Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The Play Years: Psychosocial Development

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "The Play Years: Psychosocial Development"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Play Years: Psychosocial Development
The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence by Kathleen Stassen Berger Seventh Edition Chapter 10 The Play Years: Psychosocial Development Slides prepared by Kate Byerwalter, Ph.D., Grand Rapids Community College

2 Emotional Development
“Overall, emotional development is the foundation that enables all the other forms of development.…” (Campos et al, 2004, cited on p. 285 in textbook)

3 Initiative Versus Guilt
Erik Erikson’s third stage (3-6 yrs) A child wants to complete things successfully, and feels guilt at failure. Example: A child tries to pour juice into a cup and spills. Some guilt is desirable.

4 Pride Young children generally have a very positive self-concept and self-esteem. They overestimate their abilities. Example: Every preschooler believes he/she is the brightest, smartest, fastest, most liked, best at games, etc.


6 Intrinsic Motivation Intrinsic motivation comes from within the individual; it is the joy of personal accomplishment. Adults can encourage this by not promising rewards for a task that is already enjoyable; instead, praise a job well done.

7 Emotional Regulation Emotional regulation is learning to cope with and direct one’s emotions. It develops as a result of brain maturation and experiences. PHOTODISC

8 Emotional Regulation The development of emotional regulation is influenced by: Genes Early experiences (especially stressors) Culture Ongoing care Brain maturation Gender Attachment

9 Externalizing and Internalizing Problems
Externalizing problems occur when a child turns emotional distress outward (e.g., attacking others in anger). Internalizing problems occur when a child turns emotional distress inward (e.g., becoming anxious or withdrawn).

10 Emotional Intelligence
Emotional Intelligence involves learning how to interpret and express emotions. As the prefrontal cortex develops, children’s ability to regulate emotions improves. Caregivers also play a role in teaching emotional intelligence.

11 Empathy and Antipathy Empathy: a true understanding of the feelings and concerns of another This results in prosocial behavior (e.g., helpful, kind) and is helped by theory of mind. Antipathy: a dislike or hatred of people Results in antisocial behavior (e.g., aggressive).


13 Make it Real: Empathy In what ways can caregivers help children learn empathy? Think of specific ideas.

14 Preference and Prejudice
Young children are able to show pride in their own “group” while avoiding prejudice of others. KATE BYERWALTER

15 The Importance of Play It is natural and beneficial for young children to PLAY! Jean Piaget said “Play is the work of the child.” Children LEARN through play (and also relieve stress).

16 Types of Play Solitary = play alone Onlooker = watch others
Parallel = play with similar toys in similar ways, but don’t interact Associative = interact and share emotions, but not in same game (e.g., outdoor play)

17 Types of Play (cont.) Cooperative = play together, with common goal, taking turns (e.g., Checkers) Rough and tumble = mimics aggression, but is in fun (“play face”) It usually requires social experience among participants, and enough physical space to play.

18 Quiz: How do you know this isn’t an aggressive encounter?

19 Importance of Play: Part II
It is imperative that society continues to value the importance of all types of play among young children. Intellectual development is certainly important in early childhood, but so is ample time for free, unstructured play!

20 Types of Play (cont.) Sociodramatic Play = Pretend play in which children act out self-created roles and themes Examples: Playing house, doctor, superheroes, or school Think: why might children enjoy this type of play? What benefits might there be?

21 Types of Play (cont.) Sociodramatic play helps children:
Explore and rehearse social roles they have observed (e.g., playing the “Dad”) Regulate emotions through imagination (e.g., the powerful feeling of being a superhero) Learn to negotiate and cooperate with others

22 Quiz: What type of play is this?

23 Make it Real: Coping with Anger
What can caregivers do to help children cope with anger, and lessen the amount of aggression children display? LAURA DWIGHT

24 Aggression All children experience the emotion of anger, but aggression involves hostile attitudes and hurtful, destructive behavior towards others. Some types of aggression are more troublesome and long-lasting than others (see next slide).

25 Types of Aggression Instrumental: Used to obtain an object such as a toy This is common among young children, and becomes less prevalent with age. Reactive: Retaliation for an act, whether or not it was intentional This indicates a lack of emotional regulation.

26 Types of Aggression (cont.)
Relational: Insults or social rejection intended to hurt another Example: “You can’t come to my party.” Bullying: Unprovoked, repeated attack to inflict physical or mental harm


28 Make it Real: Parenting
In your opinion, how influential is a parent to a child’s development? PHOTODISC

29 Parenting Styles Diana Baumrind found that parents differ on four dimensions of parenting: Expressions of warmth Strategies for discipline Quality of communication Expectations for maturity

30 Authoritative Style High Warmth High level of communication
Moderate expectations for maturity Discipline strategies involve much discussion, firm but fair limits

31 Authoritarian Style Little Warmth
Communication is one way (commands of parent) Very high expectations for maturity Strict, often physical discipline strategies

32 Permissive Style High warmth High amount of communication
Few to no expectations Little to no discipline


34 Parenting Styles: Quick Review
Suppose a teenager came in late for curfew… How would each of Baumrind’s 3 main parenting styles handle the situation?

35 Outcomes of Parenting Styles
Which parenting style would you guess is associated with the following outcomes? Children are obedient, not happy Children lack self-control, are not happy Children are successful, articulate, intelligent, and happy

36 Outcomes of Parenting Styles
Authoritarian: Children are obedient, not especially happy Permissive: Children lack self-control, are the least happy Authoritative: Children are successful, articulate, intelligent, and happy


38 Make it Real: Discipline
Anyone working with young children needs to have a set of tools in mind for discipline. What discipline strategies have you heard about or used? LAURA DWIGHT

39 Discipline Strategies
No one strategy is a “cure-all.” Techniques are often rooted in culture (e.g., time-out is popular in the U.S.). All strategies should consider a child’s emerging self-concept and level of cognitive development.



42 Question: The Challenge of Media
Take a guess: How much time a day do you think the average child under 8 years old spends watching TV or playing video games or computer?


44 The Challenge of Media (cont.)
Most U.S. children spend over 3 hours a day using media. By age 3, over 25% of children have a TV in their bedroom. 75% of low-income and 83% of higher-income children have cable TV.

45 Techno Homes–The Typical Child’s Home Contains:

46 The Challenge of Media (cont.)
Several U.S. organizations have issued statements imploring parents to reduce children’s exposure to violent media. Longitudinal studies have established a link between TV violence in childhood and grades in high school.

47 The Challenge of Media (cont.)
Overuse of the media takes away time for imaginative and social play, and reduces time for parent-child interaction. PHOTODISC

48 Question: Boy or Girl─So What?
Are males really from Mars, and females from Venus? If yes, what makes males and females think, act, and feel differently? If no, are gender differences simply exaggerated?

49 Boy or Girl: So What? Sex differences = biological differences between males and females Gender differences = culturally imposed differences in the roles and behaviors of males and females

50 Developmental Progression of Gender Awareness
By age 2 cognitive awareness of gender; gender-related preferences and play patterns are apparent By age 3 rudimentary awareness that gender distinctions are lifelong By age 4 awareness of “gender-appropriate” toys and roles By age 6 well-formed ideas and prejudices about own and other sex

51 Theories of Gender Differences
Psychoanalytic Theory (Freud) Phallic stage = third stage of psychosexual development Identification = defense mechanism that lets a person symbolically take on behaviors and attitudes of someone more powerful than himself or herself Superego = personality part that is self-critical and judgmental

52 Theories of Gender Differences (cont.)
Oedipus (boys), Electra (girls) complexes of phallic stage Child develops sexual feelings toward opposite-sex parent, wants to replace same-sex parent Child cannot replace same-sex parent, so wants to be like that parent Guilt and fear are resolved by gender-appropriate behavior No longer a popular theory–often same-sex parent not present

53 Behaviorist Theory of Gender
Gender roles are learned through observation and imitation. Examples: Who takes out the garbage? Who writes thank you notes? etc. RONNIE KAUFMAN / CORBIS

54 Cognitive Theory of Gender
Gender schemas organize the world into “male” and “female” activities. This is guided by an internal motivation to conform to sociocultural standards of gender. Example: “Is this a (boy/girl) thing to do?”

55 Sociocultural Theory of Gender
Children learn the preferred behavior for men and women in their society. Androgyny = a healthy balance of male and female psychological characteristics Is considered a psychologically healthy way to be, and will most fully occur if society supports it

56 Epigenetic systems theory of gender
Gender typed behavior is shaped by BOTH genetic differences between male and female brains, and environmental influences

Download ppt "The Play Years: Psychosocial Development"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google