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Integumentary System.  Epidermis (epithelial tissue)  Dermis (connective tissue)  Hypodermis (not part of the skin)

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Presentation on theme: "Integumentary System.  Epidermis (epithelial tissue)  Dermis (connective tissue)  Hypodermis (not part of the skin)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Integumentary System

2  Epidermis (epithelial tissue)  Dermis (connective tissue)  Hypodermis (not part of the skin)

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5 Hypodermis subcutaneous layer (underneath the skin) subcutaneous layer (underneath the skin)

6 Hypodermis contains areolar and adipose tissue contains areolar and adipose tissue

7 Hypodermis attaches skin to underlying tissues and organs attaches skin to underlying tissues and organs

8 Hypodermis Conatains pacinian corpuscles ( sensitive to pressure / looks like an onion) Conatains pacinian corpuscles ( sensitive to pressure / looks like an onion)

9 Epidermis  Stratified Squamous epithelium  4 different types of cells  5 layers

10 Types of Cells in Epidermis 1.Keratinocytes 2.Melanocytes 3.Langerhans 4.Merkel

11 Keratinocytes 90% of epidermal cells 90% of epidermal cells

12 Keratinocytes produce the protein keratin which protects the skin and underlying tissues from heat, microbes, and chemicals produce the protein keratin which protects the skin and underlying tissues from heat, microbes, and chemicals

13 Keratinocytes produce lamellar granules which produce a water repellant sealant produce lamellar granules which produce a water repellant sealant

14 Melanocytes 8 % of epidermal cells 8 % of epidermal cells

15 Melanocytes Produces the pigment melanin Produces the pigment melanin

16 Melanocytes Transfers melanin granules to keratinocytes Transfers melanin granules to keratinocytes

17 Melanocytes In keratinocytes the melanin granules acts like an umbrella over the DNA in order to protect it from UV light In keratinocytes the melanin granules acts like an umbrella over the DNA in order to protect it from UV light

18 Langerhans migrate from red bone marrow to epidermis migrate from red bone marrow to epidermis

19 Langerhans involved in immune response involved in immune response

20 Merkel sensitive to touch sensitive to touch

21 Merkel located in stratum basale located in stratum basale

22 Merkel Have contact with the flattened process of a sensory neuron (Merkel disc) Have contact with the flattened process of a sensory neuron (Merkel disc)

23 5 layers of Epidermis 1.Stratum Basale 2.Stratum Spinosum 3.Stratum Granulosum 4.Stratum Lucidum 5.Stratum Corneum

24 Stratum Basale Deepest layer of the epidermis Deepest layer of the epidermis

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26 Stratum Basale Single layer of cuboidal or columnar keratinocytes Single layer of cuboidal or columnar keratinocytes

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28 Stratum Basale Nuclei large Nuclei large

29 Stratum Basale Also contains some melanocytes, merkel cells, and langerhans cells Also contains some melanocytes, merkel cells, and langerhans cells

30 Stratum Spinosum 8 to 10 layers of squamous shaped keratinocytes 8 to 10 layers of squamous shaped keratinocytes

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32 Stratum Spinosum Has a large nucleus Has a large nucleus

33 Stratum Spinosum Appear spiny underneath microscope Appear spiny underneath microscope

34 Stratum Spinosum Some langerhans cells and melanocytes Some langerhans cells and melanocytes

35 Stratum Granulosum 3 to five layer of squamous keratinocytes 3 to five layer of squamous keratinocytes

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37 Stratum Granulosum Undergoing apoptosis (cell death) Undergoing apoptosis (cell death)

38 Stratum Granulosum Nuclei disappearing Nuclei disappearing

39 Stratum Granulosum Contains protein keratohyalin which converts tonofilaments into keratin Contains protein keratohyalin which converts tonofilaments into keratin

40 Stratum Granulosum  Secretes lamellar granules which fills the spaces between stratum granulousum, stratum lucidum, and stratum corneum

41 Stratum Lucidum Only in thick skin Only in thick skin

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43 Stratum Lucidum 3 to 5 layers of clear, dead, squamous keratinocytes 3 to 5 layers of clear, dead, squamous keratinocytes

44 Stratum Lucidum Contain keratin Contain keratin

45 Stratum Corneum 25 to 30 layers 25 to 30 layers

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47 Stratum Corneum  Dead squamous keratinocytes

48 Stratum Corneum Contain keratin Contain keratin

49 Stratum Corneum Sometimes forms callus (the stratum corneum is abnormally thick) Sometimes forms callus (the stratum corneum is abnormally thick)

50 Dermis  Two Regions  Papillary Region  Reticular Region

51 Papillary Region  Contains areolar connective tissue with fine elastic fibers

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53 Papillary Region  20 percent or one fifth of dermis

54 Papillary Region  Contains Meisner corpuscles ( sensitive to touch)

55 Papillary Region  Contains dermal papillae (small,fingerlike projections that indent the epidermis and some contain capillary loops)

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57 Reticular Region Contains dense irregular connective tissue with collagen fibers and course elastic fibers Contains dense irregular connective tissue with collagen fibers and course elastic fibers

58 Reticular Region Contain some adipocytes, hair follicles, nerves, sebaceous glands, and sweat glands Contain some adipocytes, hair follicles, nerves, sebaceous glands, and sweat glands

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61 Skin Color  Melanin  Carotene  Hemoglobin

62 Melanin  Number of melanocytes doesn’t vary among people

63 Melanin  Differences in skin color can be attributed to the amount that these melanocytes produce

64 Melanin  Melanocytes most commonly found in the epidermis of the penis, nipples, face and limbs

65 Melanin  Freckles and age spot (accumulations of melanin)

66 Carotene  Yellow-orange pigment  Precursor to vitamin A

67 Carotene  Found in stratum corneum, fatty areas of dermis, and hypodermis

68 Hemoglobin  Protein in rbc’s that carries oxygen  Found in capillaries in blood

69 Albinos  Contain melanocytes, but are unable to produce melanin  Inherited  Melanin is absent in hair, eyes, and skin

70 Vitiligo  Irregular white spots  Due to loss of melanocytes  Antibodies in body attack melanocytes

71 Types of Skin 1.Thin Skin 2.Thick Skin

72 Thin Skin  Covers all surfaces except palms, fingertips, and soles

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74 Thin Skin  Lacks stratum lucidum  Thin stratum spinosum and corneum

75 Thin Skin  Lack epidermal ridges (fingerprints)

76 Thin Skin  Fewer sweat glands  Fewer sensory receptors

77 Thin Skin  Contains hair follicles, arrector pili muscles, and sebaceous (oil) gland

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79 Thick Skin  Located on palms, fingertips, and soles

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81 Thick Skin  Stratum Lucidum  Thicker stratum spinosum and corneum

82 Thick Skin  Contains epidermal ridges  Contains more sweat glands

83 Thick Skin  Lacks hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and arector pili muscles

84 Accessory Structures 1.Hair 2.Glands 3.Nails

85 Hair  Shaft Superficial portion of hair

86 Hair  Root Penetrates into dermis

87 Hair  Root and Shaft contain three layers Inner medulla(may lack in thin hair), cortex (contains pigment granules), and cuticle

88 Hair  Hair Follicle Surrounds the root of the hair Contains an external root sheath (continuation of epidermis) and internal root sheath (produced by the matrix)

89 Hair  Bulb Contains papilla of hair (areolar connective tissue and blood vessels to nourish hair) Contains matrix (produce new hairs)

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92 Hair  Sebaceous glands and arrector pili muscle associated with hairs

93 Hair  Arrector pili muscle responsible for “goose bumps”

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