Presentation on theme: "CONQUEST OF THE INCAS Francisco Pizarro “Pizarro going to Peru” Scene from a frieze decorating the US Capitol building painted in 1880."— Presentation transcript:
CONQUEST OF THE INCAS Francisco Pizarro “Pizarro going to Peru” Scene from a frieze decorating the US Capitol building painted in 1880.
Francisco Pizarro BACKGROUND Pizarro was born in Trujillo, Spain in 1474. In 1502 he traveled to Hispaniola (modern day DR and Haiti) and later joined an expedition to Panama in 1519
Pizarro’s FIRST expedition Rumors about a wealthy empire south of Panama encouraged Pizarro and two partners to embark on an expedition in the conquistador tradition. The first expedition was unsuccessful.
Who are the Conquistadors? Conquistadors were Spanish explorers and warriors who successfully conquered much of America in the 16th century. Their goal was to conquer and claim wealth, gold and glory for Spain
Pizarro’s SECOND expedition The second expedition brought Pizarro to a northern outpost of the Inca Empire: Tumbes Pizarro took 3 Inca youths that he planned to train as interpreters.
Pizarro’s THIRD expedition For his third trip, Spain named him the Governor of Peru. Pizarro sailed to Tumbes with 180 men in order to claim the Incan Empire.
Inca Civil War When Pizarro arrived in Tumbes, he found that the Inca were engaged in civil war and suffering from a smallpox epidemic. The Inca leader at the time (Huayna Capac) and his heir died from the disease, leaving a power vacuum. The emperor’s two sons claimed his throne: Atahualpa and his brother Huascar.
Atahualpa wins Atahualpa controlled his father’s army and camped in modern- day Ecuador and Colombia. Huascar controlled Cuzco (he was selected to lead the Inca). They went to war with each other
Effects of the War on the Inca Economy destroyed Cities ravaged Population killed in battle Weak command structure. Enter Pizarro…
Pizarro’s Arrival The Inca did not see Pizarro as a threat The Inca had never seen horse before, and they did not recognize the steel weapons as threatening. Pizarro set a trap that captured Atahualpa
Atahualpa’s Ransom Atahualpa incorrectly assumed the Spanish just wanted to raid the Inca Empire for gold, not conquest. Atahualpa offered a ransom for his release: 13,420 pounds of gold and 26,000 pounds of silver. Pizarro’s accepted…but when the money came, he changed his mind about freeing Atahualpa
Atahualpa’s Death Pizarro’s partners recommended Atahualpa’s execution in fear that the Inca’s would rally in support of their fallen leader. Pizarro was convinced, and executed him in August 1533.
Pizarro’s Next Step After executing Atahualpa, Pizarro marched to Cuzco and defeated the remaining Atahualpa forces. Pizarro consolidated control, and in 1535, he established the new city of Lima.
Internal Division Pizarro’s chief ally and partner, Almagro, turned against him. Pizarro’s brother ordered Almagro’s execution after a quick battle in Cuzco ended in Pizarro’s favor. As retribution, Almagro’s family assassinated Pizarro in 1541.
Spanish response to the violence Spain stepped in and appointed Christobal Vaca de Castro as the new Governor of Peru, and with the aid of Pizarro loyalists, ended the political crisis in the conquered Inca Empire.
Effects on the Inca – Key Points The Inca population declined due to illness and disease. Many of those remaining were enslaved. Many aspects of Inca culture were systematically destroyed as cities and towns were pillaged, resulting in the loss of vast amounts of traditional artwork, craft, and architecture. The introduction of Christianity greatly impacted the art of the region, which began to reflect Christian themes alongside and in place of traditional Inca designs.