Granulosum Stratum Lucidum Stratum Corneum
Stratum Basale Deepest layer of the epidermis
Stratum Basale Single layer of cuboidal or columnar keratinocytes
Stratum Basale Nuclei large
Stratum Basale Also contains some melanocytes, merkel cells, and langerhans cells
Stratum Spinosum 8 to 10 layers of squamous shaped keratinocytes
Stratum Spinosum Has a large nucleus
Stratum Spinosum Appear spiny underneath microscope
Stratum Spinosum Some langerhans cells and melanocytes
Stratum Granulosum 3 to five layer of squamous keratinocytes
Stratum Granulosum Undergoing apoptosis (cell death)
Stratum Granulosum Nuclei disappearing
Stratum Granulosum Contains protein keratohyalin which converts tonofilaments into keratin
Stratum Granulosum Secretes lamellar granules which fills the spaces between stratum granulousum, stratum lucidum, and stratum corneum
Stratum Lucidum Only in thick skin
Stratum Lucidum 3 to 5 layers of clear, dead, squamous keratinocytes
Stratum Lucidum Contain keratin
Stratum Corneum 25 to 30 layers
Stratum Corneum Dead squamous keratinocytes
Stratum Corneum Contain keratin
Stratum Corneum Sometimes forms callus (the stratum corneum is abnormally thick)
Dermis Two Regions Papillary Region Reticular Region
Papillary Region Contains areolar connective tissue with fine elastic fibers
Papillary Region 20 percent or one fifth of dermis
Papillary Region Contains Meisner corpuscles ( sensitive to touch)
Papillary Region Contains dermal papillae (small,fingerlike projections that indent the epidermis and some contain capillary loops)
Reticular Region Contains dense irregular connective tissue with collagen fibers and course elastic fibers
Reticular Region Contain some adipocytes, hair follicles, nerves, sebaceous glands, and sweat glands
Skin Color Melanin Carotene Hemoglobin
Melanin Number of melanocytes doesn’t vary among people
Melanin Differences in skin color can be attributed to the amount that these melanocytes produce
Melanin Melanocytes most commonly found in the epidermis of the penis, nipples, face and limbs
Melanin Freckles and age spot (accumulations of melanin)
Carotene Yellow-orange pigment Precursor to vitamin A
Carotene Found in stratum corneum, fatty areas of dermis, and hypodermis
Hemoglobin Protein in rbc’s that carries oxygenFound in capillaries in blood
Albinos Contain melanocytes, but are unable to produce melaninInherited Melanin is absent in hair, eyes, and skin
Vitiligo Irregular white spots Due to loss of melanocytesAntibodies in body attack melanocytes
Types of Skin Thin Skin Thick Skin
Thin Skin Covers all surfaces except palms, fingertips, and soles
Thin Skin Lacks stratum lucidum Thin stratum spinosum and corneum
Thin Skin Lack epidermal ridges (fingerprints)
Thin Skin Fewer sweat glands Fewer sensory receptors
Thin Skin Contains hair follicles, arrector pili muscles, and sebaceous (oil) gland
Thick Skin Located on palms, fingertips, and soles
Thick Skin Stratum Lucidum Thicker stratum spinosum and corneum
Thick Skin Contains epidermal ridges Contains more sweat glands
Thick Skin Lacks hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and arector pili muscles
Accessory Structures Hair Glands Nails
Hair Shaft Superficial portion of hair
Hair Root Penetrates into dermis
Hair Root and Shaft contain three layersInner medulla(may lack in thin hair), cortex (contains pigment granules), and cuticle
Hair Hair Follicle Surrounds the root of the hairContains an external root sheath (continuation of epidermis) and internal root sheath (produced by the matrix)
Hair Bulb Contains papilla of hair (areolar connective tissue and blood vessels to nourish hair) Contains matrix (produce new hairs)
Hair Sebaceous glands and arrector pili muscle associated with hairs
Hair Arrector pili muscle responsible for “goose bumps”
Skin Functions of Skin Mechanical/Chemical damage – keratin toughens cells; fats cells cushion blows; and pressure receptors to measure possible damage.
Seven Functions of Skin
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