3Conditional sentences describe situations that occur (or do not occur) because of certain conditions.In conditional sentences, the clauses can come in either order.We place a comma after the if clause if it is comes first.We don’t generally place a comma after the result clause if it comes first.
5*** If + simple present + simple present Type 0We use this type of condition to express a universal truth.*** If + simple present + simple presente.g. If you freeze water, it becomes ice.If you heat snow, it melts.
6*** If + simple present + will verb1 Type 1This type of condition is used for present or future activities which are likely to happen.*** If + simple present + will verb1e.g. If he doesn’t hurry, he will be late.If we go by train, it will be cheaper.
7*** If + simple past + would verb1 Type 2The condition is used for present or future activities which are unlikely or impossible to happen.*** If + simple past + would verb1e.g. If I had enough money, I would lend you.If he was a bird, he would fly everywhere.
8*** If + past perfect + would have verb3 Type 3This is the only type of condition which deals with past situations. The action mentioned did not really happen.*** If + past perfect + would have verb3e.g. If it had rained yesterday, I would havestayed at home.
9Basic structures used in conditional sentences SituationIf ClauseMain ClauseTrue in the present / futureSimple presentSimple futureUntrue in the present / futureSimple pastWould + verb 1Untrue in the pastPast perfectWould + have verb 3
10EXERCISES 1. If I ___(be) stronger, I'd help you carry the piano. 2 EXERCISES 1. If I ___(be) stronger, I'd help you carry the piano If we'd seen you, we ___(stop). 3.If we ___(meet) him tomorrow, we'll say hello. 4.He would have repaired the car himself if he ___(have) the tools.
115. If you drop the vase, it ___(break). 6 5.If you drop the vase, it ___(break). 6.If you hadn’t studied, I ___(not pass) the exam. 7.I wouldn’t go to school by bus, if I ___(have) a driving licence. 8.If she ___(not see) him everyday, she’d be lovesick. Answers: 1)were 2)would have stopped 3)meet 4)had had 5)will break 6)would not have passed 7)had 8)didn’t see
12Mixed TypeThe times of the if clause and the result clause are sometimes different.Present unreal and past conditional forms can be “mixed” in the same sentence.e.g. If I hadn’t gone to college, I’d still beworking at the hardware store.
13Examples: If Sam were coming, he would have arrived by now. If you had planned things at the start, we wouldn’t get into a mess.If you hadn’t left all these dirty dishes, the place would look a bit tidier.If Jack was more sensible, he would have worn a suit to the interview.
14Actual situations Conditionals If Clause Result Clause past present He didn’t have children, so he is alone.pastpresentIf he had had children,he wouldn’t be alone.His memory is not good, so he didn’t buyhis medicine.If his memory were good,he would have bought his medicine.
15EXERCISES 1.Come before lunchtime if it ___ you. a)suits b)will suit c)suitedd)was to suite)had suited2.If we ___ double glazing on our windows, we ___on our heating bills.a)had / would saveb)have / are savingc)had had / saved)are having /savede)will have / can save
163.If he ___ how serious the situation is, he ___ around like that.a)should realize / hasn’t been foolingb)had realized / hasn’t fooledc)realized / wouldn’t be foolingd)could realize / wasn’t foolinge)realizes / wouldn’t have fooled4.If a replacement kidney ___ soon, the patient ___ .a)won’t have been found /diesb)wasn’t found / had diedc)hadn’t been found / was dyingd)wouldn’t have been found / diede)isn’t found / will die
175.A lot of people ___ in the explosion if the medical men ___ so promptly.a)are being killed / don’t actb)were being killed / haven’t been actingc)should have killed / didn’t actd)might have been killed / hadn’t actede)must be killing / aren’t acting6.What things ___ you ___ with you if you ___ strandedon a desert island?a)might / take / have beenb)would / take / were to bec)could / take / will bed)will / have taken / weree)did / take / could beAnswers: 1A-2A-3C-4E-5D-6B
19We often use unreal conditionals to express regret or sadness We often use unreal conditionals to express regret or sadness. In a similar way, we use wish + noun clause to express sadness or a desire for different situation. e.g. I wish (that) I had a better job (If I had a better job, I’d earn more.)
20a) wish + would / could To express a wish about the future. e. g a) wish + would / could To express a wish about the future. e.g. I wish you would change your mind about buying that house I wish she could visit us.
21b) wish + simple past To express a wish about the present. e. g b) wish + simple past To express a wish about the present. e.g. My wife wishes I helped her with the house work I wish I lived in a big city.
22c) wish + past perfect To express a wish about the past. e. g c) wish + past perfect To express a wish about the past. e.g. My son wishes he hadn’t taken that job I wish you had told me about the dance.
23Be careful. Don’t confuse wish and hope Be careful! Don’t confuse wish and hope. Use wish to express regrets about things that are unlikely or impossible to change. Use hope to express a desire about events that are possible. e.g. I wish she would accept my proposal (I don’t think she will.) I hope she will accept my proposal (It’s possible that she will.)
24If only has a meaning similar to that of wish ** If only has a meaning similar to that of wish. If only is followed by a noun clause without that. e.g. I wish (that) I were good at sports. If only I were good at sports. ** Use simple past after if only to express a wish about something that is contrary to fact at present. e.g. If only we weren’t so busy. ** Use past perfect after if only to express a wish that something had happened differently in the past. e.g. If only I hadn’t said that.
25Be careful. Don’t confuse if only with only if. e. g Be careful! Don’t confuse if only with only if. e.g. If only Jerry studied more ( = I wish he would study more.) Only if Jerry studied more would he have a chance of passing ( = This would be the only way for him to pass.)
26Basic Structures Used in Wish Clauses situationSubject + wishmain clauseA wish about the futurewould + verb1A wish about the presentverb2A wish about the pastverb3
27EXERCISES 1.What a beautiful view! I wish I (bring) ___ my camera with me.2.If only Mr. Blake (not, interrupt) ___ the speakerall the time, the presentation would have beenenjoyable.3.I quite like this flat, but I wish the people aboveus (not, be) ___ so noisy.4.If only I (have) ___ better eyesight.I can’t readanything now without my glasses.
285.I really wish you (stop) ___ whistling.It’s getting on my nerves. 6.I wish you (can, be) ___ at the party lastnight.You really enjoyed yourself.7.I wish you (can, see) ___ the look on myhusband’s face yesterday when he saw the colourI had painted the living room.Answers: 1)brought - 2)wouldn’t interrupt - 3)weren’t - 4)had -5)Stopped - 6)could have been - 7)could have seen
29EXERCISES 1.Everybody would have drowned if the boat ---- the quayside when it sank. A) must not have approached B) didn't approach C) hadn't been approaching D) hasn't approached E) wouldn't be approaching 2.My brother is sitting by the telephone wishing his girlfriend ---- him. A) calls B) has called C) will call D) would call E) is calling
303.I know Sibel wishes she ---- the horses with her friends, but she is too young. A) could ride B) would ride C) will be riding D) would have ridden E) has ridden 4.One day I ---- to visit my cousin in Australia if I can get three weeks off work. A) have liked B) had liked C) would like D) liked E) were to like
315.Later on today, I ---- a cake for tea if we---- all of the necessary ingredients , of course. A) would bake/were having B) will bake/have C) could have baked/had D) will have baked/have had E) were to have baked/would have 6.If people ---- any opium-related drug often enough, they ---- physically dependent, or addicted, to the drug. A) take/become B) took/became C) would take/had become D) were taking/may become E) are taking/have become Answers: 1C-2D-3A-4C-5B-6A