Presentation on theme: "The Effects of Antacids on Pepsin"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Effects of Antacids on Pepsin Madeleine FinkenaurThe Academy of Notre Dame
2 QuestionHow much do antacids interfere with the stomach’s ability to breakdown food proteins?
3 Background Information Food proteins are vital to the body and are broken down in the stomach by pepsinPepsin, a proteolytic enzyme in the stomach, requires a pH level of 1-3This acidity is obtained by hydrochloric acid(HCl), which is secreted by the stomachAntacids lower the acidity level of the stomach, making it difficult for food protein breakdown to occur
4 HypothesisThe antacids will slightly hinder the food protein breakdown process in the stomach.
5 Materials 1 ml of Pepsin Distilled water Single dose of Pepto-Bismol Single dose of Acid Reducer650 mg of NaHCO37 150 ml beakerselectronic pH probestirring battonmortar and pestle10 ml Graduated cylinderincubator at 37C.1 Molar HClSingle dose of Heartburn ReliefSingle dose of TUMS27 test tubes and holders27 small hard-boiled egg piecespH stripsscalepipetschemical spoon100 ml Graduated cylinder
6 ProcedureMake a 1% pepsin solution with 99mL of distilled water in a 150mL beakerMake a 1% hydrochloric acid solution with 99mL of distilled water in a 150mL beakerTake four test tubes and add 5mL of the pepsin solution and 5mL of distilled water in one, 5mL of the hydrochloric acid solution and 5mL of distilled water in another, 5mL of the pepsin solution and 5mL of the hydrochloric acid solution in the third test tube, and 10mL of distilled water in the last oneCrush a single dose of each antacid (TUMS, Pepto-Bismol, Acid Reducer, Heartburn Relief, and NaHCO3) separately with a mortar and pestle.Add each antacid to a 150mL beaker with 100mL of hydrochloric acid
7 ProcedureTake five more test tubes and fill each one with 5mL of the 1% pepsin solutionAdd 5mL of every one of the five antacid solutions to the five test tubes with the pepsin solution separatelyRecord the pH level of every test tubeCut a small piece of hard-boiled egg for each test tubes and record the mass of each egg pieceAdd the egg to every test tube and cover all the test tubesStore all the test tubes in an incubator at 37C for 48 hoursUncap all the test tubes after 48 hours and weigh the hard-boiled egg slices from each test tube and recordRepeat this procedure for three trials
8 Controls and Variables Pepsin + Distilled Water, HCl + Distilled Water, Distilled Water, Pepsin + HClIndependent VariableAntacids: TUMS, Pepto-Bismol, Acid Reducer, Hreatburn Relief, Sodium bicarbonate(NaHCO3)Dependent VariablesPercent of change in egg mass after the incubation period
11 Data Contents of Test Tube PH Level Distilled Water 6.5Pepsin + Distilled Water6HCl + Distilled Water1.5Pepsin + HClTUMSPepto-BismolAcid ReducerHeartburn ReliefNaHCO33
12 Data Antacid T-Test with Pepsin + HCl TUMS Pepto-Bismol Acid Reducer AntacidT-Test with Pepsin + HClTUMSPepto-BismolAcid ReducerHeartburn ReliefNaHCO3
13 Post-incubation HCl + Distilled Water and Pepsin + Distilled Water Pepsin + HCl and Distilled WaterNaHCO3Acid Reducer and Heartburn ReliefTUMS and Pepto-Bismol
14 ConclusionThe hypothesis for this experiment was partly supported and partly rejectedTUMS was ineffective in breaking down food protein because it had pH level of 6Pepto-Bismol was ineffective in breaking down food proteinAcid Reducer only had a mild amount of food protein breakdownHeartburn Relief was very effective in food protein breakdownNaHCO3 was ineffective in breaking down food protein
15 Conclusion Limitations Further Study Only tested 5 antacids out of manySome egg mass was lost when the egg was movedFurther StudyWhat are the effects of limited protein breakdown on the body?Do more acidic food increase pepsin’s ability to breakdown food protein?
16 ReferencesAmerican Society of Health-System Pharmacists. (2010). Bismuth Subsalicylate . Retrieved from National Center for Biotechnology Information database.Avraham, R. (2000). The Digestive System. Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers.Carpi, A., Ph.D. (n.d.). Introduction. In Acids and Bases. Retrieved 2003, from Visionlearning database.Gbemudu, A., PharmD. (n.d.). Antacid faq. In RxList [Fact sheet on Antacids]. Retrieved October 6, 2010, fromGillson, S. (2010, April 16). H2 Blockers. Retrieved from About.com database.Pali-Schöll, I., Herzog, R., Wallmann, J., Szalai, K., Brunner, R., Lukschal, A., Karagiannis, P., Diesner, S. C. and Jensen-Jarolim, E. (2010, July). Antacids and dietary supplements with an influence on the gastric pH increase the risk for food sensitization. Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 40(7), Abstract retrieved fromPepsin. (2008). Retrieved from The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition website:Sexton, T. (n.d.). History of Antacid. Retrieved July 17, 2008, from Health & Wellness database.