Presentation on theme: "The Play Years: Psychosocial Development"— Presentation transcript:
1The Play Years: Psychosocial Development The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescenceby Kathleen Stassen BergerSeventh EditionChapter 10The Play Years: Psychosocial DevelopmentSlides prepared by Kate Byerwalter, Ph.D., Grand Rapids Community College
2Emotional Development “Overall, emotional development is the foundation that enables all the other forms of development.…”(Campos et al, 2004, cited on p. 285 in textbook)
3Initiative Versus Guilt Erik Erikson’s third stage (3-6 yrs)A child wants to complete things successfully, and feels guilt at failure.Example: A child tries to pour juice into a cup and spills.Some guilt is desirable.
4PrideYoung children generally have a very positive self-concept and self-esteem.They overestimate their abilities.Example: Every preschooler believes he/she is the brightest, smartest, fastest, most liked, best at games, etc.
6Intrinsic MotivationIntrinsic motivation comes from within the individual; it is the joy of personal accomplishment.Adults can encourage this by not promising rewards for a task that is already enjoyable; instead, praise a job well done.
7Emotional RegulationEmotional regulation is learning to cope with and direct one’s emotions.It develops as a result of brain maturation and experiences.PHOTODISC
8Emotional RegulationThe development of emotional regulation is influenced by:GenesEarly experiences (especially stressors)CultureOngoing careBrain maturationGenderAttachment
9Externalizing and Internalizing Problems Externalizing problems occur when a child turns emotional distress outward (e.g., attacking others in anger).Internalizing problems occur when a child turns emotional distress inward (e.g., becoming anxious or withdrawn).
10Emotional Intelligence Emotional Intelligence involves learning how to interpret and express emotions.As the prefrontal cortex develops, children’s ability to regulate emotions improves.Caregivers also play a role in teaching emotional intelligence.
11Empathy and AntipathyEmpathy: a true understanding of the feelings and concerns of anotherThis results in prosocial behavior (e.g., helpful, kind) and is helped by theory of mind.Antipathy: a dislike or hatred of peopleResults in antisocial behavior (e.g., aggressive).
13Make it Real: EmpathyIn what ways can caregivers help children learn empathy? Think of specific ideas.
14Preference and Prejudice Young children are able to show pride in their own “group” while avoiding prejudice of others.KATE BYERWALTER
15The Importance of PlayIt is natural and beneficial for young children to PLAY!Jean Piaget said “Play is the work of the child.”Children LEARN through play (and also relieve stress).
16Types of Play Solitary = play alone Onlooker = watch others Parallel = play with similar toys in similar ways, but don’t interactAssociative = interact and share emotions, but not in same game (e.g., outdoor play)
17Types of Play (cont.)Cooperative = play together, with common goal, taking turns (e.g., Checkers)Rough and tumble = mimics aggression, but is in fun (“play face”)It usually requires social experience among participants, and enough physical space to play.
18Quiz: How do you know this isn’t an aggressive encounter? LAURA DWIGHT
19Importance of Play: Part II It is imperative that society continues to value the importance of all types of play among young children.Intellectual development is certainly important in early childhood, but so is ample time for free, unstructured play!
20Types of Play (cont.)Sociodramatic Play = Pretend play in which children act out self-created roles and themesExamples: Playing house, doctor, superheroes, or schoolThink: why might children enjoy this type of play? What benefits might there be?
21Types of Play (cont.) Sociodramatic play helps children: Explore and rehearse social roles they have observed (e.g., playing the “Dad”)Regulate emotions through imagination (e.g., the powerful feeling of being a superhero)Learn to negotiate and cooperate with others
22Quiz: What type of play is this? FELICIA MARTINEZ / PHOTOEDIT, INC.
23Make it Real: Coping with Anger What can caregivers do to help children cope with anger, and lessen the amount of aggression children display?LAURA DWIGHT
24AggressionAll children experience the emotion of anger, but aggression involves hostile attitudes and hurtful, destructive behavior towards others.Some types of aggression are more troublesome and long-lasting than others (see next slide).
25Types of AggressionInstrumental: Used to obtain an object such as a toyThis is common among young children, and becomes less prevalent with age.Reactive: Retaliation for an act, whether or not it was intentionalThis indicates a lack of emotional regulation.
26Types of Aggression (cont.) Relational: Insults or social rejection intended to hurt anotherExample: “You can’t come to my party.”Bullying: Unprovoked, repeated attack to inflict physical or mental harm
34Parenting Styles: Quick Review Suppose a teenager came in late for curfew…How would each of Baumrind’s 3 main parenting styles handle the situation?
35Outcomes of Parenting Styles Which parenting style would you guess is associated with the following outcomes?Children are obedient, not happyChildren lack self-control, are not happyChildren are successful, articulate, intelligent, and happy
36Outcomes of Parenting Styles Authoritarian: Children are obedient, not especially happyPermissive: Children lack self-control, are the least happyAuthoritative: Children are successful, articulate, intelligent, and happy
38Make it Real: Discipline Anyone working with young children needs to have a set of tools in mind for discipline.What discipline strategies have you heard about or used?LAURA DWIGHT
39Discipline Strategies No one strategy is a “cure-all.”Techniques are often rooted in culture (e.g., time-out is popular in the U.S.).All strategies should consider a child’s emerging self-concept and level of cognitive development.
44The Challenge of Media (cont.) Most U.S. children spend over 3 hours a day using media.By age 3, over 25% of children have a TV in their bedroom.75% of low-income and 83% of higher-income children have cable TV.
46The Challenge of Media (cont.) Several U.S. organizations have issued statements imploring parents to reduce children’s exposure to violent media.Longitudinal studies have established a link between TV violence in childhood and grades in high school.
47The Challenge of Media (cont.) Overuse of the media takes away time for imaginative and social play, and reduces time for parent-child interaction.PHOTODISC
48Question: Boy or Girl─So What? Are males really from Mars, and females from Venus?If yes, what makes males and females think, act, and feel differently?If no, are gender differences simply exaggerated?
49Boy or Girl: So What?Sex differences = biological differences between males and femalesGender differences = culturally imposed differences in the roles and behaviors of males and females
50Developmental Progression of Gender Awareness By age 2 cognitive awareness of gender; gender-related preferences and play patterns are apparentBy age 3 rudimentary awareness that gender distinctions are lifelongBy age 4 awareness of “gender-appropriate” toys and rolesBy age 6 well-formed ideas and prejudices about own and other sex
51Theories of Gender Differences Psychoanalytic Theory (Freud)Phallic stage = third stage of psychosexual developmentIdentification = defense mechanism that lets a person symbolically take on behaviors and attitudes of someone more powerful than himself or herselfSuperego = personality part that is self-critical and judgmental
52Theories of Gender Differences (cont.) Oedipus (boys), Electra (girls) complexes of phallic stageChild develops sexual feelings toward opposite-sex parent, wants to replace same-sex parentChild cannot replace same-sex parent, so wants to be like that parentGuilt and fear are resolved by gender-appropriate behaviorNo longer a popular theory–often same-sex parent not present
53Behaviorist Theory of Gender Gender roles are learned through observation and imitation.Examples: Who takes out the garbage? Who writes thank you notes? etc.RONNIE KAUFMAN / CORBIS
54Cognitive Theory of Gender Gender schemas organize the world into “male” and “female” activities.This is guided by an internal motivation to conform to sociocultural standards of gender.Example: “Is this a (boy/girl) thing to do?”
55Sociocultural Theory of Gender Children learn the preferred behavior for men and women in their society.Androgyny = a healthy balance of male and female psychological characteristicsIs considered a psychologically healthy way to be, and will most fully occur if society supports it
56Epigenetic systems theory of gender Gender typed behavior is shaped by BOTH genetic differences between male and female brains, and environmental influences