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Presentation on theme: "Human Development CHAPTER 10 THE PLAY YEARS PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT."— Presentation transcript:


2 Erikson: Initiative vs. guilt Increased levels of energy at this stage enable the child to boldly and exuberantly initiate new activities Outcome of this crisis will depend on whether the child often succeeds and is praised for his/her endeavors or whether efforts fail and the child is unrewarded or blamed Child's growing self-concept results in a turning away from an "exclusive attachment" such as to a parent and toward becoming a member of a larger group.

3 Children's growing capacity for communication, imagination and social understanding allows them to explore lots of social roles. In terms of self- confidence, social skills, and social roles, much develops during early childhood

4 Self emerges gradually during later stages of infancy and, by early childhood, children begin to have clearly defined (though not always accurate) concepts of self. They regularly overestimate their abilities

5 PHOBIA: Fear becomes so strong that is interferes with child's normal functioning Use modeling or gradual desensitization as therapy. ELECTIVE MUTISM: Talk normally at home but are mute with other children or adults. Usually gradually disappears in good preschool or some other social setting that allows child to get over his/her fear of others. Some cases can be precursor to serious speech and behavior problems as well as sign of problems at home

6 PLAY THE WORK OF PRESCHOOLERS: Mildred Parten(1932) Types of Play Solitary: alone, unaware of others Onlooker: watches others Parallel: play in similar way with similar toys Associative: Interact by sharing materials Cooperative: Play together, helping and taking turns

7 DRAMATIC PLAY Most complicated form of social play Coincides with the achievement of symbolic thinking Fun but also helps children try out social roles, express their fears and fantasies, and learn to cooperate

8 SIBLING INTERACTION Siblings are more likely to quarrel with one another than with non-related children but also more likely to have positive interactions including nurturance and cooperation Parents influence the sibling interactions often setting the stage for rivalry Siblings are more likely to fight and argue in presence of a parent and play cooperatively alone

9 IMPORTANCE OF SOCIAL PLAY Provides crucial experiences that would be hard for adults to provide or for children to learn later. Learning to play teaches reciprocity, nurturance, and cooperation With more experience play becomes more sophisticated and friendships more selective

10 PARENTING Styles Diana Baumrind (1967) Observed 110 children, interviewed parents, observed parent-child interactions at home and lab setting. THREE STYLES OF PARENTING –Authoritarian: Parents' word is law, not to be questioned. Aloof from children, afraid to show affection/praise. –Permissive: Make few demands on children, hiding impatience they feel. Discipline is lax, anarchy common. –Authoritative: Set limits, enforce rules, but listen receptively to child's requests and questions. Family rule is more democratic than dictatorial.

11 Generalizations she found Sons of authoritarians-distrustful, unhappy, hostile, neither sons or daughters-high achievers Children of permissive-least self-reliant, least self-controlled, most unhappy. (boys low achievers, girls OK) Children of authoritative-most self- reliant, self-controlled, and content and are friendly, cooperative, high achiever

12 Aggression Reaches peak during preschool years and then declines Instrumental aggression –involves arguing over an object, territory, or privilege Reactive Aggression- –Shoving punching rather tan using words when “injured” Bullying Aggression –Attack against someone rather than a fight about something. Younger children more likely to respond physically to being made fun of. Certain amt. of aggression is normal

13 SPANKING 408 Parents Surveyed –9% never used physical punishment –72 % Spanked but did not use more violent punishment –19% hit and/or beat as well as spanked

14 Instrumental aggression Unrelated to punishment All children used this Just as likely to fight over a toy no matter punishment

15 Reactive Aggression Powerfully affected by spanking Three times more likely to retaliate

16 Bullying Aggression Clearly associated with being violently punished Particularly in the case of a few extreme children

17 Boys who were spanked buy fathers were likely to behave as if they had been hit as well as spanked. That is they became Bullies

18 Role of T.V. Children –2-5 21h 21 min (1996) –6-11 19h 59min Teens –Girls 18h 19min –Boys 19h 59min

19 SEX ROLES AND STEREOTYPES All psychologists agree that children begin to learn sex roles and moral values during early childhood they disagree about how this occurs. Freud: believed that the guilt and fear that children feel because of the fantasies of the Oedipal complex result in the development of their superegos Erikson: stresses the child's initiative and exuberance, noting that the child sometimes feels guilty when this gets out of bounds.

20 Learning theorists think children learn their values from the reinforcement they receive for acting appropriately, and from the punishment they receive from acting inappropriately –Modeling role models of parents, T.V., and others Cognitive theorists remind us that young children are illogical and egocentric and we should not expect them to understand moral values or sex roles.

21 Androgyny State of having both male and female characteristics, person defining him or herself as primarily a human being rather than a male or a female






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