Presentation on theme: "Canada At War Introduction Phase 1: September 1939 to June 1940"— Presentation transcript:
1Canada At War Introduction Phase 1: September 1939 to June 1940 Phase 2: June 1940 to July 1943Phase 3: July 1943 to June 1944Phase 4: June 1944 to September 1945
2CANADA: SHOULD WE GO TO WAR? WWI- When Britain declared war, Canada was automatically at war.Statute of Westminster (1931)- made Canada independent of British Foreign Policy.It was up to Canada to decide whether to enter WWII.
3The Prime Minister at the time was William Lyon Mackenzie King. His compromise was to support Britain fully with war materials and a small volunteer army.Canada declared war on Germany on September 10, 1939.
4Review and Reflect (p. 105) Copy and Answer: 1) Why do some historians suggest that the root cause of the Second World War lay in the terms of the Treaty of Versailles?2) In 1914, when war was declared, there was widespread celebration. There was no celebration in September Why not? Support your answers.
6PHASE 1: September 1939 to June 1940 Became known as the Phony War because very little happened in Europe after Germany invaded Poland.ALLIANCES:ALLIES:AXIS:BritainFranceCommonwealthGermanyU.S.S.R.Italy
7PHASE 1: Global ContextTHE MAGINOT LINE: was a line of concrete fortifications, tank obstacles, artillery, machine gun posts, and other defenses, to defend against another German attack. (WWI)
8BLITZKRIEG: German for “lightning war”, was a tactic used by the Germans in which they used tanks, aircraft, and infantry to quickly break through Allied defenses.
9The French and British set up armies in Belgium…they were defeated by the German blitzkrieg. The Maginot Line became ineffective as the Germans simply went around it.France surrendered to Germany in a little over a month.
10PHASE 1 Canada’s Contribution 1. Send more than a small army Send Navy and air force 2. Merchant marines: ships that send supplies to England. They sailed the ships that took supplies to Europe. German U-boats, battleships 3. BCATP- British Commonwealth Air Training Program…pilots! 4. William Lyon Mackenzie King
115. His policy…send small volunteer army, and send supplies to Europe 5. His policy…send small volunteer army, and send supplies to Europe. This would avoid the large number of causalities coming home from the war. After the news of the English and French defeat Canada changes its position and moves to a Total War position. 6. NMRA-National Resource Mobilization Act…Canada was to put all of its resources towards the war effort in Europe. This is passed after the defeat of England and France
18Phase 2: Canada’s Contribution 1. Battle of the Atlantic2. Hong Kong3. Dieppe
19BATTLE OF THE ATLANTIC What countries were helping the convoy? Canada, Britain and the United StatesWhat helped decrease the number of boats lost to German U-boats?Effective anti-submarine tactics and weaponsWhat were the Merchant Marines doing?Carrying war materials to Britain and the Soviet UnionWhy was this important?These were essential to Allied war effort.What were the Germans trying to do?They were trying to sink the Allied convoys
20BATTLES: HONG KONG DIEPPE Took place in Hong Kong in December of 1941. Of the 1975 soldiers defending the colony, 290 were killed and 1685 became POWs…of which 260 died.Took place in Dieppe, a French port in 1942.4963 Canadians tool part.900 were killed and more than 1900 became POWs.
21Canada At War Introduction Phase 1: September 1939 to June 1940 Phase 2: June 1940 to July 1943Phase 3: July 1943 to June 1944Phase 4: June 1944 to September 1945
22Phase 3: Global ContextAfter Allied victories, the balance of the war shifted in their favor.From 1943 onward, the Allies were on the offensive.
23ISLAND HOPPINGThis was the technique used by the U.S. military to push back the Japanese.
24German defeats:The Soviet Unions army was successful in pushing the Germans back to Berlin (Germany).The bombing of Germany increased.
25Phase 4: Global ContextThe final year of the war began with the Allied invasion of Europe.The name of the plan was Operation Overlord
26D Day Landings The landings in France are now called D-Day. The landings took place along a stretch of the Normandy coast divided into 5 sectors:Utah (USA)Omaha (USA)Gold (Britain)Juno (Canada)Sword (Britain)D Day Landings
27The operation was the largest single-day amphibious invasion in history- 130, 000 troops landed on June 6, 1944.VIDEO
28Significance: Germany was now forced to fight on two fronts: EAST vs. the Soviet UnionWEST vs. Canada, USA, and BritainGermany eventually collapsed
29Phase 4: Canada’s Contribution Why was planning so important for D-Day? Because sending troops to a defended coastline is one of the most difficult and dangerous military operations, as the raid on Dieppe had shown.What was the Canadian objective following the landing? The capture of the city of Caen, a road and rail centre.
30Why did it take so long?Because it was held by some of Germany’s best soldiers.What was the Canadian objective after the capture of Falaise? Why was this important?Ports needed to be captured and opened, because armies needed supplies, expecially fuel and munitions.
31What was the Canadian task after the port of Antwerp was captured? The Canadian Army was given the task of liberating the Netherlands.What was the Canadian role at the end of the war?They remained in northern Germany to participate in the return to peace.Airforce helped control the skies, and the Canadian Navy patrolled the North Atlantic.How many soldiers did Canada contribute to WWII? Over 1 million men and women