2Before European Domination 1,000 different languagesHundreds of ethnic groupsLarge empires to small independent villages.
3Problems Discourage Exploration ArmiesRiversDiseaseSpecialized trade networks controlled by the Africans.
4Nations Compete for Overseas Empires Europeans that did enter into the interior of Africa.MissionariesExplorersHumanitarians
5The CongoHenry Stanley helps Leopold II of Belgium acquire land in CongoPrimary motive = end slaveryReality:Brutal forced labor in rubber sap industry.Belgian government takes over colonyEuropean nations begin to claim parts of Africa
6Forces Driving Imperialism Belief in European SuperiorityNational prideEach colony was viewed as a measure of greatness.Racism:Many Europeans believed that they were better than other peoples.
7Social Darwinism Social Theory: “survival of the fittest” Non-Europeans were on the lower scale of cultural and physical development because they had not made scientific and technological progress.Europeans had the right and duty to bring progress to other countries.
8Factors Promoting Imperialism Technological superiority:Steam engine and Maxim gunPerfection of the drug Quinine protects from malaria.Within Africa, Africans are divided by language and culture.
9The Division of Africa Began in 1880 Diamonds & gold increased interest.De Beers Consolidated Mines is the biggest diamond company in the world today.
10Berlin Conference Divides Africa: 14 nations agree on rules and division.Any European country could claim land and prove the ability to control it.Divisions made with little or nor regard to how it would effect the linguistic groups or ethnic groups of Africa1914: Liberia * Ethiopia are free from European control
27British East India Company Economic Control1600sBritish East India Company1858, leading power in India
28“Jewel in the Crown” Major supplier of raw materials 300 million peopleLarge potential marketMOST VALUABLE OF ALL COLONIES!!
29Expanding Control Beginning of 19th century little control East India Company only usedSepoys:Indian SoldiersStanding ArmyLead by British Officers
30Build up to MUTINY 1850—most of India under British control Pockets of discontentTacking landConverting to ChristianityEconomic Problems on the increase
31SEPOY MUTINY 1857- Gossip Cartridges were for their guns greased with PORK & BEEF FATTo use --- soldiers bite off the ends
32REACTION Hindus & Muslims Sepoys refuse cartridges. WHY DID THEY REFUSE????All soldiers were jailed.REBELLION BREAKS OUT!!
33OUTCOME East India company took 1 year to control. Britain sent troops to help.Indians were defeated due to:Lack of unificationWeak leadershipSplits between Hindus & MuslimsNO MUGAHAL EMPIRE!!RAJ: British policy of direct control over India from
34Impact of Colonialism Positive: Negative: World largest railroad network builtTelephone linesIrrigation, sanitation, schoolsNegative:Restricted India industriesLack of self-efficiencyReduction in food productionRacist attitudes (CASTE SYSTEM)
35Nationalism Groups form: Indian National Congress Muslim League Self government