Presentation on theme: "Scramble for Africa Chapter 27. Before European Domination 1,000 different languages Hundreds of ethnic groups Large empires to small independent villages."— Presentation transcript:
Scramble for Africa Chapter 27
Before European Domination 1,000 different languages Hundreds of ethnic groups Large empires to small independent villages.
Problems Discourage Exploration Armies Rivers Disease Specialized trade networks controlled by the Africans.
Nations Compete for Overseas Empires Europeans that did enter into the interior of Africa. –Missionaries –Explorers –Humanitarians
The Congo Henry Stanley helps Leopold II of Belgium acquire land in Congo –Primary motive = end slavery –Reality: Brutal forced labor in rubber sap industry. Belgian government takes over colony European nations begin to claim parts of Africa
Forces Driving Imperialism Belief in European Superiority –National pride –Each colony was viewed as a measure of greatness. Racism: –Many Europeans believed that they were better than other peoples.
Social Darwinism Social Theory: “survival of the fittest” –Non-Europeans were on the lower scale of cultural and physical development because they had not made scientific and technological progress. –Europeans had the right and duty to bring progress to other countries.
Factors Promoting Imperialism Technological superiority: –Steam engine and Maxim gun Perfection of the drug Quinine protects from malaria. Within Africa, Africans are divided by language and culture.
The Division of Africa Began in 1880 Diamonds & gold increased interest. –De Beers Consolidated Mines is the biggest diamond company in the world today.
Berlin Conference Divides Africa: –14 nations agree on rules and division. –Any European country could claim land and prove the ability to control it. –Divisions made with little or nor regard to how it would effect the linguistic groups or ethnic groups of Africa –1914: Liberia * Ethiopia are free from European control
Europeans Claim Muslim Lands
Ottoman Empire Hungary in the north Around the Black Sea Across Egypt all the way to the borders of Morocco
Geopolitics An interest in or taking of land for –Strategic location –Products Ottomans controlled access to the Mediterranean and Atlantic Sea trade.
Russia Grain traders wanted access to the Black Sea. How were they going to get the land?
Waging War Russian Czars launched a war on the Ottomans. Purpose: –Gain land on the Black Sea –Warm water Port!!
Crimean War Peninsula in the Black Sea France & Britain join forces with Ottomans Russia is defeated Ottomans continue to lose land after victory due to military weaknesses.
The Great Game Russia & Britain fight over India War in Afghanistan –Great Britain withdrew –Russia signed non aggression pact with Afghanistan, broke in 1979.
Suez Canal Isma’il –Supported modernization of Egypt Constructed the Suez Canal –Cuts through the Isthmus of Suez –Connects the Red Sea to the Mediterranean.
FINANCIAL AID Project supported by money mainly from France. Egyptian Labor used in construction
British Take Over Egypt unable to pay back debt to foreign banks. Britain takes over financial control of canal.
British Imperialism in India Sec. 4 Chapter 27
Economic Control 1600s British East India Company –1858, leading power in India
“Jewel in the Crown” Major supplier of raw materials 300 million people –Large potential market MOST VALUABLE OF ALL COLONIES!!
Expanding Control Beginning of 19 th century little control East India Company only used –Sepoys: Indian Soldiers Standing Army –Lead by British Officers
Build up to MUTINY 1850—most of India under British control –Pockets of discontent Tacking land Converting to Christianity Economic Problems on the increase
SEPOY MUTINY –Gossip –Cartridges were for their guns greased with PORK & BEEF FAT –To use --- soldiers bite off the ends
REACTION Hindus & Muslims Sepoys refuse cartridges. –WHY DID THEY REFUSE???? All soldiers were jailed. REBELLION BREAKS OUT!!
OUTCOME East India company took 1 year to control. –Britain sent troops to help. Indians were defeated due to: –Lack of unification –Weak leadership –Splits between Hindus & Muslims NO MUGAHAL EMPIRE!! RAJ: British policy of direct control over India from
Impact of Colonialism Positive: –World largest railroad network built –Telephone lines –Irrigation, sanitation, schools Negative: –Restricted India industries –Lack of self-efficiency –Reduction in food production –Racist attitudes (CASTE SYSTEM)
Nationalism Groups form: Indian National Congress Muslim League –Self government