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The Effects of Antacids on Pepsin Madeleine Finkenaur The Academy of Notre Dame.

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Presentation on theme: "The Effects of Antacids on Pepsin Madeleine Finkenaur The Academy of Notre Dame."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Effects of Antacids on Pepsin Madeleine Finkenaur The Academy of Notre Dame

2 Question How much do antacids interfere with the stomachs ability to breakdown food proteins? How much do antacids interfere with the stomachs ability to breakdown food proteins?

3 Background Information Food proteins are vital to the body and are broken down in the stomach by pepsin Food proteins are vital to the body and are broken down in the stomach by pepsin Pepsin, a proteolytic enzyme in the stomach, requires a pH level of 1-3 Pepsin, a proteolytic enzyme in the stomach, requires a pH level of 1-3 This acidity is obtained by hydrochloric acid(HCl), which is secreted by the stomach This acidity is obtained by hydrochloric acid(HCl), which is secreted by the stomach Antacids lower the acidity level of the stomach, making it difficult for food protein breakdown to occur Antacids lower the acidity level of the stomach, making it difficult for food protein breakdown to occur

4 Hypothesis The antacids will slightly hinder the food protein breakdown process in the stomach. The antacids will slightly hinder the food protein breakdown process in the stomach.

5 Materials 1 ml of Pepsin 1 ml of Pepsin Distilled water Distilled water Single dose of Pepto-Bismol Single dose of Pepto-Bismol Single dose of Acid Reducer Single dose of Acid Reducer 650 mg of NaHCO3 650 mg of NaHCO3 7 150 ml beakers 7 150 ml beakers electronic pH probe electronic pH probe stirring batton stirring batton mortar and pestle mortar and pestle 10 ml Graduated cylinder 10 ml Graduated cylinder incubator at 37 C incubator at 37 C.1 Molar HCl.1 Molar HCl Single dose of Heartburn Relief Single dose of Heartburn Relief Single dose of TUMS Single dose of TUMS 27 test tubes and holders 27 test tubes and holders 27 small hard-boiled egg pieces 27 small hard-boiled egg pieces pH strips pH strips scale scale pipets pipets chemical spoon chemical spoon 100 ml Graduated cylinder 100 ml Graduated cylinder

6 Procedure Make a 1% pepsin solution with 99mL of distilled water in a 150mL beaker Make a 1% pepsin solution with 99mL of distilled water in a 150mL beaker Make a 1% hydrochloric acid solution with 99mL of distilled water in a 150mL beaker Make a 1% hydrochloric acid solution with 99mL of distilled water in a 150mL beaker Take four test tubes and add 5mL of the pepsin solution and 5mL of distilled water in one, 5mL of the hydrochloric acid solution and 5mL of distilled water in another, 5mL of the pepsin solution and 5mL of the hydrochloric acid solution in the third test tube, and 10mL of distilled water in the last one Take four test tubes and add 5mL of the pepsin solution and 5mL of distilled water in one, 5mL of the hydrochloric acid solution and 5mL of distilled water in another, 5mL of the pepsin solution and 5mL of the hydrochloric acid solution in the third test tube, and 10mL of distilled water in the last one Crush a single dose of each antacid (TUMS, Pepto- Bismol, Acid Reducer, Heartburn Relief, and NaHCO3) separately with a mortar and pestle. Crush a single dose of each antacid (TUMS, Pepto- Bismol, Acid Reducer, Heartburn Relief, and NaHCO3) separately with a mortar and pestle. Add each antacid to a 150mL beaker with 100mL of hydrochloric acid Add each antacid to a 150mL beaker with 100mL of hydrochloric acid

7 Procedure Take five more test tubes and fill each one with 5mL of the 1% pepsin solution Take five more test tubes and fill each one with 5mL of the 1% pepsin solution Add 5mL of every one of the five antacid solutions to the five test tubes with the pepsin solution separately Add 5mL of every one of the five antacid solutions to the five test tubes with the pepsin solution separately Record the pH level of every test tube Record the pH level of every test tube Cut a small piece of hard-boiled egg for each test tubes and record the mass of each egg piece Cut a small piece of hard-boiled egg for each test tubes and record the mass of each egg piece Add the egg to every test tube and cover all the test tubes Add the egg to every test tube and cover all the test tubes Store all the test tubes in an incubator at 37 C for 48 hours Store all the test tubes in an incubator at 37 C for 48 hours Uncap all the test tubes after 48 hours and weigh the hard-boiled egg slices from each test tube and record Uncap all the test tubes after 48 hours and weigh the hard-boiled egg slices from each test tube and record Repeat this procedure for three trials Repeat this procedure for three trials

8 Controls and Variables Controls Controls Pepsin + Distilled Water, HCl + Distilled Water, Distilled Water, Pepsin + HCl Pepsin + Distilled Water, HCl + Distilled Water, Distilled Water, Pepsin + HCl Independent Variable Independent Variable Antacids: TUMS, Pepto-Bismol, Acid Reducer, Hreatburn Relief, Sodium bicarbonate(NaHCO3) Antacids: TUMS, Pepto-Bismol, Acid Reducer, Hreatburn Relief, Sodium bicarbonate(NaHCO3) Dependent Variables Dependent Variables Percent of change in egg mass after the incubation period Percent of change in egg mass after the incubation period

9 Data

10 Data

11 Contents of Test TubePH Level Distilled Water 6.5 Pepsin + Distilled Water 6 HCl + Distilled Water 1.5 Pepsin + HCl 1.5 TUMS 6 Pepto-Bismol 1.5 Acid Reducer 1.5 Heartburn Relief 1.5 NaHCO 3 3 Data

12 Data AntacidT-Test with Pepsin + HCl TUMS Pepto-Bismol Acid Reducer Heartburn Relief NaHCO 3 0.000110132 0.000107917 0.00499215 0.299909524 0.000124073

13 Post-incubation HCl + Distilled Water and Pepsin + Distilled Water Pepsin + HCl and Distilled Water TUMS and Pepto-Bismol Acid Reducer and Heartburn Relief NaHCO3

14 Conclusion The hypothesis for this experiment was partly supported and partly rejected The hypothesis for this experiment was partly supported and partly rejected TUMS was ineffective in breaking down food protein because it had pH level of 6 TUMS was ineffective in breaking down food protein because it had pH level of 6 Pepto-Bismol was ineffective in breaking down food protein Pepto-Bismol was ineffective in breaking down food protein Acid Reducer only had a mild amount of food protein breakdown Acid Reducer only had a mild amount of food protein breakdown Heartburn Relief was very effective in food protein breakdown Heartburn Relief was very effective in food protein breakdown NaHCO3 was ineffective in breaking down food protein NaHCO3 was ineffective in breaking down food protein

15 Conclusion Limitations Limitations Only tested 5 antacids out of many Only tested 5 antacids out of many Some egg mass was lost when the egg was moved Some egg mass was lost when the egg was moved Further Study Further Study What are the effects of limited protein breakdown on the body? What are the effects of limited protein breakdown on the body? Do more acidic food increase pepsins ability to breakdown food protein? Do more acidic food increase pepsins ability to breakdown food protein?

16 References American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. (2010). Bismuth Subsalicylate. Retrieved from National Center for Biotechnology Information database. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. (2010). Bismuth Subsalicylate. Retrieved from National Center for Biotechnology Information database. Avraham, R. (2000). The Digestive System. Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers. Avraham, R. (2000). The Digestive System. Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers. Carpi, A., Ph.D. (n.d.). Introduction. In Acids and Bases. Retrieved 2003, from Visionlearning database. Carpi, A., Ph.D. (n.d.). Introduction. In Acids and Bases. Retrieved 2003, from Visionlearning database. Gbemudu, A., PharmD. (n.d.). Antacid faq. In RxList [Fact sheet on Antacids]. Retrieved October 6, 2010, from http://www.rxlist.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=95545 Gbemudu, A., PharmD. (n.d.). Antacid faq. In RxList [Fact sheet on Antacids]. Retrieved October 6, 2010, from http://www.rxlist.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=95545 Gillson, S. (2010, April 16). H2 Blockers. Retrieved from About.com database. Gillson, S. (2010, April 16). H2 Blockers. Retrieved from About.com database. Pali-Schöll, I., Herzog, R., Wallmann, J., Szalai, K., Brunner, R., Lukschal, A., Karagiannis, P., Diesner, S. C. and Jensen-Jarolim, E. (2010, July). Antacids and dietary supplements with an influence on the gastric pH increase the risk for food sensitization. Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 40(7), 1091-1098. Abstract retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2222.2010.03468.x/full Pali-Schöll, I., Herzog, R., Wallmann, J., Szalai, K., Brunner, R., Lukschal, A., Karagiannis, P., Diesner, S. C. and Jensen-Jarolim, E. (2010, July). Antacids and dietary supplements with an influence on the gastric pH increase the risk for food sensitization. Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 40(7), 1091-1098. Abstract retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2222.2010.03468.x/full Pepsin. (2008). Retrieved from The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition website: http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/pepsin.aspx Pepsin. (2008). Retrieved from The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition website: http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/pepsin.aspx Sexton, T. (n.d.). History of Antacid. Retrieved July 17, 2008, from Health & Wellness database. Sexton, T. (n.d.). History of Antacid. Retrieved July 17, 2008, from Health & Wellness database.


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