Presentation on theme: "CARVING UP AFRICA. THE RACE FOR THE COLONIES The Nations of the world competed fiercely for colonies The fiercest competition took place on the continent."— Presentation transcript:
CARVING UP AFRICA
THE RACE FOR THE COLONIES The Nations of the world competed fiercely for colonies The fiercest competition took place on the continent of Africa In 1875 European powers controlled only 10 percent of Africa This was mostly around sea ports
CONTINUED The race for colonies in Africa started in 1879 when Henry Stanley claimed most of the Congo River Valley This action alarmed the other European powers France was the first to respond to the Belgian claim They soon claimed the north bank of the Congo River
CONTINUED… Soon after that other European nations were claiming parts of Africa Africa seemed especially valuable to those nations that did not previously had an empire As the European powers claimed more and more of Africa tensions started to rise These tensions nearly lead to war
CONTINUED… To avoid war the Imperial Powers met in Berlin to lay out the rules for the division of Africa They agreed that to claim land the nation must station troops in strategic locations to control the area By 1913 over 90% of Africa was controlled by European powers
NATIONAL INTEREST The establishment of the ground rules and the dependence the European powers had on the colonies raw materials and markets led to the colonies being protected It also led to seizure of valuable lands from other powers The use of force became acceptable to guarantee economic prosperity
CONTINUED This was especially true of the Suez Canal The Suez Canal was built between the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea by a French company This canal drastically shortened the journey to the east As India was Britain's largest market for goods it was especially important to them
CONTINUED Protecting the canal became a major part of British foreign policy When fighting erupted in Egypt in 1882 the British sent in their troops They shortly took control of all of Egypt making it a protectorate The British then turned their attention on Sudan
THE SUEZ CANAL Europeans had relatively little interest in Egypt until 1859, when the French began building the Suez Canal. Ali had opposed construction of a canal to link the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. He feared that such a canal would increase European interest in Egypt because it would cut thousands of miles off the trip from Europe to Asia. His successors approved the project.
AFRICAN RESISTANCE Europeans used persuasion, force, and bribery to convince African rulers to sign agreements giving them economic and political rights. Europeans often ignored the agreements and simply took what they wanted. African rulers resisted, well-armed troops were sent in to crush them. Still, Many African rulers vigorously opposed European expansion.