1 AN INVESTIGATION INTO A PEDAGOGIC CORPUS OF MARITIME ENGLISH (ME) email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org
2 MARITIME ENGLISH sub-registers set languages (SeaSpeak and IMO Standard Phrases ) shipbuilding, seamanship, cargo handling, meteorology and oceanography, marine engineering, electricity, electronics, automation, port operations, marine pollution, safety of life at sea, international rules and regulations, marine insurance, shipping, business transactions, catering and tourism.
3 ME: The State of the Art very little, if any, known about ME research almost non-existent no field-specific corpora available
4 Maritime English Pedagogic Corpus (MEPC) materials/texts ‘representative’ of the type of English used and accepted as ‘genuine’ in an educated discourse community living and working in a maritime environment outside the English-speaking countries, possibly a sample of ELF selection of specific ‘lexical fields’ and sub- registers language used in the relevant field literature typical ESP rhetorical functions validated by Italian professionals working in the maritime field
5 The software WinATA (Aston Text Analyser) FREQUENCY and RANGE (Heatley, Nation and Coxhead, 2002) WordClassifier (Denies, Goethals and EET Project Team, 1996)
6 Corpus statistics Sub-corpora14 Texts185 Average length of texts280 running words Pages96 Tokens/Running words51,823 (WinATA count) Types5,831 Hapax legomena2,528 Types occurring less than 9 times 5,013
7 Sub-corpora description (no ‘norming’)Token countType count Basic Ship Terminology 1,771455 Ship Types 1,255416 Ship Particulars 1,010314 Manning 2,057541 The History of the Ship 2,323747 Famous Ships 5,9561,659 Shipbuilding 1,235509 Miscellanea: Structural Elements and Shipboard Plants 2,583775 Technical Specification (4) 9,4821,984 IMO/Classification Societies 2,958874 Marine Pollution 3,6421,115 Marine Meteorology 6,1341,515 Port Operations 3,153750 Collision Regulations 8,264997
8 Stages in the investigation Stage1 Producing a frequency list Comparing the MEPC most frequent ‘words’ with the ones from other listsmost frequent ‘words’ Identifying the function words not/present in the corpus Finding the coverage of the most common words Stage 2 Identifying the ‘maritime’ lexical items in the corpus‘ Analysing the main features of the ‘field specific’ lexical items. Classifying the technical ‘words’
9 The most and the least frequent words across different lists The 50 most frequent words The 50 most frequent words General Service List (GSL) General Service List (GSL) adapted from West by Bauman (http://jbauman.com/gsl.html ) http://jbauman.com/gsl.html Cambridge International Corpus (CIC) Cambridge International Corpus (CIC) 330,000 words of written data 330,000 words of written data The COBUILD Bank of English The COBUILD Bank of English 196 million words of written corpus
10 ME ‘vocabulary’ Hardly unique ‘per se’ Mainly ‘general words’ taking on different meanings and roles through: polysemy and homonymy compounding
11 Polysemy and homonymy Polysemy and homonymy 1/5th of all types Polysemy and homonymy GE/ME differences – ‘Shifts’ in: meaning meaning (bank, floor, air draught, port) grammatical functions: grammatical functions: adverbs or prepositions -> adjectives adverbs or prepositions -> adjectives from verbs -> nouns from verbs -> nouns (after) (bow?)
12 ‘ Shifts’ In meaning ‘bank’ ‘bank’ - a financial institution - the bank of a river - a ‘bank of fog’ - a ‘row of objects’ (e.g. a bank of oars, a bank of tubes). ‘floor’ ‘floor’ - a horizontal subdivision in a building - a vertical plate in the ship bottom. ‘air draught’ ‘air draught’ - a current of air - the maximum height of the ship’s parts above the water surface. ‘port’ ‘port’ - an artificial harbour, - an ‘opening’ in the hull - the ‘left’ side of the ship. In grammatical functions In grammatical functions ‘bow’ ‘bow’ GE: GE: - noun (a knot with two loops, a weapon or a device for playing a musical instrument) - noun (a knot with two loops, a weapon or a device for playing a musical instrument) - verb (indicating a body motion) - verb (indicating a body motion) ME: ME: - noun (the fore end of a ship) - noun (the fore end of a ship) ‘after’ ‘after’ GE: GE: - time relater (preposition/adverb) - time relater (preposition/adverb) ME: ME: - adjective (the after end of the ship). - adjective (the after end of the ship).
13 Compounding (1) Usual types of connection noun plus noun noun plus noun e.g. ballast water, radio officer present participle plus noun present participle plus noun e.g. mooring ropes, navigating cadet past participle plus noun past participle plus noun e.g. compressed air, I-shaped beam
14 Compounding (2) Common semantic relationships ( Blakey, 1987: 146) B of A cylinder cover, hatchway B with/has A B contains A salt water, shipowner wheelhouse, storeroom B in/on/at A port operations, bow thruster B is made of/from A copper wire, air-cushion B operated by A B uses A hand pump steam turbine, water plant B shaped like A needle valve, I-beam B invented by A Diesel engine, Beaufort wind scale
15 Compounding (3) adjectives adjectives (deep tank, double bottom, forecastle, parallel middle body, strong beam, upper deck) nominalised adjectives nominalised adjectives (deck longitudinals) adjectival compounds adjectival compounds (oil tight, watertight) reverse combinations reverse combinations (depth moulded, length overall) ordinal numbers ordinal numbers (first mate, third engineer) prepositions prepositions (‘tween deck, upkeep, overhaul) (‘tween deck, upkeep, overhaul) the names of seasons the names of seasons ( summer load line) proper nouns turned into common nouns proper nouns turned into common nouns (jacob’s ladder, samson post) eponyms or names of inventors to describe a product eponyms or names of inventors to describe a product (Diesel engine, Beaufort scale, Plimsoll marks) place names to indicate an important event or convention place names to indicate an important event or convention (York-Antwerp Convention, Florida Act) (York-Antwerp Convention, Florida Act) geographical names geographical names (North Atlantic loadline)
16 Compounding (5) poly-words One word (bulkhead, shipowner) One word (bulkhead, shipowner) Spaces in between (water ballast, bracket floor) Spaces in between (water ballast, bracket floor) Hyphens (I-beam) Hyphens (I-beam) Prepositions (round of deck, turn of the bilge, length between perpendiculars) Prepositions (round of deck, turn of the bilge, length between perpendiculars) Possessive case (Ship’s Cook) Possessive case (Ship’s Cook) Combined devices (men-of-war) Combined devices (men-of-war) fixed collocations with ‘specialized unitary meaning’
17 condense information (Hatch & Brown,1995:191) create new meanings different from the one of each of the parts making up a combination (Barlow,1996:12) create ‘unique’ meanings are the only acceptable referential forms available to point to areas of experience shared by the target maritime community (there exist no other words to point to the concepts they represent) do not serve other frames of reference are to be considered as single words (though written with hyphens or with spaces in between) have stable relationships having frozen into fixed forms extreme forms of fixed collocation can be seen as extreme forms of fixed collocation (Becker, 1975: 8; Schmitt and McCarthy, 1997:43) ME multi-word items - fixed collocations with ‘specialized unitary meaning’ -
18 Other relevant lexical aspects –clippings (bosun for boatswain, f’c’sl for forecastle), –initialization (A.B.S.) –acronyms (SOLAS: Safety Of Life At Sea, MARPOL: MARine POLlution).
19 Metaphors Metaphors Metaphorical use of animal names in fixed collocations with ‘specialized unitary meaning’ (cat’s walk, dog watch, crow’s nest, donkeyman) in connection with the word ‘ship’ Metaphorical use of the language in connection with the word ‘ship’ (she/her ->backbone, ribs)
21 ME lexical classification Few ‘unique’ field specific lexical items Lexical items also belonging to other ESP fields Multi-word sense segments or compounds (‘common words’ occurring together to form unique ‘field specific single meanings’) Polysemes and homonyms (‘common words’ used with special ‘unique’ meanings in the frame of reference) Function words and general service words
22 THE PEDAGOGIC WASH-BACK greater attention to the most frequent and to the least frequent words in the texts a different approach in designing learning tasks ‘sense-segment-based lexical activities’ matching ‘old words’ to ‘new meanings’ exploring the ‘multiple meanings’ of words analysing and manipulating the different relationships and combinations
23 Activity 1: Look at the following table and decide what is the meaning of ‘course’ in the different instances This isof course important in all ships. The captain's watch, and,of course, the bell itself, ….. ….. an alterationof course towards a vessel abeam ….. sufficient sea-room, alterationof course alone may be the solution.
24 Activity 2: Read the following examples and guess the different meanings of the word ‘current’ in context. Then check by using a dictionary. 1.Evaluate current, nearby port and hurricane haven locations that may be considered for tropical cyclone avoidance. 2.Current and lighting are supplied by the generators. 3.Winds of hurricane force opposing any ocean current can quickly create very steep, short period waves. 4.Plot current/ forecast positions of all active/ suspected tropical cyclone activity. 5.The service speed as well as the optimum size of tanker is very much related to current market economics. 6.The developing storm drifts westwards with the current of free air and it deviates from the equator after arriving at the western margin of the semi-permanent 'high' 7.The current state of the environment is one of the most serious problems facing mankind today.
25 Activity 3: Find the different uses and meanings of the word ‘after’ using a dictionary. Then read the following ‘bits of sentences’ and identify the different meanings. …..on course and lookafter all the equipment used. ….. not going to Liverpoolafter all, not yet anyway. Theafter perpendicular ( A.P.) is a ….. Every deck is namedafter an Italian city (Genoa, ….. ….. deviates from the equatorafter arriving at the western ….. ….. if a witch wasafter her. ….. died a few daysafter she was registered and ….. However, by 12 hours after landfall, tornadoes tend to ….. ….. peak tanks and theafter peak tanks. ….. have patterned their shipsafter the shapes of waterfowl. Standing on theafter davit, he was trying ….. ….. vertical line through theafter edge of the rudderpost.
26 Activity 4:All the words listed below contain ‘ship’, but there are two odd-words-out. Cross them out and motivate your decision. Provide an example for each word. Translate the words into Italian. 1. amidships 2. athwartships 3. battleships 4. lightship 5. seamanship 6. shipboard 7. shipbuilder 8. warship 1. shipmasters 2. ship-owner 3. ship-repairing 4. relationship 5. shipwreck 6. shipwright 7. shipyard 8. steamship
27 Activity 5: Identify the relationships in the following compounds and fill in the table after peak tank cylinder cover salt water needle valve I-beam ship owner wheelhouse storeroom hatchway steam turbine water plant hand pump steam turbine air-cushion Beaufort wind scale port operations B of A B with/has A B contains A B is made of/from A B in/on/at A B uses A B operated by A B shaped like A B invented by A
28 Activity 6: Form compounds out of the following definitions a ship that was designed to carry containers ______________________________________________ the chain of the anchor ______________________________________________ the room where the engines are located _______________________________________________ an engine driven by steam _______________________________________________ an engine invented by Rudolf Diesel _______________________________________________ the tanks located in the fore peak _______________________________________________ the covers on the hatches _______________________________________________ a bulkhead made of steel _______________________________________________ the papers of the ship _______________________________________________ a bar shaped like the letter H _______________________________________________
29 Activity 7: ‘Gapped’ compounds - Complete the compound words in this passage. A general cargo _______ is a single- or two-deck ship. The hull is divided up into a number of water-__________ compartments by decks and _________ heads. At the fore and after ends of the hull are the fore _________ tanks and the ________ peak tanks. There usually are four or five holds in-between. The holds also have ‘__________ decks, i.e. decks dividing up cargo space. A traditional dry cargo _______ has her engine ______ and bridge ____________ amidships so that there are three holds forward of the engine _____________ and two holds aft of it. Above the main _________ at the fore end, forward of n°1 hold there is the __________ castle and right forward is the _________ staff. The derricks are supported by masts and by a _______________ post. They are stowed fore-and- __________ when the ship is at sea. There are two _________ boats, one on the port ___________ amidships, another on the ___________________ side amidships, abaft the funnel (the funnel is always abaft the bridge). The poop is at the after end of the ship and there is an ensign ______________ right aft.
30 Task aiming at developing learner autonomy (created with Word Classifier) Read the following lists of words. They are all the words (381) from the Module ‘Basic Ship Terminology’ that you have studied. Their difficulty ranges from 0 (fairly common) to 5 ( less common) Work on your own. Underline all the words that you recognize and whose meaning you can remember. Count them and see how good you are and how much you have learnt. Work with a partner and create as many ‘compound words’ as you can. Form a group of four and compare your lists. If you like, you can turn this activity into a competition. (The winner is the team of 2 students who have produced more compound words. The group decides whether the words are correct or not and assigns the scores. If you do not manage to reach an agreement, ask your teacher)