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Chapter Ten Hygiene in the Laboratory Animal Facility.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter Ten Hygiene in the Laboratory Animal Facility."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter Ten Hygiene in the Laboratory Animal Facility

2  If viewing this in PowerPoint, use the icon to run the show (bottom left of screen).  Mac users go to “Slide Show > View Show” in menu bar  Click on the Audio icon: when it appears on the left of the slide to hear the narration.  From “File > Print” in the menu bar, choose “notes pages”, “slides 3 per page” or “outline view” for taking notes as you listen and watch the presentation.  Start your own notebook with a 3 ring binder, for later study! ALAT Presentations Study Tips

3 Sterilization, Disinfection & Sanitization  Difference between sterilization, disinfection & sanitization is a matter of degree of cleanliness.  Sterilization = destruction of all organisms on an object  Disinfection = reduction of number of pathogenic microorganisms on an object to a harmless level  Sanitization = reduction of number of microorganisms on an object to acceptable public health standard  Sanitization = make an object aesthetically pleasing & clean

4 Sterilization  Autoclaves sterilize by exposure to moisture at high temperature & pressure.  Autoclaving is fast, reliable, relatively cheap.  Autoclaving avoids the use of toxic chemicals.

5 Autoclaving  Microorganisms, type & size of material being sterilized determines autoclaving time.  large bags of bedding, nested shoebox cages or heavily wrapped surgical instruments  Items should be autoclaved for at least 15 min. at 250°F & with a pressure of 15 psi.  High pressure allows steam to be superheated.  Some items cannot be autoclaved because of sensitivity to heat, moisture or high pressure.  Other sterilization techniques include:  ethylene oxide gas, dry heat sterilization, chemical sterilization, gamma irradiation & liquid filtration

6 Disinfection  Disinfectants too strong for use on living animals.  Classified according to type of microorganism they are most effective against.  End in “–cidal” has killing action.  End in “–static” inhibits microorganism growth.  Bacteriostat prevents growth, does not necessarily kill.  Bactericidal kills bacteria, not necessarily spores.  Sporicidal kills spores & bacteria.  Chemicals, such as phenols, bleach & quaternary ammonia disinfect objects.

7 Disinfection II  Bleach is a superior disinfectant.  It kills many types of bacteria & viruses, is inexpensive & available.  It does not contain dirt-loosening detergents.  < effective if surface not cleaned of organic matter.  Phenolic compounds were popular disinfectants.  High concentrations needed to produce disinfection.  Cats react adversely to phenol.  Quaternary ammonia compounds are weak.  Destroy cell membranes of certain types of microorganisms  Available as virucides, algicides or fungicides  Less effective when mixed w/ detergents or soaps.  Combination neutralizes disinfecting capability.

8 Sanitization  Number of bacteria on inanimate objects reduced enough to prevent disease.  Routine cleaning of items such as floors, cages, walls, feeders, sinks, implements & tables  Removes dirt, hair, dust, saliva, blood, feces, urine.  Wash w/ detergent & rinse w/ water at 180°F.  Deodorants not used in place of sanitization.  Indiscriminate mixing of chemicals can cause reactions hazardous to animals & people.

9 Chemical Guidelines  Guidelines concerning handling of chemicals:  Store chemicals in a cool, central area.  Follow the instructions on label.  Never use a container that is not labeled.  Do not make an assumption as to contents.  Never mix two chemicals together unless authorized by manufacturer.  Mixing ammonia & bleach produces a toxic gas.

10 Cage Changes  The Guide:  Cages should be changed often enough “to provide a healthy environment for animal, in accord with its normal behavior and physiologic characteristics.”  Generally change solid-bottom cages 1-2 x/wk.  Generally drop-bottom cages changed 1x/2 wks.  Number of animals in a cage, cage size & type of bedding affect change cage frequency.  Larger animals (dogs, cats, nonhuman primates) - daily cleaning & bedding replacement.  AWA reg’s set minimum cleaning standards for cages, feeders & water bottles.

11 Equipment Cleaning Techniques  No hand cleaning in animal room.  Airborne microorganisms contaminate environment.  Pass-through washers have clean & dirty side.  Soiled equipment delivered to dirty side.  Cages scraped free of most bedding, feces & debris.  Chemical descalers remove most of urine scale.  Feeders & dishes are scrubbed free of debris.  Bottle brush loosens deposits inside bottles.  Sipper tubes rinsed, washed in a cage washer.  Equipment too large to fit into cage washers should be vigorously hand-scrubbed or pressure washed, using detergents and disinfectants.

12 (Image) Washing Dog Run Flooring

13 Room Cleaning Schedules & Techniques  Sinks - clean, free of clutter & stocked.  Vents and doors - kept free of dust, grime, hair... clogged vents reduce air circulation.  Trash cans - disposable plastic liners, emptied frequently, & disinfected regularly.  Animal rooms - emptied, cleaned & disinfected on fixed schedule.  Clean walls, ceilings, lights & all exposed surfaces.  Clean sink, broom, mop & bucket after each use.  Replace or launder mop heads frequently.  Keep cleaning items in room where they are used.  Use ONLY for cleaning of that room.  Reduces chance of spreading disease from room to room.

14 (Images) Room Cleaning

15 Other Equipment Changes  Racks w/ built-in cages - wash > 2 x/mo.  Cleaning feeders depend on number & type of animals being fed & type of diet.  Critical to inspect water bottles, automatic valves & sipper tubes daily to be sure working.  Replace used water bottles w/ sanitized bottles.  Put refilled bottles back on cages from which they came to prevent cross-contamination.  Watering equipment should be thoroughly flushed before reconnecting rack to room water lines.  Racks should be stored w/ empty water lines.

16 Environmental Monitoring  Temp tapes used to evaluate efficiency of sanitization.  Temp indicator monitors for proper washing & rinsing temps.  One type is a strip labeled w/ heat-sensitive indicator.  Indicator is attached to surface of equipment, which is then sent through washer.  Strip indicates highest water temp on surface.  Rinse water temperature should reach at least 180°F.

17 Environmental Monitoring II  Bacterial culture - testing for bacteria on surface of clean cages & equipment that have been through cage washer is also a common monitoring method.  Small plastic dishes containing a nutrient substance suitable for bacterial growth are pressed onto surface of a clean area.  Small plastic dish is placed in an incubator or allowed to sit at room temp 24 hrs.  Bacteria present on cage surface will grow on nutrient substance & indicate effectiveness of cleaning procedure.

18 Vermin Control  A properly constructed building, good housekeeping program & proper waste disposal help control vermin populations.  flies, fleas, cockroaches, ticks, wild rodents...  Vermin enter on feed, bedding, and humans, and through cracks & small openings.  Keep areas sanitary, dispose of food & bedding, close doors & seal cracks.  Wild rodents that enter a facility must be trapped.  Use of pesticides in animal areas should be strictly controlled.

19 Pesticides  Investigators must consent to their use, as pesticides, just like deodorants, can compromise experimental results.  These chemicals must not be allowed to contact the animals or their feed, bedding or water.  As part of a comprehensive control program, relatively harmless chemicals, such as boric acid and amorphous silica, can help control cockroach infestations.

20 Personal Safety & Hygiene  Protective clothing:  prevents contact w/ infectious, toxic or corrosive agents  type needed depends on procedures being performed  Non-slip bottoms & steel-toed shoes offer protection against slipping as well as from dropped equipment injuries.  Disposable shoe covers prevent cross- contamination in germ free, quarantine & isolation areas.  Only wear work shoes in facility.  Ear protectors recommended in noisy areas in which average noise level is >85 decibels.

21 Goggles & Uniforms  Goggles offer the best protection, because they cover the entire eye and surrounding area.  Facilities should also have eyewash stations in areas where chemical splashes could occur.  Closely fitted face masks are most effective in preventing personnel from inhaling contaminants.  Street clothes should not be worn while working in an animal facility, and uniforms should not be worn outside the facility.  Uniforms protect personnel & environment outside facility against contamination.

22 Gloves  Leather gloves of various lengths are worn to handle animals that bite or scratch.  Some reinforced w/ metal for bite protection.  Heat-resistant to handle hot items or dry ice.  People w/ contact skin allergies to animals should wear disposable plastic or latex gloves.  Special gloves are available for people who have allergies to latex or powder.

23 Personal Hygiene Practices  Safety and personal hygiene guidelines:  Store & consume food in designated areas of facility.  Keep hands away from mouth, nose, eyes, face & hair.  Smoke only in assigned areas.  Always wash hands:  after removing dirty PPE  before applying makeup, smoking or eating  before leaving animal room or cage washing area  Do not wear jewelry that interferes w/ hand washing.  Some facilities require employees to shower before entering and/or exiting animal areas.

24 Occupational Health Program  A pre-employment physical exam, medical history & vaccinations are part of program,  Tetanus - spore-forming bacteria in environment.  Personnel who handle animals or clean up after them are exposed to these spores.  Infection follows deep puncture wounds which are difficult to clean by conventional washing.  Rabies - virus which can occur in any mammal  Personnel who handle animals obtained from animal shelters should be inoculated w/ pre-exposure vaccine.  Hepatitis - virus that infects liver.  Most cases acquired from from nonhuman primates.  Personnel who work w/ primates are often vaccinated

25 Occupational Health Program II  Zoonotic agents are infectious agents that can be transmitted from animals humans.  TB, measles & salmonellosis  Personnel who work with NHP run a higher risk of exposure to TB.  Handlers have tuberculosis tests performed regularly.  All injuries & accidents must be reported to supervisor, regardless of how insignificant.  Immediately wash bite wound w/ soap & water.  Notify supervisor of bite as quickly as possible.  Report location of bite and animal that bit them.

26 Occupational Health Training  In addition to providing protective equipment and vaccinations, a research facility is also required to provide training of personnel in the areas of proper use of equipment, zoonotic diseases, blood-borne pathogens and other areas which can be hazardous to employees.

27 Additional Reading Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories. HHS Publication No. (CDC) 93- 8395. 3rd. Edition US Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 1993. Occupational Health and Safety in the Care and Use of Research Animals. National Research Council. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 1997.

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