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Achievement, Careers, and Work Chapter 10: Human Adjustment John W. Santrock McGraw-Hill © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Presentation on theme: "Achievement, Careers, and Work Chapter 10: Human Adjustment John W. Santrock McGraw-Hill © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved."— Presentation transcript:

1 Achievement, Careers, and Work Chapter 10: Human Adjustment John W. Santrock McGraw-Hill © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Chapter Outline Achievement Careers and Jobs Work

3 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Learning Goals 1. Discuss achievement and related adjustment strategies 2. Describe important aspects of careers and jobs 3. Summarize key aspects of work

4 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved ACHIEVEMENT Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reinforcement Goal Setting, Planning, and Monitoring Time Management Some Obstacles to Achievement

5 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reinforcement  Extrinsic motivation - involves external incentives such as rewards and punishments  Intrinsic motivation - based on internal factors such as self-determination, curiosity, challenge, and effort – Intrinsic motivation is more likely to produce competent behavior and mastery – Intrinsic motivation is the key to achievement

6 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Goal Setting, Planning, and Monitoring  Achievement improves when people set goals that are specific, short-term and challenging  High-achieving individuals monitor themselves (systematically evaluate progress toward goals)

7 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Adjustment Strategies for Setting Goals 1. Set goals that are challenging, reasonable, and specific 2. Set completion dates for your goals 3. Create sub-goals 4. Make a commitment 5. Monitor your progress

8 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Time Management  Steven Covey (1989) set up a time matrix: – Important activities - those linked to your values and goals – Urgent activities - those that require immediate attention Urgent Not Urgent Important Pay bill today Psych test in 2 weeks Not Important Phone ringing Reading newspaper

9 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Time Management  Tips on time management : – Spend time on important non-urgent activities – Don’t let your life be ruled by urgency – Do important activities early – Set priorities for your tasks and complete them in that order

10 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Create and Monitor Time Plans  Determine the most important activities for each day and allocate adequate time for them  Create a to-do list, which involves listing and setting priorities for daily tasks  Monitor your progress on a yearly, monthly, and daily basis

11 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Some Obstacles to Achievement  Achievement problems occur when you: – don’t set goals – don’t plan how to reach them – don’t monitor your progress toward goals – don’t manage your time effectively – procrastinate – insist on perfection – try to protect self-worth by avoiding failure

12 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Procrastination  Reasons for procrastination include: – difficulty concentrating – fear and anxiety – negative beliefs – personal problems – boredom – unrealistic expectations – perfectionism – fear of failure

13 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Adjustment Strategies for Conquering Procrastination 1. Acknowledge that procrastination is a problem 2. Identify your values and goals 3. Work on your time management 4. Divide the task into smaller parts 5. Use behavioral strategies 6. Use cognitive strategies

14 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Perfectionism  Perfectionists think mistakes are never acceptable and the highest standards always have to be achieved  Perfectionists are vulnerable to: – decreased productivity – impaired health – relationship problems – low self-esteem

15 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Adjustment Strategies for Coping with Perfectionism 1. Make a list of advantages and disadvantages of trying to be perfect 2. Increase awareness of the self-critical nature of your all-or-nothing thoughts 3. Be realistic about what you can do 4. Set strict time limits on each project 5. Learn how to deal with criticism

16 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Protecting Self-worth by Avoiding Failure  Ineffective ways people are distracted from goals: – Nonperformance – Sham effort – Procrastination – Setting unreachable goals – The academic wooden leg

17 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Protecting Self-worth by Avoiding Failure  Efforts to avoid failure involve self-handicapping strategies  Individuals handicap themselves by: – Not making an effort – Putting off a project until the last minute  If subsequent performance is poor, these circumstances can be seen as the cause (rather than a lack of ability)

18 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Protecting Self-worth by Avoiding Failure  Strategies to reduce preoccupation with protecting self- worth and avoiding failure: – Set challenging but realistic goals – Strengthen link between your effort and self-worth – Take pride in your effort – Have positive beliefs about your abilities

19 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Review - Learning Goal 1 – What motivates people to achieve? – How are goals related to achievement? – What are some important aspects of time management? – What are some obstacles to achievement and ways to deal with them?

20 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved CAREERS AND JOBS Career Development Across the Lifespan Skills and Personality Traits Knowledge, Goals, and Careers Getting a Job

21 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Career Development Across the Lifespan  Eli Ginzberg (1972) proposed 3 career stages: – Fantasy (birth-11) - careers perceived in unrealistic manner – Tentative (11-17) - transition – Realistic (18-25) - make pragmatic decisions

22 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Career Development Across the Lifespan  Donald Super (1976) described 5 career stages: – Growth (birth-14) - physical and cognitive development – Exploration (15-24) - take needs, interests, values into consideration – Establishment (25-44) - pursue permanent career – Maintenance (45-64) - continue career – Decline (65 on) - retirement

23 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Skills and Personality Traits Basic Skills – Reading – Writing – Mathematics – Speaking – Listening Thinking Skills – Creative thinking – Decision-making – Visualization Personal Qualities – Self-esteem – Self-management – Responsibility People Skills – Social – Negotiation – Leadership

24 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Holland’s Personality Type Theory  John Holland (1973) identified six career-related personality styles: – Realistic – Investigative – Artistic – Social – Enterprising – Conventional

25 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Holland’s Model of Personality Types and Career Choices Realistic - Doing / Things Conventional - Conforming / Data Investigative - Thinking / Ideas Enterprising - Managing / People Artistic - Creating / Ideas, Things Social - Helping / People

26 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Knowledge, Goals, and Careers  Two important aspects of exploring careers are: – becoming knowledgeable about careers – setting career goals

27 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Getting a Job  Getting a job: – Be aware of what employers want – Do a thorough job search – Create a résumé – Learn how to have a great job interview

28 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Figure 10.8 Desired Skills of an Ideal Job Candidate Rated by Employers

29 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Adjustment Strategies for “Knocking ’Em Dead” in a Job Interview 1. Create an excellent résumé 2. Don’t wing an interview 3. Be prepared to give examples of work experiences 4. Anticipate possible questions for the interview 5. Ask appropriate job-related questions yourself 6. Keep your cool 7. As the interview closes, decide whether you want the job 8. After the interview, write a follow-up letter

30 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Review - Learning Goal 2 – How do our thoughts about careers typically develop through the lifespan? – How do our skills and traits influence our careers? – What are key factors involved in obtaining a good job?

31 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved WORK The Role of Work in People’s Lives Work During College Work and Retirement Leisure

32 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved The Role of Work in People’s Lives  Work defines people in fundamental ways: – their financial standing – housing – the way they spend their time (one-third of their lives) – where they live – their friendships – their health – for some people, their identity

33 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Workaholics  Workaholics: – seem addicted to work – may enjoy work – identify strongly with their careers

34 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Dual-career Couples  The two-earner couple has increased in prevalence – Women are taking increased responsibility for family income – Men are showing greater interest in families and parenting

35 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Diversity in the Workplace  The workplace is becoming increasingly diverse – Gender diversity increasingly characterizes occupations – Ethnic diversity is increasing in every developed country except France – Latinos are projected to constitute a larger percentage of the U.S. labor force than African Americans by 2012

36 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Diversity in the Workplace Glass ceiling = invisible barrier to career advancement that prevents women and ethnic minorities from holding managerial or executive jobs regardless of their accomplishments and merits

37 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Unemployment  Unemployment produces stress  Unemployment is related to: – physical problems – mental problems – marital and family problems – homicide – other crimes

38 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Working During College  During the academic year, 80% of undergraduate students worked  As number of hours worked per week increased, grades declined  Jobs can contribute to education, in the form of cooperative programs or internships

39 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Work and Retirement  Federal law prohibits employers from firing older workers (who have seniority and higher salaries) just to save money

40 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Retiring Part-time  Many retirees only partially retire, moving to part-time employment  Reasons for continuing to work: – part-time work for interest or enjoyment – income – desire to start a business – desire to try a different field of work – benefits

41 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Adjusting to Retirement  Older adults who adjust best to retirement: – are healthy – have adequate income – are active – are better educated – have an extended social network – were satisfied with their lives before retirement

42 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Leisure  Men who went on annual vacations were 32% less likely to die of coronary heart disease Leisure = the pleasant times after work when individuals are free to pursue activities and interests of their own choosing such as hobbies, sports, or reading

43 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Review - Learning Goal 3 – What role does work play in people’s lives? – What are the things to know about working while going to college? – What characteristics work in retirement for older adults? – What is leisure and what role does it play in people’s lives?


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