Presentation on theme: "INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGISLATIVE SYSTEMS FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTION IN ARAB CITIES – A TALE OF THREE CITIES - AQABA, DJIBOUTI & BEIRUT DR. FADI HAMDAN."— Presentation transcript:
INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGISLATIVE SYSTEMS FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTION IN ARAB CITIES – A TALE OF THREE CITIES - AQABA, DJIBOUTI & BEIRUT DR. FADI HAMDAN
SYNOPSIS Objectives Background Methodology National Situation Analysis Construction of Risk Within Cities Existing Policies for DRR Existing Institutions for DRR Recommendations
OBJECTIVES A review of the existing policies and institutional systems for disaster risk management in three Arab cities (Aqaba, Beirut and Djibouti) Inform the development of the Mayor’s declaration Apprise participants of the Arab conference on DRR on the strengths and weaknesses of the existing
BACKGROUND – AMDGR PRIORITY AREAS Food security; Poverty reduction; Adaptation to climate change; Youth employment and decent work; Gender equality With respect to MDG7 (Ensure Environmental Sustainability), the report indicates that while the Arab region as a whole only contributes about 5% of the global carbon dioxide emissions, the impacts of climate change on the region are of major concern to policy makers due to its dependence on climate-sensitive agriculture, as well as the concentration of population and economic activity in flood-prone urban coastal zones. Seismic Risk Not recognized
BACKGROUND – DRR AN INSTRUMENT FOR MDGs – 5 PRIORITY AREAS 1.Integrating disaster risk reduction into socio ‑ economic development planning and programmes will safeguard development investments 2.Making disaster risk reduction an essential part of poverty reduction strategies and programmes will protect and enrich the poor and near-poor 3.Making schools, health facilities, and water and sanitation infrastructure disaster resilient will protect access to universal education, and primary health and emergency care. 4.Empowering women in disaster risk reduction will accelerate achievement of the MDGs 5.Curbing rapid / ill-planned urban growth will decrease disaster risks.
BACKGROUND – DRR AN INSTRUMENT FOR MDGs – MDG 1 - 5 PRIORITY AREAS 1.Apply disaster risk reduction in climate change adaptation 2.Support farmers to integrate drought and flood risk assessment into their agricultural and land-use planning 3.Improve farmers’ access to insurance and fair terms of credit for disaster proofing their livelihoods, 4.Make agriculture environmentally sustainable through sound natural resource management. 5.Support the urban poor’s income generating activities to give them more disaster ‑ resilient income.
BACKGROUND – DRR AN INSTRUMENT FOR MDGs – MDG 2 - 5 PRIORITY AREAS 1.Make all schools safer from disasters 2.Teach disaster risk reduction in all primary schools as part of the national curriculum 3.Ensure that schools in high-risk areas have developed and implemented disaster preparedness and contingency plans 4.Increase disaster resilience of the poorest and most vulnerable children 5.Pursue disaster resilient poverty reduction strategies and programmes
BACKGROUND – DRR AN INSTRUMENT FOR MDGs– MDG 3 - 5 PRIORITY AREAS 1.Mainstream disaster risk reduction into women-focused development work. 2.Integrate women’s needs and concerns into a broad based community development agenda in disaster prone areas. 3.Make existing disaster risk reduction policies and programmes gender sensitive, 4.Make sure disaster-vulnerable families can afford to educate their daughters. 5.Promote girls’ participation and leadership in disaster risk education through school-based community learning and development projects
1.All new hospitals and health facilities need to be hazard-resistant, and existing health facilities must be assessed and retrofitted if necessary. 2.Train and drill maternal and primary health workers and hospital workers in disaster preparedness 3.Ensure safe, hazard-resistant water supply 4.Reduce poverty and hunger in drought-vulnerable rural areas through drought risk reduction focused on crop management, water management and income diversification. 5.Increase women’s disaster preparedness and disaster risk reduction capabilities through gender-sensitive education and community leadership BACKGROUND – DRR AN INSTRUMENT FOR MDGs– MDG 4, 5 & 6 - 5 PRIORITY AREAS
BACKGROUND – DRR AN INSTRUMENT FOR MDGs – MDG 7 - 5 PRIORITY AREAS 1.Use disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation arguments to promote better environmental management. 2.Increase rural drought resilience. 3.Pilot and roll out good practices in disaster risk reduction for urban slum dwellers. 4.Mainstream disaster risk reduction into urban development, particularly focusing on land-use planning, construction and water and sanitation. 5.Assess and, if necessary, retrofit water and sewage infrastructure to make it resistant to earthquakes, landslides and floods,
BACKGROUND – DRR AN INSTRUMENT FOR MDGs – MDG 8 - 5 PRIORITY AREAS 1.Get political momentum behind binding international targets on disaster risk reduction, using climate change adaptation targets already set 2.Target direct / multilateral development aid towards investment in disaster risk reduction in order to get the best value for the development dollar. 3.Mobilize broad partnerships that bring together many sectors, developing and developed countries alike, garnering their political support 4.Transfer technology from governments and private enterprises to vulnerable countries and communities so as to support the best early warning systems and hazard-resistant construction methods 5.Initiate dialogues between developed and least developed countries on debt swaps for investment in disaster risk reduction.
METHODOLOGY Factors Contributing to Vulnerability Economic (Income, Employment, Household Assets, Finance and Savings, Budget and Subsidy) Institutional (Mainstreaming of DRR & CCA effectiveness of city institutions to respond, effectiveness of prevention and correction policies, collaboration with other organizations, good governance) Natural (Severity and frequency of natural hazards, availability of eco-system services, land-use in natural terms, environmental policy and food security) Physical (Electricity, Water, Sanitation and Waste Disposal, Accessibility of roads, Housing, Landuse) Social (Population, Health, Education and Awareness, Social Capital, Community Preparedness During a Disaster)
METHODOLOGY– TEN ESSENTIALS FOR MAKING CITIES MORE RESILIENT 1.Put in place organization and coordination to understand and reduce disaster risk 2.Assign a budget for disaster risk reduction and provide incentives for homeowners, low income stakeholders 3.Maintain up to date data on hazards and vulnerabilities. Prepare risk assessments to inform urban plans 4.Invest in and maintain critical infrastructure that reduces risk, such as flood drainage 5.Assess the safety of all schools and health facilities and upgrade these as necessary.
METHODOLOGY– TEN ESSENTIALS FOR MAKING CITIES MORE RESILIENT 6.Apply and enforce realistic, risk compliant building regulations and land use planning principles 7.Ensure that education programmes and training on disaster risk reduction are in place in schools and local communities. 8.Protect ecosystems and natural buffers to mitigate floods, storm surges and other hazards 9.Install early warning systems and emergency management capacities in your city 10.After any disaster, ensure that the needs of the affected population are placed at the centre of reconstruction, with support for them and their community organizations.
NATIONAL SITUATION ANALYSIS – AQABA, JORDAN– NATIONAL POLICIES ON DRR Master plan for land use in Jordan Earthquake resistance building code Task force for monitoring building construction – GAM Environment Conservation Law EIAs Temporary Public Health Law Municipalities Law No. (29) for 1955 and its amendments National Disaster and Emergency Risk Management Plan (NDRMP) issued in 2004
NATIONAL SITUATION ANALYSIS – AQABA, JORDAN – NATIONAL INSTITUTIONS ON DRR Higher Council of Civil Defence (HCCD) and its committees in the administrative divisions are responsible for implementing the actions identified in the plan Earthquake resistance building code Three subcommittees: media, relief and earthquake The relief and earthquake committees have developed detailed terms of reference
NATIONAL SITUATION ANALYSIS – AQABA, JORDAN – LEGISLATION REVIEW Proposed a suggestion for drawing up a disaster management law (the higher commission law for managing disasters) Tasks of the commission: – Control disaster management in all stages – Achieve consistency and integration among all ministries, public and private institutions – Optimal use of capabilities and resources Law yet to be passed
NATIONAL SITUATION ANALYSIS – BEIRUT, LEBANON – PREVIOUS DISASTERS DisasterDate Affected Population Deaths Flooding in the Abu Ali River in Tripoli 1955 Exact figure Unknown but estimated in thousands 200 Earthquake in Srifa 1956120 Storm 198339 Threshold TypeThreshold Limit Mortality threshold 30 people killed Houses Destroyed Threshold 600 houses destroyed
NATIONAL SITUATION ANALYSIS – BEIRUT, LEBANON – NATIONAL POLICIES High Relief Committee Disaster Risk Management Unit Public Safety Decree for Earthquakes and Fires National landuse Master Plan for Lebanon Law of Municipalities Environment Protection Law Civil Defense Law
NATIONAL SITUATION ANALYSIS – BEIRUT, LEBANON – NATIONAL INSTITUTIONS High Relief Committee Civil Defense Lebanese Army CDR Ministry of Environment Ministry of Public Works and transportation
NATIONAL SITUATION ANALYSIS – BEIRUT, LEBANON – LEGISLATION REVIEW Proposed a suggestion for drawing up a disaster management law Proposed draft national strategy for disaster risk management Yet to be approved
NATIONAL SITUATION ANALYSIS – DJIBOUTI CITY, DJIBOUTI - HAZARDS Drought Flash floods Earthquakes Volcanism Climate change and rising sea levels Epidemics
NATIONAL SITUATION ANALYSIS – DJIBOUTI CITY, DJIBOUTI – NATIONAL POLICIES National Strategy for disaster risk management in Djibouti Law No. 140 which set the national policy for disaster risk management in Djibouti which was issued in 2006 National environment protection plan National plan for climate change adaptation Seismic code National housing and landuse plan
NATIONAL SITUATION ANALYSIS – DJIBOUTI CITY, DJIBOUTI – NATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The Executive Secretary for Disaster Risk Management is mandated to carry out all tasks related to disaster risk management, as per Decree 2006, 0192/PR/MID Institutional Framework for Disaster Risk Management, 2006 Prior to this law the Civil Protection was mandated to carry out tasks related to disaster risk management as per decree Directorate of Habitat and Urbanism within the Ministry of Habitat, Urbanism and Environment Directorate of Environment within the Ministry of Habitat, Urbanism and Environment
NATIONAL SITUATION ANALYSIS – DJIBOUTI CITY, DJIBOUTI – LEGISLATION REVIEW One of the main challenges is the need to reform the Executive Secretariat and empower it to become capable of performing all its tasks related to DRM. To this end, a reorganization of the Executive Secretariat to become a fully functional unit has been proposed. This proposal is currently under review by the government.
A TALE OF THREE CITIES Similar in one main issue: on the coast, with a port having an important (current and for the future) very important role to the national economy Ports compete for trade and cities compete for investment Port is relied upon by different industries within the country and in other countries There was another port, just like that….
LEGISLATION AND INSTITUTIONS NEED TO EVOLVE Unprecedented levels of increased urban population, coupled with increased urban poverty Economic challenges including the fiscal gap between municipalities Social challenges including lack of access to basic urban services, housing and employment Urban environmental challenges Spatial challenges related to urban fragmentation and segregation Political and institutional challenges related to good governance and participation
LESSONS APPLICABLE TO OTHER ARAB CITIES (TO INFORM MAYOR’S DECLARATION) Governance – Two way communication (not simply disseminate information or raise awareness on initiatives) – Urban risk governance frameworks – Forums to facilitate urban risk governance – Who decides about high risk and time scale to reduce risk (or not to do anything)? A person? A position in public sector or a consultant / advisor? Are they known? Are they accountable? Risk Assessments – Social, economic, physical, natural and institutional factors – Future hazards (effect of climate change on cities, effect of rising sea levels) – May help to incorporate DRR into development
LESSONS APPLICABLE TO OTHER ARAB CITIES (TO INFORM MAYOR’S DECLARATION) Risk Management – A truly balanced portfolio of corrective, prospective and compensatory approaches – Corrective means addressing: illegal settlements, high slum to urban ratios, slums just outside city? – A truly balanced portfolio between retain and reduce, insure and reinsure and transfer to capital market through disaster bonds – A truly balanced portfolio between extensive and intensive Knowledge and Awareness Raising – Link research outputs to public and private sectors
LESSONS APPLICABLE TO OTHER ARAB CITIES (TO INFORM MAYOR’S DECLARATION) Bridging the Urban Divide (Urban perspective) – Identify and reform exclusionary planning practices, regulations and administrative procedures – Commit to inclusive development and acknowledge right of city to all its citizens, including the poor and the marginalized by addressing root causes of poverty and social exclusion, such as slum improvement, infrastructure development and improving access of low-income groups to basic public services (reduce social, physical and economic factors contributing to vulnerability)
LESSONS APPLICABLE TO OTHER ARAB CITIES (TO INFORM MAYOR’S DECLARATION) Bridging the Urban Divide (Holistic Inclusive Development Policies) – Recent review of MDGs (2011) identified gaps in approach towards achieving MDGs (parallel with HFA?), due to compartmentalization – Recognize the five essential dimensions of the development process (social, economic, environmental, political and cultural) – A result of the contribution to all stakeholders, hence need for a participatory approach in the decision making process
LESSONS APPLICABLE TO OTHER ARAB CITIES (TO INFORM MAYOR’S DECLARATION) Bridging the Urban Divide (Inclusive Social Development Policies) – Employment policies as a tool of convergence between social and economic policies (tool for reducing economic factors contributing to DRR vulnerability) – Affordable and safe water and wastewater, education and housing services (tool for reducing physical factors contributing to DRR vulnerability) – Cross sectoral policies (women, youth, community, etc) as a tool for promoting dialogue and inclusion leading to true effective participation (tool for reducing institutional factors contributing to DRR vulnerability)
LESSONS APPLICABLE TO OTHER ARAB CITIES (TO INFORM MAYOR’S DECLARATION) Bridging the Urban Divide (Inclusive Economies) – Pro-poor, pro-job creation economies with social protection for the most vulnerable (identified in GAR 2011 as a tool for reducing economic factors contributing to DRR vulnerability) – Broad-based economies capable of continuously expanding the groupings benefiting from it (regions, sectors, enterprise sizes) (tool for reducing economic, social and institutional factors contributing to DRR vulnerability) – Economy able to reduce differences (in incomes, between regions, urban and rural, men and women, other gender dimensions) - (tool for reducing economic, social and institutional factors contributing to DRR vulnerability)
URBAN RISK GOVERNANCE Its not an exclusive western idea Plato (347 BC) spoke about the just city-state Al-Farabi (950) spoke about the characteristics of the just city state - ‘ المعلم الثاني ’ Ibn-Khaldun (1332-1382) spoke extensively about the development of urbanism and just cities
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