3 What elements do English sentences contain? What are the basic patterns of English sentences?How can we identify them?
4 What is sentence?a group of words, usually containing a verb, which expresses a thought in the form of a statement, question, instruction or exclamation and starts with a capital letter when written.A sentence is a group of words which, when they are written down, begin with a capital letter and end with a full stop, question mark, or exclamation mark. Most sentences contain a subject and a verb.
5 Regular and irregular sentences Mary sneezedHello!; Yes; No; So long!; Thanks!; Cheers!Pam hates it when Lee calls her at work.
6 Clause sentence clause a group of words, consisting of a subject and a finite form of a verb (= the form that shows the tense and subject of the verb), which might or might not be a sentencesentenceclause
7 Clause elements and structures How can we identify clause elements?The evenings have turned very cold just recently.
8 Classification: chain and choice relationship Distinctions between the elements-and between types within the elements - are based on(i) forms (noun phrase, verb phrase, adjective phrase, finite clause, etc),(ii) position,(iii) syntactic function other than positional potentialities, and(iv) semantic role
9 Basic clause patterns Someone was laughing loudly in the next room. My mother usually enjoys parties very much.In 1945 the country became totally independent.I have been in the garden all the time since lunch.Mary gave the visitor a glass of milk.Most people consider these books rather expensive, actually.You must put all the toys upstairs immediately
10 Someone [S] was laughing [V] loudly [A] in the next room [A]. My mother [S] usually [A] enjoys [V] parties  very much [A].In 1945 [A] the country [S] became [V] totally independent [C].I [S] have been [V] in the garden [A] all the time [A] since lunch [A].Mary [S] gave [V] the visitor  a glass of milk [O].Most people [S] consider [V] these books  rather expensive [C], actually [A].You [S] must put [V] all the toys [O] upstairs [A] immediately [A]
13 Subjects(a) FORMThe subject is normally a noun phrase or a pronoun. But other linguistic categories can also be seen:GerundStudying hard always makes me sleepy.InfinitiveTo go without you wouldn’t be any fun.ClauseWhat he said wasn’t very polite.(b) POSITIONThe subject normally occurs before the verb in declarative clauses, and after the operator in yes-no interrogative clauses
14 (c) Syntactic function The subject normally comes before the verb in declaratives, but in questions it comes after the operator: They (S) accepted (V) full responsibility.[1a] Did (op) they (S) accept (V) full responsibility?The subject comes before the verb even in questions if who or what or an interrogative phrase such as which person is the subject:[1b] Who (S) accepted (V) full responsibility?The subject is normally absent in imperatives:Help (V) me with the luggage.Some pronouns (words like I, you, she, he, they) have a distinctive form when they function as subject of the sentence or of clauses in the sentence:She (S) knows me well.I (S) know her well, and they (S) know her well too.The subject determines the form of reflexive pronouns (those ending in -self ; such as herself, ourselves, themselves) that appear in the same clause:I (S) hurt myself badly.The child cried when he (S) hurt himself badly.You (S) can look at yourself in the mirror.She (S) can look at herself in the mirror.When we turn an active sentence into a passive sentence we change the subjects:Active: The police (S) called the bomb-disposal squad.Passive: The bomb-disposal squad (S) was called by the police.We can also omit the subject of the active sentence when we form the passive sentence, and indeed we generally do so:Passive: The bomb-disposal squad was called.The subject is repeated in a tag question by a pronoun form (cf 11.8ff):I The milk is sour, isn't it?
15 SEMANTIC PROPERTIES(i) The subject is typically the theme (or topic) of the clause.(ii) It typically refers to information that is regarded by the speaker as given.(iii) In a clause that is not passive, the subject is agentive if the agentive role is expressed in the clause.
16 Subject verb agreement Grammatical agreement can be defined as the relationship between two grammatical units such that one of them displays a particular feature (e.g. plurality) that accords with a displayed (or semantically implicit) feature in the other. The most important type of agreement in English is agreement of 3rd person number between subject and verb. The normally observed rule is very simple:A singular subject requires a singular verb:e.g. My daughter watches television after supper.A plural subject requires a plural verb:e.g. My daughters watch television after supper.
17 Finite and nonfinite clauses generally count as singular: When the subject is realized by a noun phrase, the phrase counts as singular if its head is singular:e.g. The CHANGE in male attitudes is most obvious in industry.The CHANGES in male attitude are most obvious in industry.Finite and nonfinite clauses generally count as singular:e.g. How you got there doesn't concern me.To treat them as hostages is criminal.Smoking cigarettes is dangerous to your health.Prepositional phrases and adverbs functioning as subject also count as singular:e.g. In the evenings is best for me. Slowly does it!
18 Modal auxiliaries make no number distinctions: An apparent exception for clauses is the nominal relative clause. Nominal relative clauses are on the continuum from clause to noun phrase. For the purpose of concord, their number depends on the interpretation of the number of the wh-element. With the determiners what and whatever, the concord depends on the number of the determined noun:e.g. What were supposed to be new proposals were in fact modifications of earlier ones.What was once a palace is now a pile of rubble.Whatever book a Times reviewer praises sells well.What ideas he has are his wife's.The application of the general rule is restricted in several general respects:Except for the verb BE, the verb shows a distinction of number only in the 3rd person present. Hence, the verb generally does not show concord in the past. The verb BE displays concord also in the 3rd person past:My daughter was watching television in my bedroom.My daughters were watching television in my bedroom.Number concord is displayed only in the indicative. Nonfinite verbs, imperatives, and subjunctives make no number distinctionsModal auxiliaries make no number distinctions:My daughter(s) may watch television after supper
19 GRAMMATICAL CONCORD NOTIONAL CONCORD Notional concord is agreement of verb with subject according to the notion of number rather than with the actual presence of the grammatical marker for that notion:e.g. The government broken all promises.Fish and chips a popular supper here.theirhaveis
20 On the other hand, the singular is more likely in these sentences: The choice between singular or plural verbs depends in BrE on whether the group is being considered as a single undivided body, or as a collection of individuals. Thus,, in BrE plural is more likely than singular, because attention is directed at the individual reactions of members of the audience.The audience were enjoying every minute of it.The public are tired of demonstrations.England have won the cup.Our Planning Committee have considered your request.On the other hand, the singular is more likely in these sentences:The audience was enormous.The public consists of you and me.The crowd has been dispersed.It is generally safer in BrE to use the singular verb where there is doubt, in obedience to grammatical concord. AmE generally treats singular collective nouns as singular. Terms for the government and for sports teams are nearly always treated as singular in AmE, but other terms may (less commonly than in BrE) take plural verbs:The administration has announced its plans for stimulating the economy.America has won the cup.The public has a right to know. [also in AmE: The public have a right to know
21 the principle of PROXIMITY The principle of proximity, also termed 'attraction', denotes agreement of the verb with a closely preceding noun phrase in preference to agreement with the head of the noun phrase that functions as subject:e.g. There a man and two women in the car.is
22 Some constructions where the principle of proximity applies Not only…but also…Not only the students but also the teacher enjoying the film.Not … but …Not the child but the parents to blame.Neither … nor…Neither the students nor the teacher anything about it.Either… or …Either he or I right.Whether… or…Whether you or someone that you love dealing with an anxiety disorder, it can often feel as though your life has been brought to a haltisareknowsamis
23 Interaction of three principles Interaction of the different principles occurs in the context where the subject contains (a) a collective noun head; (b) coordination; and (c) an indefinite expression.Ten dollars is all I have left. ['That amount is. . .'lFifteen years represents a long period of his lifeMore than a thousand inhabitants have signed the petition.More than one member has protested against the proposal.Many a member has protested against the proposal.One and a half years have passed since we last met.
24 Coordinated subjectCoordination comprises cases that correspond to fuller coordinate forms. A plural verb is used even if each conjoin is singular:Tom and Alice are now readyA plural verb is similarly required in asyndetic coordination (without a coordinator):His camera, his radio, his money were confiscated by the customs officials.Conjoins expressing a mutual relationship, even though they can only indirectly be treated as reductions of clauses in this way, also take a plural verb:Your problem and mine are similar. ['Your problem is similar to mine and mine is similar to yours.']What I say and do are two different things. ['What I say is one thing and what I do is another thing.']If a singular noun phrase is followed by etc and similar abbreviatory expressions (and so on, and so forth), a plural verb is normal:The size etc are less important for our purposes.Preposed each or every has a distributive effect and requires a singular verb:Every adult and every child was holding a flag.Each senator and congressman was allocated two seats.
25 The principle of notional concord explains: The hammer and sickle was flying from the flagpole.Danish bacon and eggs makes a good solid English breakfast.The Bat and Ball sells good beer.Despite the coordination, the subject names a single flag, a single meal, and a single pub respectively. Contrast:Danish bacon and eggs sell very well in London.Arithmetical sums may be used with a singular or plural verb:Two and two four.So also Ten times five is (or are) fifty; Two fives make (or makes) ten. But Two fives are ten; Ten minus two is eight; Ten into fifty is five.isare
26 Coordination within a singular subject A singular noncount noun head may be premodified by phrases coordinated by and. As subject, the resulting noun phrase may imply two (or more) separate sentences, and may then be legitimately followed by a plural verb:American and Dutch beer are (both) much lighter than British beer.White and brown sugar are (equally) acceptable for this recipe.But a singular verb is often used in this context, and is required when the phrases are postmodifying:Beer from America and Holland is much lighter than British beer.When the subject is a nominal relative clause, coordination reduction allows some variation in number interpretation:What I say and do are my own affair.What I say and do is my own affair.A generic noun phrase with a singular count head requires a plural verb when the head is premodified and the premodification contains coordination by and:The short-term and (the) long-term loan are handled very differently by the bank.A first-language and (a) second-language learner share some strategies in their acquisition of the language.
27 Coordinative apposition In coordinative apposition, each of the coordinated units has the same reference. Hence, a singular verb is required if each noun phrase is singular. .This temple of ugliness and memorial to victorian bad taste was erected in the main street of the cityHowever, the following examples could either a singular or plural verb, depending on the meaning:His aged servant and the subsequent editor of his collected papers was/were with him at his deathbed.Law and order has/have been established.
28 Quasi-coordinationSubject noun phrases may be linked by quasi-coordinators, i.e. prepositions (such as along with, rather than, and as well as) that are semantically similar to coordinators. Grammatical concord requires a singular verb if the first noun phrase is singular:The captain, as well as the other players, was tired.One speaker after another was complaining about the lack of adequate sanitation.If an adverbial is attached to a second noun phrase linked to the first noun phrase by and, the construction is considered parenthetic, and grammatical concord similarly requires the verb to agree in number with the first noun phrase :A writer, and sometimes an artist, is invited to address the society.The ambassador - and perhaps his wife too - is likely to be present.The same grammatical rule applies when the second phrase is negative, whether or not linked by and, though here the principle of notional concord reinforces the use of the singular:The Prime Minister, (and) not the monarch, decides government policy.
29 Coordination with or and nor The principle of proximity prevails in either…or construction:Either the Mayor or her deputy is bound to come.Either the strikers or the bosses have misunderstood the claim.Either your brakes or your eyesight is at fault.Either your eyesight or your brakes are at fault.When or is used for coordinative apposition, grammatical agreement requires the number of the verb to agree with the first appositive if the two appositives differ in number:The hero, or main protagonist, is Major Coleman.The rules for the negative correlatives neither. . . nor are the same as for either. . . or in formal usage.Neither he nor his wife has arrived.The coordinating correlatives nor. . . but and nor only/just/merely. . . but (also/even) behave like or with respect to number concord:Not only he but his wife has arrived.Not (only) one but all of us were invited.
30 Indefinite expressions as subject No people of that name live here.Some/any/half/all has/have been taken away.None (of the books) have/has been placed on the shelf.The two guests have arrived, and either/but neither is welcome.Nobody, not even the teachers, is listening.These sort of parties are dangerous (informal)A (large) number of people have applied for the job.The majority are Moslems.
31 Verbs: transitive vs. intransitive vs. link If a main verb requires a direct object to complete the sentence, it is a transitive verb. The term ‘transitive’ comes from the notion that a person (represented by the subject of the sentence) performs an action that affects some person or thing: there is a ‘transition’ of the action from the one to the other. Indeed, the object typically refers to a person or thing directly affected by the action described in the sentence:Helen received my .They ate all the strawberries.I dusted the bookshelves in my bedroom.Anthony stroked his beard.One way of identifying the direct object in a declarative sentence is by asking a question introduced by who or what followed by the operator and the subject. The object is the constituent that who or what questions:Sandra recorded the adverse effects of the changes.What (dO) did (op) Sandra (S) record?The adverse effects of the changes
32 Verbs with or without objects If a main verb does not require another element to complete it, the verb is intransitive:Everyone is waiting, but he didn’t care.She sighed and yawned.We walk to the park and then we run round it.Verbs with or without objectsShe was so sad she could not speak.Do you speak English?Some verbs are usually used without objects but can take cognate objects.Chris will sing a song for us.She lived a good life.They fought a clean fight.He breathed his last breath.He died a miserable death.
33 SVAThe structure SV is basic because we can always add optional elements to them. These optional elements are adverbials. Adverbials (A) convey a range of information about the situation depicted in the basic structure. In below, the adverbial noisily depicts the manner of the action, and the adverbial outside the White House indicates the place of the action:The protestors were demonstrating noisily (A) outside the White House (A).As the above example indicates, a sentence may have more than one adverbial. Moreover, the position for adverbials is in many cases flexible.
34 ObjectsFORMLike the subject, the object is normally noun phrase or a nominal clause.POSITIONThe object normally follows the subject and verb. If both objects are present, the indirect object normally comes before the direct object:I gave him [Oi] my address [Od].
35 SYNTACTIC FUNCTION(i) The object function requires the objective form for pronouns that have distinctive case forms:They amuse me.I amuse them.(ii) If an object is coreferential with the subject, it usually requires a reflexive pronoun which agrees with the subject in person and, where relevant, in number and gender. Similar agreement is required for an emphatic genitive (my own, etc) within the object:You can please yourself.I[S] have given myself a treat.They type their own letters.(iii) The object of an active clause may generally become the subject of the corresponding passive clause:We have finished the work. - The work has been finished.If both objects are present, it is often possible to make either the subject in a corresponding passive clause:We sent Jack a copy of the letter.Jack was sent a copy of the letter A copy of the letter was sent Jack [Oil. But [l] is far more common than . Instead of the retained indirect object in , the prepositional paraphrase is more usual:A copy of the letter was sent to Jack.
36 (iv) The indirect object generally corresponds to a prepositional phrase, which is generally placed after the direct object:I'll send Charles another copy. - I'll send another copy to Charles.Pour me a drink. - Pour a drink for me.(v) The indirect object can generally be omitted without affecting the semantic relations between the other elements:David saved me a seat. - David saved a seat. David saved me.
37 SEMANTIC PROPERTIES(i) The direct object typically refers to an entity that is affected by the action denoted in the clause:Norman smashed a window in his father's car.(ii) The indirect object typically refers to an animate being that is the recipient of the action.
38 Ditransitive construction Indirect object following the verbI will send you a postcard.Indirect object following a preposition.I will send a postcard to you.To+Oi is used for such ditransitive verbs as send, give, hand, bring, lend, offer, pass, post, read, sell, show, teach, tell, throw, write while for +Oi fo buy, do, make, build, cook, cut, draw, fetch, find, get, keep, leave, order, pick, save.With verbs such as describe or explain, we put the indirect object after a preposition, not after the verb.He described the man to them.He explained the plan to us.Others include admit, announce, mention, murmur, report, shout, suggest, whisperWith such verbs as cost, deny, forgive, grudge, refuse, fine, bet, etc. we must put the indirect object after verb.The mistake cost us a lot of money.Ask can also take two objects:Can I ask you a favor?She’s never asked a favor of anybody.Clauses as OdI will remind him that you are here.(other verbs including assure, convince, inform, notify, persuade)He admitted to the police that he had stolen the money.(other verbs including boast, confess, declare, hint, propose reveal)
39 SVOO vs. SVOC She called him a fool. She called him a taxi. She called a fool to him.She called a taxi for him. (*)
40 Linking verbs and subject complement If a verb requires a subject complement (sC) to complete the sentence, the verb is a linking verb (also know as copulas or copular verbs). The subject complement (underlined in the examples that follow) typically identifies or characterizes the person or thing denoted by the subject: The show was splendid. He seemed in a good mood. Despite the scandal, he remained president. The news sounds horrifying.The most common linking verb is be. Other common linking verbs (with examples of subject complements in parentheses) includeappear, seem, (to be/adj/noun)feel, sound, taste, look, smell (adj/prep.+noun)Become, get, go, turn, come, growKeep, remain, stay (not used with to be)
44 Simple, compound and complex sentences The inquiry left in its wake a number of casualties.I was one of them.CompoundThe inquiry left in its wake a number of casualties, and I was one of them.ComplexI didn’t realize that Brian wasn’t feeling well.
45 Exercise 3.1 Subject, predicate, verb (cf. 3.2) In each sentence below, underline the subject and circle the verb constituent.1. Since September, the airline industry has suffered its greatest ever slump in business.2. Analysts predict several years of diminished business.3. Several thousand airline workers lost their jobs.4. Norma’s parents met her English and Biology teachers at the Open Day.5. Caroline submitted a poem about her dog to the school magazine.6. Outside, the company sign seems modest.7. Inside, the atmosphere is one of rush and ferment.8. Opossums frequently appear to be dead.9. Sometimes they merely pretend to be dead.Use each verb below to make up a sentence containing both a direct object and anindirect object.1. pay make2. bring cook3. leave spare4. read ask5. find chargeUse each verb below to make up a sentence containing both a direct object and an object complement.1. like2. consider3. find4. call5. appoint6. declare
46 The sentences below are ambiguous The sentences below are ambiguous. For each meaning, state the structure (the set of sentence elements) and give a paraphrase of the corresponding meaning. For example:They are baking potatoes.S + V + SC – ‘They are potatoes for baking’.S + V + dO – ‘They have put potatoes in the oven to bake’.1. You will make a good model.2. I’ll call you my secretary.3. Your men are revolting.4. They left him a wreck.5. You should find me an honest worker.6. She has appointed her assistant personnel manager.7. She teaches the best.8. He was subdued to some extent.9. My solicitor gives the poorest free advice.10. His hobby is making friends.
47 The sentences below are ambiguous The sentences below are ambiguous. For each meaning, state the structure (the set of sentence elements) and give a paraphrase of the corresponding meaning. For example:They are baking potatoes.S + V + SC – ‘They are potatoes for baking’.S + V + dO – ‘They have put potatoes in the oven to bake’.1. You will make a good model.S+V+SCS+V+O2. I’ll call you my secretary.S+V+O+OCS+V+iO+dO3. Your men are revolting.S+VS+V+C4. They left him a wreck.5. You should find me an honest worker.6. She has appointed her assistant personnel manager.7. She teaches the best.8. He was subdued to some extent.9. My solicitor gives the poorest free advice.10. His hobby is making friends.