Presentation on theme: "POLITICAL VIOLENCE AT THE INCA EMPIRE BASED IN SKELETAL ALFREDO J. ALTAMIRANO-ENCISO Research of OSWALDO CRUZ FOUNDATION, Rio de Janeiro POLITICAL VIOLENCE."— Presentation transcript:
POLITICAL VIOLENCE AT THE INCA EMPIRE BASED IN SKELETAL ALFREDO J. ALTAMIRANO-ENCISO Research of OSWALDO CRUZ FOUNDATION, Rio de Janeiro POLITICAL VIOLENCE AT THE INCA EMPIRE BASED IN SKELETAL Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas IPEC - FIOCRUZ FIOCRUZ ALFREDO J. ALTAMIRANO-ENCISO Research of OSWALDO CRUZ FOUNDATION, Rio de Janeiro
INTRODUCTION Th inca empire or Tawantinsuyo was the most great civilization of New World that expanded for more six andean countries: Argentina, Chile, Bolivia, Perú, Ecuador and Colombia during 1460-1532 d.C.. They spoke the quíchua, aymara, quignam, muchik and others languages. Beginning in Cusco place with the Ayarmaca and Killke, between XII-XIII centuries, across a political of competence and fight by the control of new lands for agriculture. Their experience in wars was complemented by reciprocity and redistribution. Peoples conquered were anexed at inca empire like mitmaq (prisioners) to build cities, roads, bridge, and disturb several populations to diferent parts of andean world. The ritual of sacrifice camelids and guinea pig was due frequently in those works. In the Rimac valley lived the Ichmas or Ichimay people. Paleopatological studies in human skulls of Makat-Tampu, Zapán, Limatambo and Ancón sites revel that had a political violence (VP) in central coast. It was incremented by introduction of mitmaq Huarochiri and Canta. The control of Rimac valley was always appreciated by highlanders since Early Intermiddle period (100-700 d.C.). Conflicts between yungas and highlanders occurred frequently in the valley by control of good lands a abundant water.
THE INCA EMPIRE OR TAWANTINSUYO, XIV- XVI centuries a.C.
TRADITIONAL HIPOTHESIS Según los documentos históricos hispanos revela que la costa central, especificamente el valle del Rímac, fue ocupado por los Ichmas o Ichimay, habitantes de los valles Lurin y Rimac, y subjugados em forma pacifica por Tupac Yupanqui em 1470 proque el dios Pachacamac era similar al dios Wiracocha (Espinoza 1990; Rostworowski 1978, 1992). Además, el valle era fertil, tenía muchos canales de riego y vivian mas de 150 mil habitantes (Rowe 1956, Shady 1984). La conquista del valle del Rímac fue dificil y se libraron constantes conflictos entre los ichmas y mitmaq-Huarochiri. Tensión que crecia por el control de los canales de irrigación del valle. Este stress y la fundación de tambos como Makat-tampu, Limatambo, Armatambo e Ichmatampu (en Pachacamac) era parte de la violencia politica (VP) practicado por los incas en el valle bajo del Rimac y Lurin. MODERN PALEOPATOLOGICAL HIPOTHESIS
INCA MUMMY FROM ARMATAMBO, RIMAC VALLEY, LIMA, MUSEUM OF ARCHEOLOGY OF UNMSM LOCALIZATION OF MAKAT-TAMPU ON THE CENTRAL COAST, RIMAC VALLEY, PERU, before Incas arrived
THE MATERIAL Between 1999-2000, were analyzed 241 skulls from Makat-Tampu, site (Lima). It is deposited in the Museo Nacional de Arqueologia, Antropologia and Historia (MNHAA) of Lima, Peru. The material was excavated by Toribio Mexia Xesspe in 1945. In 1951, it was studied by Mary F. Ericksen. Actually, this material is in Physical Anthropological Laboratory of MNHAA. The preservation is good.
METHODOLOGY: Age determination of the skull - Dental eruption -Skull sutures -Fusion of fontanelas -Fusion of basilar suture -Osteons Gener determination of the skull Lateral eminences of frontal -Superciliar Arch -Malar bone constitution -Canine form -Zigomatic arch constitution -Petross portion os temporal -Elevation of nasal bone
DIRECT METHOD: Paleopatological study Sífilis e modelação tabular ereta, cráneo de Paracas, Ica (Peru) Hiperostose porótica (Anemia) e modelação fronto-ocipital, Costa Central, Peru
RESEARCHING MUMMIES AND SKULLS WITH TRAUMATIC BONE LESIONS (MNAAH, Perú)
Results The skeletal material was well preserved and 9 men and 2 women, aged up to 30 years (4.56% of the skulls), had peri and pre-mortem nasal, frontal, and parietal fractures.
Results -11 cases (4,56%): 9 men and 2 women adults with nasal and frontal lesions with trrauma skulls. N= 142, n = 11 cases. -The deformation os skull indicates that they were people procedent of the Lima highland perhaps Huarochiri or Canta people.
ARMAS LITICAS INCAS QUE IMPACTARON LOS CRANEOS ICHIMAY, MAKAT-TAMPU, PERU, 1470-1532 d.C.
CIRURGICAL OPERATION OF SKULL AT PARACAS SOCIETY (1.000-800 B.C.)
COMPARISON WITH THE ICONOGRAPHY OF NORTH COAST, MOCHICA POTTERY
EVOLUTION OF LITIC PROJECTIL POINT, RIMAC VALLEY (Between 10.000 - 1.000 a.C.)
PARALELOS: PACATNAMÚ, PERU, MASACRE DE GUERREROS CHIMU, 1.100-1.300 d.C. (Verano 1995)
VIOLENCE AT MOCHE SOCIETY Centuries I-VII a.C., Beginning of Mitmaq
RECONSTRUCTION OF TRAUMA SKULL FROM MAKAT-TAMPU USING MOCHE ART AND STONE CIRCULAR LITIC
PRISIONERS: MOCHE CULTURE I-VII Centuries A.C., ORIGIN OF MITMAQ
INCA POLITICAL VIOLENCE BY HUAMAN POMA (1616)
LA LLEGADA DE LOS ESPAÑOLES, 1532 d.C., MUERTE DE ATAHUALPA Y LA CAIDA DEL IMPERIO INCA
CONCLUSIONS -The skeletal material was well preserved and 9 men and 2 women, aged up to 30 years (4.56% of the skulls), had peri and pre-mortem nasal, frontal, and parietal fractures. Its were fractured by violence causa during inca installation at central coast of Rimac valley. -The deformation os skull indicates that they were people procedent of the highland perhaps Huarochiri or Canta people. They were mitmaq. -The depression of frontal is an indicator that it was did by litic instrument like porra or macana. -Others village like Makat-tampu, Limatampu, Zapan, Macas and Huarochiri are indicators of the political violence during the inca administration. -Mitmaq were the people with most stress (strangers) introduced in new regions to inca occupation.
THE COLLAPSE OF INCA EMPIRE EXTERNAL FACTORS : INTRODUCTION F VIRAL DISEASES OF OLD WORLD: Smallpox, measless, syphilis, cold, typhoid fever, pneumoy, peste. Great mortality of population and dead about 95%. CATEQUIZATION AND SANTA INQUISITION THE DEAD OF ATAHUALPA INCA (23/11/1532) ANDEAN PEOPLE WERE BURNED INTERNAL FATORS : terrorisms, rebelions, treasons, economic crises, sacks, etc.
ACKNOWLEDMENTS To Dr. Mauro Célio de A. Marzochi, physician, especialist in leishmaniasis (assessor teacher). to Dr. João Soares Moreira, otorrinolaringologist, especialist in leishmaniasis of faringe (co-orientador). to Dra. Keyla Feldman Marzochi, directora do IPEC/Fiocruz, by his constant help during of developing of research. At ENSP, to Dra. Sheila Mendonça de Souza, physician and the first specialist in brazilian paleopathology. To all members of the National Reference Center in Leishmaniases of Evandro Chagas Clinical Institute at FIOCRUZ. Part of this estudy was realized between 1999-2000, to prepare my doctoral thesis.