Presentation on theme: "Michael Part I: 2011年5月18日 Part II: 2011年7月 25日"— Presentation transcript:
1 Michael Part I: 2011年5月18日 Part II: 2011年7月 25日 How To Do High Quality Research, Write Acceptable Papers, and Make Effective Presentations? - “内在美”与“外在美”的追求MichaelPart I: 2011年5月18日Part II: 2011年7月 25日
2 Motivation: Why should I do research? Internal driveResearch interest (sense of achievement/fulfillment, curiosity)Strong ambition (self-expectation)External driveDegree and diplomaParents, teachers, friendsPeer pressure (sense of honor and responsibility)Small success
3 Research Problem Selection Good research largely depends on the selected problem90% of a research job is done when you find a good problem.A good problem is difficult to findNot too easy or too difficultHow to select a problem?Is it an old problem or a new problem?Usually, new problems have more opportunitiesIs it a significant problem?Practically important yet technically challenging3
4 The Key Ingredients of Research: Contribution (Where is the beef?) One major contribution is better than many small onesWhat is the contribution type?Knowledge discovery, invention, integration, applicationIdentify, describe, and demonstrate the big ideaAsking the right problem, then asking the problem rightInnovation! Innovation! Innovation!4
5 The Right Problem and the Right Way to Ask Problem Asking the problem right can lead to asking the right problemCan we predict reliability?Can we predict reliability with models?Can I predict reliability with user experience?
6 Innovation! Innovation! Innovation! How to Find Research Problems?New solution to old problems (classical problems)New problemsNew areas6
7 1. New Solution to Old Problems New solution to a reduced problemFermat’s last theoremNew solution from the same areaOrthodontistNew solution from other areasRecommendation applied to SREFermat's Last Theorem states that no three positive integers a, b, and c can satisfy the equation an + bn = cn for any integer value of n greater than two. This theorem was first conjectured by Pierre de Fermat in 1637, famously in the margin of a copy of Arithmetica where he claimed he had a proof that was too large to fit in the margin.Fermat left no proof of the conjecture for all n, but he did prove the special case n = 4. This reduced the problem to proving the theorem for exponents n that are prime numbers. Over the next two centuries (1637–1839), the conjecture was proven for only the primes 3, 5, and 7, although Sophie Germain proved a special case for all primes less than 100.77
8 2. New Problems (Usually with a Twist) ExtensionKaizhu M4 workSummarizationmy thesis – ConfuciusVariationlinear combination modelRefinementmore detailed categoryGeneralizationnonparametric workSpecializationonline algorithms88
9 3. New Areas Exploration Cross Disciplinary Research Indiana Jones: social networking researchCross Disciplinary ResearchMachine learning in SE99
10 Good versus Bad Research Problems Good research problemAfter the research, more people will be doing it – you opened the doorAfter the research, nobody can improve it – you closed the doorBad research problemNobody will follow the researchNobody really cares the researchResearch subject hotspot index: df(t)/dF(t)f(t)=No. of top papers and F(t)=No. of total papers
11 More about Ambition Principle of “aim high, accept low” Use problem selection as exampleAim highDo not patch a small hole left by leading researchersFind a more fundamental problem which may have a long impactAccept lowIf it is difficult to find a fundamental problem, then we need a compromiseAdvice from professor/colleague is importantA lot of you are smarter than me when I graduated
12 Literature SurveyResearch lifecycle: imitating, remembering, analyzing and innovatingUse toolsTrace backwardTutorial paper and reference listTrace forwardUse Google scholar to find papers that cite the current workProactive vs. passive readingReading with a critical attitudeReading according to your own agendaReading between lines (not only what was said but what was not said)Form a study groupReading between lines: the publication of my 1992 IEEE Software paper was from a hint of Littlewood’s paper
13 Nurturing Good Taste There are many mediocre papers published Do not ruin your taste by poor-quality papersRead selectivelyHighly cited papers and papers from first-tier journals and top top-ranked conferencesClassification of papersType A: 80% understanding (main idea, solution method and main results)Type B: 50% understanding (idea & results)Type C: 20% understanding (only introduction)Learn to appreciate good papers and criticize poor papers
14 Monitoring Activities of Leading Research Group in Your Field Identify leading research groups in your fieldFind out their recent research focus
15 Research Environment Large group can be a blessing More resourceful in terms of interaction (now) and networking (future)Senior students can be very helpful to junior studentsExperience sharing & encouragementsMore tolerant to mistakesMore accessibleGood versus bad environmentsEach group has its own cultureEach colleague is a teacher2nd student author is fine; 3rd student author needs scrutiny
16 Guidance and Feedback Role of Advisor Feedback on research results Joint decision on problem selectionSet up the research standardHelp when students get stuckFind out whyRe-directingFeedback on research resultsPositive and negative feedbackHelp in oral presentation and written reportsYour advisor is nevertheless more experienced than you …
17 Writing Critical to the sale of your ideas/results Paper organization Proper arrangement of texts, figures and tablesMulti-pass writing style1st pass: Detailed outline2nd pass: Rapid writing3rd pass: Fine Fine-tuning4th pass: cross cross-reading17
18 Writing Procedure Carefully determine the paper title Proper use of names and notationsTell them what you are going to do, tell them what you are doing, tell them what you have done.Motivation! Motivation! Motivation!“Like likes like”“All models are wrong; some are worse than others”Proper use of notations: Who invented Calculus? the Newton ( ) and Leibniz (1675) calculus18
19 Motivation! Motivation! Motivation! The introduction is by far the most important section in the entire paper, especially for conferences.Readers are always very busy.If a reviewer can reject your paper without reading it all, it saves time!The introduction is the first section they read, so make sure your paper does not get killed in Section 1.“5 years ago I used to write the introduction last. Now it is always the first section I write.”
20 Strong Statements Are Dangerous… Be very careful when you make strong statements about some research issue: there are people that think otherwise.Be especially careful when taking position on some hotly debated topics in the community, like:Supervised learning vs. non supervised learningParametric vs. non parametricStatistical vs. analyticalPartitioned vs global multiprocessor schedulingHard real-time wirelessTesting vs static analysisEtc. etc. etc.Instead of saying “X is black”, say “X is usually black, but in some cases that are not considered in this paper it is white”.
21 … But If You Are Confident, Go For It! However, high impact papers are those that successfully challenge existing preconceptions.So do not be shy when you state the main contribution of your paper!If it is somehow controversial, you might have some troubles getting the paper accepted at first, but it is well worth in term of impact.If it is not, you should still stress your contribution so the reviewer gets more interested in the paper.Just be sure to prove your point well enough; the keyword here is “successfully challenge.”
22 Criticize Your Writing in the Reviewer’s View A main factor of your success is to know how others think and feelReviewers’ mindset: “You are assumed guilty until proven innocent”Remind instead of assume, but don’t humiliate their intelligenceProper use of citationClearly and articulately indicate your contributionsCriticize yourself first, and leave reviewers no room for further criticismRemember, our reviewers are hostile …
23 You Cannot Make Everybody Happy Different people are looking for different things.Also they are often biased.You must accept that it is simply impossible to make everybody perfectly happy; you are forced to make trade-offs.For the same reason, take all people’s reaction with a grain of salt.The key: two half glasses of water are better than one full and one empty glass here.Just one negative review is enough to kill a conference paper.The lesson: bad results can turn out good, so don’t loss your heart.Zibin’s example: Rejected by ISAS2008 (acceptance rate is 50%), and accepted by ICWS 2008 (acceptance rate is 16%).Rejected by ISSRE2009, while accepted by ICSE2010 (distinguished paper award)
24 Plagiarism A severe problem Intentionally and un-intentionally Properly cite and paraphraseAlways runs Veriguide
25 Oral PresentationEvery talk is a job talk; grasp all the opportunities when you can give a talkPreparation of the ppt fileLogical flow of motivation/ideas/resultsFluent language capabilityPractice, practice and practice25
26 Oral Presentation Contents Statement of research problemResearch methodologyExperiments and resultsReview and elaborationConclusionsFuture applications26
27 Delivering Technical Talks Know your purpose (technical vs. non technical)Know your audience (peers vs. general audience)Know your time limitsA 30 minutes presentationNo more than 4-5 main points could be covered adequatelyAudience expects only highlightsUse illustrationsConclusion should summarize the main message and primary pointsUltimate Goal: Provide highlights of your research to stimulate intellectual thought and discussionReminder: Don’t waste others’ time; make your points simply, clearly and concisely
28 Myths and Mistakes of Technical Presentations Popular Myth: A technical audience requires a lot of technical details in order to evaluate the speaker’s ideas.In 1989 HP conducted a survey to determine what technical presenters want to hear from other technical presenters.Result: Listeners want talks easy to follow and well organized; they want simplified message “less is more.”Studies showed that simplifying and repeating the main idea will result in increased attentiveness and retention.
29 Myths and Mistakes of Technical Presentations Popular Myth: Content is everything. Style is unimportant and enthusiasm is offensive.HP study indicated that technical audience wanted more enthusiasm and effective style, which included better visual assistance.Often unenthusiastic delivery will ruin a speaker’s effectiveness.Mehrabian, a communication theorist, showed thatBody language and tone of voice together supply93% of the overall message impact.Actual words only supply 7% of the overall impact.
30 Myths and Mistakes of Technical Presentations Popular Myth: The text on the visuals is more important than the speaker.Technical presenters traditionally rely too much on slides.Often, technical audiences find the slides distracting and boring.Remember, the speaker is always the focal point of presentation, visual assistance helpsPace of the presentation.Flow of the information presented.
31 Myths and Mistakes of Technical Presentations Popular Myth: Strategic organization is not necessary for technical talks.Technical presenters often think that as long as they supply all the details, the audience is capable of drawing the appropriate conclusions.Technical speakers often jump into the body of the presentation and start discussing data.Often the objective of the talk is not stated until the end of the talk.Technical speaker must not rely on the audience to fill in gaps and reach appropriate conclusions.Technical speaker must understand different types of presentations, organization, and strategies for a particular type of speech.Don’t leave your audience missing the big picture!
32 Exercising Your Presentation Muscle Do you exercise your presentation muscle?Need practice good speaking skills by delivering oral presentations on a regular basisWhy?Person with a strong presentation muscle can think a problem through and communicate his/her analysisHe can express his thoughts well enough to persuade others to see his point of viewHe can efficiently instruct othersHe can speak effectively before an audience of any sizeOften job/promotion/salary depends on speaking skills!!!Ma Hao’s case for practicing in the whiteboard every night.The need for speaking capability is not just in western world, but in modern China!
33 Presentation Skills Training Do practice your talk everywhere (practice, practice, practice)Do forget about forgetting – think about your topic not your future!Do divert your nervous energy into helpful gestures and movements, do not repress your nervousnessDo memorize your first and last few sentencesDon’t paceDon’t fumble with a pencil, watch, or ring while you speakDon’t speak too rapidly
34 Presentations – Opening and Closings Each presentation (as good stories) have anIntroduction (tell them what you are going to tell them)Body (tell them)Conclusion (tell them what you have just told them)
35 OpeningsPurposeGrab the audience’s attention so that they will want to hear what you have to sayShould be a “grabber” or “attention seeker”Not only arouse interest, but also suggest the theme of the speechOpenings can be dramatic, emotional, humorous or rhetoricalOpening does not have to have words, you can use gestures, demonstration, silence – related to the topicGive a big picture
36 Good Openings Startling question Challenging statement An appropriate short quotation or illustrationA surprising generalizationAn exhibit – object, article, picturePersonal story
37 Poor Openings A long or slow-moving quotation A self introduction An apologetic statementStory, joke or anecdote which does not connect to the themeA stale remarkA statement of your objective
38 Closings of Presentation PurposeStress your speech objectivesLeave the audience with something to rememberClosing is the “whip-cracker”, the “clincher”, ultimately the “result getter”.Closing can be dramatic, emotional, humorous or rhetoricalClosing does not have to have words; you can use props, gestures, a demonstration or silenceClosing must tie with your opening and your themePoor closing can seriously detract from an otherwise excellent presentationExample of a rhetorical question: "How much longer must our people endure this injustice?" : no formal answer is expected. Rather, it is a device used by the speaker to assert or deny something.
39 Good Closings A call or an appeal for definite action An appropriate short quotation or illustrationAn exhibit – an object, article, pictureA personal challenge“I’ll be back” in Terminator.NG collections at the end acknowledgement of movies.
40 Poor Closings A commonplace statement delivered in a commonplace way An apologetic statementA trite or stale remarkSolicitation of questions
41 Presentation Organization Strategic Presentation PlanAsk yourself questions:“What kind of approach can best bring your message across?”“Will it be better to ‘beat around the bush’ or to be direct?”“What kind of support will be most effective?”
42 Presentation Strategy (Deductive Strategy) Decide on what sort of message you will be deliveringDeductive StrategySpeaker immediately presents the main idea, provides the supporting detail, then recaps her main idea.Usually used to present good news or routine statementsExample:Main idea: My grant proposal was fundedDetail: This means more money for research …Recap: Hard work is rewarded.
43 Presentation Strategy (Inductive Strategy) Speaker begins only by hinting at the main idea, then presents details leading to the main idealusually from most easily acceptable details to more “controversial” detailsAfter details the main idea is communicatedSpeaker concludes with recapExample:Hint: We compliment your research efforts and would like to explain some recent events – NSF funding was cut, strategic direction was changed, ..Main Idea: Although it was a good effort, we must pull the funding from this line of research.Recap: You will need to switch directions of research.
44 Formulas for Speech/Presentation Organization OIBCC – Basic FormulaOpening – grab attentionIntroduction – “Why bring this topic up?”Body – bulk of the presentationRemember that for every important point that you make, you must provide support and this support can take the form ofStatistics, analogies, testimony, illustrations, or specific examples.Conclusion – summarize briefly pointsClose – last strong sentences that leave the audience with something to rememberMust tie to your main idea and should tie to your opening to be effective
45 Harvard School Formula For persuasive speechesPREPYPoint of View – “Smoking is hazardous for your life”Reasons – “Smoking causes cancer”Examples/Evidence – “50,000 people die per year from cancer”Point of view restated – “If you want a long full life, give up cigarettes”“You” oriented – “Take the first step tonight and sign up for ‘no more smoking’ seminar”
46 Visual AssistanceStudies show that people store and access information in three primary ways:Visually, auditorially, kinestheticallyAdults absorb, retain and learn:10% of what they read20% what they hear30% what they read and hear50% what they hear and see90% what they do
47 Visual Medium for Presentations Visuals support the speech, they are NOT the primary messageVisuals are only used to dramatize and clarify the messageYou must practice your main points of the presentation without relying on the visualsVisuals should assist you in controllingPace of the presentationFlow of the informationImportant! – When you transition from one visual to the next, introduce the topic area of the next visual before it is revealed.
48 Creating Your Visuals 14 lines per visual (max) Do not put too much information within a single visualA title for each visualTitle must be meaningfulSimple readable labelsLabels on charts or graphs should be specific and precise (balance with simplicity)Labels must be meaningful yet simpleReadable from the rearPrint size at least 20 pointsNo more than 3-5 major pointsEach point must be easily identifiableUse highlights, colors, bullets, different text size
49 Creating Your Visuals Consistency is a must Use colors appropriately Consistency of graphic layout of your visuals is a mustYou should limit yourself to one or two type styles, type sizes and colors all within one presentationYou should limit yourself to one or two type styles and three type sizes at mostUse colors appropriatelyNever use the color red for your main text, title or labels, red color is difficult to read from distanceUse red as a highlight color, indicating problem areaUse green as a highlight colorTwo of the most common and readable colors are blue and blackBlue color (especially light blue) is the most soothing color on an eye.Visuals Must be organizedYour visuals must have introduction, body and closing
50 Presentation Delivery Albert Mehrabian, a well-known communication theorist, specifies that message impact can be divided into three factors:Body languageContributes 55% toward message impactTone of voiceContributes 38% toward message impactActual wordsContributes 7% toward message impact
51 Body Language Eye Contact Facial Expression Gestures In modern societies, eye contact is a primary and vital part of interpersonal communicationBy gazing directly into another’s eyes we establish link/closenessWhen speaking to audience, maintain eye contact with audience membersIn fact, studies show perception of distrust are created when eye contact is NOT maintained.Facial ExpressionSpeaker must be certain that her words and her face are communicating the same message. If not, she will leave the audience confused and uncertain of the true message.GesturesMost expressive part of body languageSpeaker uses his hands and arms to illustrate his wordsBasic gestures show things such as: weight, shape, direction, importance, comparison, contrast
52 Tone of Voice Volume in speech Speaker should express excitement and enthusiasm for the topicVolume should be varied in strength and intensity to add emphasis and dramatic impact to your presentationsThrough volume control, the audience can infer the speaker’s messageMany speakers control voice to “sound professional”, but professionals do just the opposite!!Consistent loudness – tendency to talk too loudly or softlyCommon problem is ‘fading voice’. Make certain to maintain a consistent loudness.Mostly deliver presentation in a clear voice at a conversational levelConsider the room where you are speakingConvey life, color and melodyVoice should not sound flat or wooden, beginners tend to speak on too high a pitch.A thin high-pitched tone lacks authority and appeal; it is harsh and unpleasant.Cultivate deeper tones.“one-note” pitch is also a problem – boring.
53 Tone of VoiceA good speaker will use as many as 25 different levels of pitch to convey variety and meaning.Rate of DeliveryIs often linked with your personality and/or cultural originRelates to how you think and behaveVariety of rate reflects changes in emotion and mood and can greatly enhance your presentationsPlan rate intentionallyFast rate – sense of excitement; rapid sequence of eventsAvoid extremes (too slow or too quickly)In case of slow speakers, listeners start daydreamingIn case of fast speakers, listeners become frustrated and “tune out”.Most effective speaking rate falls within the range of words per minute.
54 Summary on Presentation Pay very much attention to oral communication in every technical communication5 minute presentation of your research (on the way to the train station or in the elevator)15 minute presentation of your research (in conference)45-50 minute presentation of your research (in job talk, invited talk, keynote)minute presentation of your research (in classroom)Asking good questions is also oral and memorable communicationApproach: Practice, Practice, PracticeUltimate Goal: Be effective Communicator in every Situation
55 Conclusions“Your skills are what you put in yesterday. Commitment is what you must put in today in order to make today your masterpiece and make tomorrow a success."John C. Maxwell, in “Make Today Count”“Remember, Red, hope is a good thing, maybe the best of things, and no good thing ever dies."Andy Dufresne, in “The Shawshank Redemption”