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MODULE : C Special Accounts

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1 MODULE : C Special Accounts
CA R.C. Joshi , FCA,CAIIB,LL.B. B.Com(Hons.)

2 Special Accounts: In brief we would cover the following
Bank Reconciliation Trial Balance Capital & Revenue Expenditure Inventory Valuation Bills of Exchange Consignment Joint Venture Leasing & Hire Purchase

3 Module – C Special Accounts
Accounts for no-Trading Organisations Depreciation Accounting Accounting From incomplete records (Single Entry System Ratio Analysis

4 Bank Reconciliation Every trader/business maintains Bank Account. However when you compare the balance on a particular day (generally at the end of month )on comparison the Bank Balance as per Books maintained by Business & that reflected by Bank Statement may not be matching most of the times. A few reasons are listed below :

5 BR : Difference in CB & PB
Bank Reconciliation Statement is a state All Cheques Issued may not have been Presented in Bank All Cheques deposited may not been Credited in Bank Account Interest & Bank Charges effected by Bank Standing Instruction given to Bank not reflected in Businessman’s Books

6 BR : Difference in CB & PB
For eg. Tel. Bills , Electric Bills & Insurance Premia (debited by Bank ) Standing Instruction for Credits may be FD Interest, Dividends etc. Dishounour of Cheques deposited as also those issued by Business Direct Credit in Bank by Business. Thus Bank Reconciliation is a statement prepared to explian the difference between the balance as as per the ash Book & Bank Pass Book/Statement.

7 BR It is a STATEMENT(not an Account) prepared by Customer.
Overcasting the deposit side of Cash Book increases the Bank Balance as per Cash book. Bank shows as Deposits & withdrawals what is called for Receipts & Payments by Businessman in his Cash Book.

8 Bank A/C as per Cash Book for Dec
Dec Dr Dec Cr. 1 To Opening Bal 8 To A & Co By X & Co By Y & Co 10 By Cash (C)(withd.) 20 To Cash ( C ) Dep 30 By MTNL To B & Co By Z & Co 31 By Bal C/d

9 Bank Statement Withdrawals Deposits Balance
1 Dec Opening Bal Cr. X & Co Y & Co A & Co Cr. Cash 20 Cash Cr. 31 By Charges By Dividend Cr.

10 Bank Reconciliation as on 31st December
Rs Bank Balance as per Cash Book as on 31st Dec Add: Chequ issued but not presented MTNL Rs.800+ Z & Co. Rs.900 = Rs.1700 Dividend Credited not effected in CB Rs Less : Cheque Deposited but not credited Rs Bank Chgs. Debited not effected in CB Rs Ans: bank Bal. as per Bank Statement

11 BR Statement (When we start with Bank Bal. as per Bank Statement
Bank Balance as per Cash Book as on 31st Dec Add: Cheque Deposited but not credited Rs Bank Chgs. Debited not effected in CB Rs Less :Chequ issued but not presented MTNL Rs.800+ Z & Co. Rs.900 = Rs.1700 Dividend Credited not effected in CB Rs Ans: bank Bal. as per Bank Statement

12 Select the appropriate
1.Dr. Bal. as per Pass Book means ______ (Overdraft, Favourable Balance, neither of the two) 2. Cheque deposited it is recorded on________side (of Cash Book) & when dishonoured it is recorded on _______ side of the CASH BOOK. (Debit, Credit) 3.Debit Bal. in the Cash Book shows (Overdraft, Favourable Balance, neither of the two) 4. Insurance premia paid by the Bank is ________ (debited/Credited) by the Bank. 5.Direct Deposit by the Customer is first recorded in (Cash Book, Pass Book).

13 Answers 1. Overdraft 2. Debit, Credit 3. Favourable 4. Debited
5. Pass Book.

14 BR :Match the following
Column : A Column:B 1.Cash Book Dr. Side Deposits 2. Cash Book Cr. Side Withdrawals 3. Pass Book Dr. side Receipts 4. Pass Book Cr. Side Payments 5. Dr. Bal. in Pass book Overdraft as per Pass Book.

15 Answers 1(3) 2(4) 3(2) 4(1) 5(5)

16 TRIAL BALANCE Rectification of Errors
Trial Balance is a list or abstract of balances from Books(ledger, Cash Book, journal) to determine posted Debits/Credits and to establish a basic summary for financial statements. It may be prepared monthly, quarterly & half yearly.

17 Disagreement of a Trial Balance

18 Errors Compensating Errors: One effect nullifies the wrong effect on another Error of Commission: A clerical error committed while posting, totaling or balancing of an Account Error of Principles : An error arising out of non-observance of Accounting Principles One Sided Error: An error which affects only one side of Account

19 Errors Two Sided Errors : An error affecting two sides
Rectifying Entry : An entry passed to rectify the error. Suspense Account: An Account opened to tally trial balance temporarily.

20 Example-1 Goods purchased from Sohanlal wrongly entered into Sales Register at Rs.500. Correct Entry( That should have been) Purchases A/c. Dr. 500 To Sohanlal Cr.Rs.500 Wrong Entry Passed Sohanlal A/c. Dr To Sales Cr. 500

21 Example-1 Rectification Entry Sales A/c. Dr.500
Purchase A/c. Dr To Sohanlal Cr. Rs.1000 (Being purchase of goods wrongly recorded in Sales Register now rectified.)

22 Example -2 Salary Paid to Vijay, Accountant wrongly recorded to his Personal A/c. Rs.1000 Correct Entry Salary A/c. Dr To Cash Cr. Rs.1000 Wrongly Passed as : Vijay A/c. Dr To Cash Cr. Rs. 1000

23 Example-2 Rectification entry Salary A/c. Dr To Vijay A/c Cr (Being Salary paid wrongly debited to personal A/c now rectified).

24 Example-3 Wages paid for installation of Machinery Rs.500 were debited to Wages A/c.Rs.500 Correct Entry Machinery A/c. Dr To cash Rs.500 Wrongly passed as : Wages A/c. Dr To Machinery Rs.500

25 Example-3 Rectification Entry Machinery A/c. Dr. Rs.500
To cash Rs.500 ( Being wages paid for Installation of Machinery is wrongly debited to Wages A/c. now rectified).

26 Example-4 Rent paid Rs.200 wrongly debited to Postage A/c. Correct Entry: Rent A/c. Dr. Rs Cash A/c. Cr Rs.500 Entry wrongly passed as : Postage A/c. Dr. Rs Cash A/c. Cr Rs.500

27 Example-4 Rectification Entry
Rent A/c. Dr. Rs To Postage A/c. Cr Rs.500 (Being Payment of Rent wrongly debited to Postage A/c. now rectified).

28 Match the following Column: A Column : B 1.Trial Balance Diff. in Trial Bal Net Trial Bal Always shows Dr. bal. 3. Gross Trial Bal Always shows Cr. Bal. 4. Suspense A/c Generally shows Dr. Bal. 5. Real A/c Statement of balances of ledger A/cs Dr. or Cr. Balances Ledger A/c Debit & credit totals Ans: 1(6), 2(5), 3(8), 4(1), 5(2)

29 Fill in the Blanks 1.Errors which cancel out the effects of one another are called _________ Errors 2. Mistakes involving wrong recording or posting are called Errors of ________ 3. Difference in Trial Balance is transferred to ____________Account. 4. When a transaction is not recorded it is an error of _________.

30 Answers Compensatory Errors 2. Commission 3. Suspense A/c Ommission

31 12. Chapter :12 Capital & Revenue Expenditure

From the Trial Balance we can observe that some items directly appear in Balance Sheet while a some other items are charged to P&L A/c. Items which directly appear are generally CAPITAL while those charged to P & L are REVENUE. How this is classified?

33 The Basis Nature of the Expenses 2. Effect on revenue Earning Capacity 3. Benefit from the Expenditure 1.NATURE : Tests : Whether recurring in ordinary course of business : Salary, Electricity Bill, Tel Charges, Raw purchased etc. Applicability of Materiality Concept : An Wall Clock costing Rs.500/- having long useful life & it is non-recurring. However Materiality Concept it allowed to be charged as REVENUE. Building, Plant & Machinery, Motor Cars are examples of CAPITAL Expenditure

34 Effecting on Revenue Earning Capacity
The expense which help to generate income/revenue in the current year are revenue in nature and should be matched against the earned in the current year. If the expenditure helps to generate revenue for more than one accounting year is generally called purchase of plant.

35 State whether expenditure is Revenue/ Capital/ Deferred Revenue
1.Freight paid on a Machine for bringing it to factory. 2.The shifting of stock from old works to new site. 3.The overhauling expenses of Machine 4.The Legal expenses incurred in connection with raising of Debentures issue. 5 Purchase of Machinery. 6. Labour Welfare Expenses

36 True or False 1.A revenue expenditure of one party may be Capital receipt for the other party. 2.Receipts from Sale of machinery is revenue receipt. 3.The distinction between & revenue expenditure can not be definite. It depends on the facts & circumstances of each case. 4.Legal charges paid for purchase of land are

37 True or False Capital Expenditure but legal charges paid in the ordinary course of business is revenue expenditure. 5. Wages paid in the Ordinary Course of business are revenue expenditure but wages paid for erection of machinery are capital expenditure. 6.Debenture receipts are revenue receipts.

38 Answers to True or False


40 Objective The main objective for accounting for INVENTORIES is to ascertain income through matching appropriate costs t for receipts as well as conversion of raw materials into semi-finished & finished products. As per Accounting Standard-2 the inventory may be for sale in the ordinary course of business In the process of production for such sale The production for goods or services for sale including maintenance, supplies and consumables other than machinery & spares.

41 13. Inventory Valuation Cost of the goods is worked out as follows:

42 Find out Stock Value under 3 methods : (page:249),April ,2009
Date Recepits L.F Units Rate Issued Date Units 1 Op. Stock Purchases Purchases Purchase Stock verification on 3rd April reveals loss of 1o units. Show the stock of Cost of goods sold & valuation of stock as on 7th april,2009 under FIFO,LIFO & Weighted Average Cost Method.

43 FIFO April, Receipts Issue Balance *8=4000 *10= *8= *10=6000 *8= (Loss)*8= *8= *10=6000 *10.20= *8= *10=6000 *8= *10= *10= 3900 100*10.20=1020

44 FIFO(page no: 250) April, Receipts Issue* Balance *10.50= *10= *10.20= *10.50=2100 *10= *10.20= *10.20= *10.50=2100 Closing Stock under FIFO Method :290 units Rs.3018 Cost of Goods Sold : units Rs Loss of Units : units Rs.80

45 LIFO April,09 Receipts Issue Balance 1. 500*8=4000
*10= *8= *10=6000 *10= (Loss)*10= *8= *10=2900 *10.20= *8= *10= *10.20=1020 *10.20= *10= *10= 3929

46 LIFO April, Receipts Issue Balance *10.50= *8= *1050=2100 Units *10.50= *8= , *8=2320 Closing Stock under LIFO 290 units Rs.2320 Cost of Goods Sold units Rs Loss of Units units Rs.100

47 Average Weighted Cost April, Receipts Issue Balance *8= *9.09= loss = *9.09= *10.20= *9.21=8201 *9.21= *9.21=4513 *10.50= *9.58= *9.58= *9.58=2778 Stock: units 290*9.58= Rs.2778 Cost of Goods Sold 1100 units=10251 Loss of units 10*9.09 = Rs.91.

48 Base Stock Method Base Stock Method : It is assumed holding of minimum quantity (base stock) with a particular price & the quantity in excess thereof are dealt with some other basis. Adjusted Selling Price:

49 Methods Periodic Inventory Perpetual Inventory
Implications of FIFO & LIFO Methods in rising methods & falling Prices. Requirements In rising Market , FIFO just like LIFO in falling Market will reflect lowest cost so higher profits.

50 Select the correct answer
1.The test of objectivity & verifiability is satisfied by valuing stock at (a)Historical Cost (b)Current replacement Price (C ) Net realisable value. 2. The ascertainment of value of stock from accounting records is known as (a) Continuous Stock taking (b) Periodic Inventory © Perpetual Inventory 3. Historical Cost Concepts are reduced to net realisable value of ( (a) Consistency (b) Conservatism © realisation 4. The cost of formulae recommended by Accounting Standard 2 for valuation of inventories are (a) FIFO or Weighted Average (b) Standard Costs ( C ) LIFO or latest purchase Price 5. In retail business widely follwed method of inventoery is (a) FIFO (b) Weighted © adjusted selling prices

51 Answers 1-a 2-c 3-b 4-a 5-c

52 Fill in the Blanks 1. The inventory valuation is subjective because it depends on the _________________followed by the accountant 2. Historical value is reduced to net realisable value due to the accounting convention of ____________. 3. Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less costs of of _______________and less costs necessary to make the ______. 4. The ascertainment of the costs at the end by physically counting the stock is known as _________. 5. The basis of inventory valuation should not be changed frequently because its violates the accounting principle of ____________.

53 Answers to fill in the Blanks
1. Accounting Policies 2. Conservatism 3. Completion, Sale 4. Periodic Inventory 5. Consistency



56 Bills of Exchange The main journal is divided into a number of journals. So there are Bills Receivable & Bills Payable journals. Types of Instruments of Credit : Promissory Note Bills Of Exchange : It is an instrument in writing Signed by the maker containing an unconditional order to pay a certain sum of money to a person named in the instrument or to his order to the bearer on a certain fixed future date or demand. (se. 5 of NI Act)

57 Bills of Ex. A Sells goods worth Rs to B On Credit. A draws the Bill for Rs It is accepted by B & returned to A. Show the entries to be passed in the books of A & B respectively under the different circumstances (a) if A retains the Bill & presents on maturity (b) If A discounts the bill before the due date for Rs © A sends the Bill to his Bank for Collections. (d ) If A endorses the bill to C his Creditor

58 Answer Here ‘A’ is the drawer, Bill means Bills of Exchange & it is Bills Receivable for Drawer & Bills Payable for Drawee. (a) B.R. A/c. Dr To B Cr (b) Cash A/c. Dr Discount To B. R Cr

59 Bills of Ex. ( C ) Bank for Bills Collection A/c. Dr To Bills Receivable A/c. cr (d) When the Bill is endorsed to C C A/c Dr To Bills Receivable (being endorsement of Bill of C

60 Bills of Ex. In the Books of B A’s A/c Dr To Bills Payable A/c Cr

61 Entries on due date under the following Circumstances
(a) if A retains the Bill & presents on maturity (b) If A discounts the bill before the due date for Rs © A sends the Bill to his Bank for Collections. (d ) If A endorses the bill to C his Creditor. (a)Cash A/c. Dr To B R. A/c. Cr (b) No entry as Bank will take step on due date

62 Bills of Ex. ( c). Here Bank collects the money from Drawee remits to A. Cash or Bank A/c. Dr To Bank for Bills Collection Cr (d) When endorsed Bill is met. No entry in B’s Books. In B’s Books : Bills Payable A/c. Dr To Cash/ Bank Cr

63 Dishonouring of Bill Books of A
a) Dishonour of retained Bill. B’s A/c Dr To BR A/c. Cr To Cash (b) Discounted Bill Dishonoured BR A/c/ Dr Noting Charges Dr To Cash A/c. Cr B’s A/c Dr To BR A/c. Cr To Cash

64 Dishonouring of Bill Books of A
(a) Dishonour of retained Bill. B’s A/c Dr To BR A/c. Cr To Cash (b) Discounted Bill Dishonoured BR A/c/ Dr Noting Charges Dr To Cash A/c. Cr B’s A/c Dr To BR A/c. Cr To Cash

65 Bills Sent for collection
BR A/c/ Dr Noting Charges A/c To Cash A/c. Cr To Bills for collection B’s A/c Dr To BR A/c. Cr To Noting Charges

66 When endorsed Bill is dishonoured
BR A/c Dr Noting Charges A/c Dr To C B’s A/c Dr To BR To Noting Charges In B’s Books Bills Payable Noting Charges A/c Dr To Bills Payable


68 On retirement In A’s Books
Cash A/c Dr. Rs.9500 Rebate A/c Rs To Bills Receivable Rs In B’s Books Bills Payable A/c. Dr. Rs To Cash A/c. Cr Rs To Rebate Cr. Rs.500

69 When Bills is renewed B by paying Rs.4000.
Bill is renewed for a period of 3 months for which pays 3 months interest at 10% p.a. First old bill is to be cancelled B’s A/c Dr. Rs To Bills Receivable A/c. Cr. Rs.10000 Cash A/c Dr Rs.4000 Bills Receivable A/c Rs To Interest A/c Rs To B’s A/c Rs.10000

70 Renewal in B’s books First old bill is to be cancelled Bills Payable A/c Dr. Rs.10000 To A’s A/c. Cr Rs.10000 A’s A/c Dr Rs.10000 Interest A/c. Dr Rs To Cash A/c. Cr Rs To B’s A/c Rs.6150

71 Accommodation Bills These bills are drawn without consideration & objective is to accomdate one party. The rest of things are same as Bills receivable (with exception to sharing of discount in the manner they share Proceeds from Bills).

72 State whether the following statements are true or false
1. A bill of exchange is a negotiable instrument. 2. A bill of exchange need not to be dated. 3. A bill of exchange must be accepted by the drawer. 4. Drawer is a person to whom the bill is endorsed. 5. Amount of bill is paid to the payee. 6. Drawee after acceptance becomes acceptor. 7. A bill of exchange must be in writing. 8. A bill of exchange may be drawn for payment in kind. 9. Drawer has the right to discount the bill. 10. There are three parties to a bill of exchange. .

73 Answers 1 to 10 1.True 2. False 3. True 4. False 5. True
6. True True False 9. False 10True

74 State whether the following statements are true or false
11. There are two parties to a promissory note. 12. Drawee is the maker of the bill exchange. 13. Debtor is the maker of a promissory note. 14. A bill of exchange is a conditional order. 15. A bill of exchange must be properly stamped. 16. The maker of a promissory note must sign it. 17. Mere acknowledgement of debt is not a promise. 18. A bill of exchange which arises out of trading relationship of two persons is called a trade bill. 19. Acceptance is voluntary for a bill of exchange. 20. In general acceptance , the drawer agrees with some of the conditions of the bill.

75 Answers to True or False
11. True 12. False 13 True False 15 True 16 True 17 True 18. True 19 False 20 False

76 BE: Fill in the Blanks 1.When goods are sold on credit seller, becomes a ________ and buyer becomes a _________. 2. Negotiable Instrument can be ________ from one person to another. 3. A bill of exchange must be properly _________ 4. A bill of exchange must be signed by the ________. 5. A Bills of exchange is accepted by the _________

77 Answers to fill in the blanks
Ans1. Creditor, Debtor 2. transferred 3. Stamped Maker 5. drawee.

78 Consignment Account 15. Consignment Account

79 15.CONSIGNMENT ACCOUNT A consignment is the dispatch of goods buy its owner to its agent for the purpose of selling. It this Principal (Owner) is a Consignor, Agent is a Consignee. The goods so sent are called Consignment Outward & for Agent it is Consignment Inward.

80 15.CONSIGNMENT ACCOUNT Since transfer of goods to Agent is not a sales the invoice prepared is called Pro forma invoice. And the Statement prepared by Agent Showing sale of goods received on Consignment .Unsold stock or damaged stock, expenses incurred & his commission is called ACCOUNT Sale. Commission: ORDINARY & DEL CREDRE. Ordinary Commission is paid on total Sales. Losses or bad debts are borne by Consignee

81 Consignment Ex. (page 281) Jyotimal of Kolkata consigned 50 cases Cotton Goods costing Rs.2000 each to Ziauddin of Decca. Jyotimal paid follwing expenses : Carriage Rs Freight Rs & loading Charges Rs.3500. Ziauddin sales 30 cases at Rs.3500 each and incurs the following exp. Landing Charges Rs Warehousing & Storage Rs.5000 & selling Rs It is found that 2 cases have been lost in transit. Ziauddin is entitled to a commission of 10% on gross sales. Draw the necessary ledger accounts in the books of Jyotimal.

82 15.CONSIGNMENT ACCOUNT(pg. no:281)
Consignment A/c To Goods Sent on Cons. Rs By Ziauddin(Sales) (50*2000) Rs * To Bank:carriage By Goods lost in Transit Freight (2*2000= ) Loading Chgs To Ziauddin Loading By Good lost in transit Warehousing Selling To Ziauddin (Commission) To P & L A/c By Closing Stock

83 Ziauddin’s A/c To Consignment By Consignment Exp By Consignment-Comm ______ By Bank Cl. Stock; 50*2000 = Rs In transit 3* =7500 Add; Prop. Exp.Consignor 15* Rs Consinee: Non recurring: On 15 cases for warehousing 45cases 3000 for 15 cases ________ 38500

84 15.Indicate the Correct Answer.
When goods are sent on Consignment debit is given to (a) Consignee’s A/c (b) Consignment Account(( C ) Sales A/c. The relationship between Consignor & Consignee is that of (a) Principal & Agent() buyer & Seller( C ) debtor & Creditor. 3. A loss which is natural & unavoidable is called (a) abnormal (b) normal ( c) Contingent 4. A loss arising due to pilferage, theft, fine etc. is (a) Normal (b) abnormal ( c) Contingent 5. Abnormal loss of stock after adjusting for recovery of insurance claim is transferred to (a) Trading A/c. (b) P& L A/c ( c)Capital A/c. 6. Consignee’s A/c is a (a) Nominal A/c.(b) Personal A/c. (C ) Real A/c. 7. Del Credre Commission is calculated on (a) Cash Sales (b) Credit Sales ( C ) total Sales.

85 15.Answers to Indicate the Correct Answer
1 ( b) 2(a) 3( b) 4 (b) 5 (b) 6 ( b) 7( C )

86 16. Joint Venture JV

87 JV It is an agreement between two or more parties. The agreement is made to carry on a specific job The agreement is over as soon as venture is completed

88 JV Example (pg.288) A & B entered into a JV sharing P & L in the ratio of 3:2
They opened a Joint Bank A/c. where A deposited Rs.5000 & B deposited Rs A purchased goods for Rs & incurred Rs.5000 for expenses out of the Joint Bank & he also supplied materials from his stock for Rs He sold the entire goods for Rs & deposited entire amount into the joint Bank a/c. B purchased goods for Rs & incurred Rs.3000 for various expenses out of the joint Bank A/c. He sold all the goods for Rs except for goods valued at Rs.2000 which he took for his own use. The proceeds were also deposited in joint Bank a/c. Pl. prepare JV A/c, Joint Bank A/c & C-Venturer’s A/c.

89 Joint Venture A/c. (pg.288) To Joint Bank By Joint Bank A/c Pur Sale Proceeds Exp Sale Proceeds To A’s Capital To Joint Bank A/c By B’s A/c- Goods Taken Pur Exp To Profit Trd A B

90 Joint Bank A/c To A (Contri) By JV (goods & Exp) To B(contribution) By JV To JV(Sale Proceeds) By A-Final Pay To JV- Sale Proceeds By-B –Final Pay CO-VENTURERS A/c A B A B To JV By JV A/c To JV Bank A/c By JV By JV-Proft

91 16 JV: Fill in the blanks 1. In JV the association of persons is of a _______ nature. 2. JV may also be called as a ______ partnership. 3. The co-venturers enter into a ________ with each other. 4. The co-venturers agree to share ______ or _________arising out of business. 5. The persons entering into JV are called __________. Ans: Temporary 2. Temporary/restricted 3. Contract 4. Profit/Loss 5. Co venturers

92 16.JV Match (1) JV (a) Personal (2) Co-ventures A/c (b) Nominal A/c (3) Goods Supplied on JV A/c ( C )Real (4 ) Joint Bank A/c (d) Personal (5) Cr. Bal. in JV A/c (e) Profit on JV (6) JV ends (f) Completion of Venture

93 JV Answers 1((b) 2 (a) 3 © 4 (h) 5 ( e) 6 ( f)


Leasing is a contract between two parties,whereby the owner of an assets transfers his rights of use to some other party on payment of a fixed periodical rent. So there are Lessor, Lessee, Lease Deed, Lease Rent terms use. Types : 1. Finance or Capital lease. 2. Operating Lease 3. Services Lease and 4. Leveraged Lease. FINANCE or CAPITAL LEASE: This is fairly for a long time. i.e. Primary Period+ Secondary Period. During Primary period Lessor charges Lease Rent in a manner covering Cost of the Machine plus interest thereon. In secondary period he charges Nominal rent.

96 Operating Lease Operating lease is a lease which is not ‘Finance’ or a ‘Capital’ lease .It does not transfer any of the rewards and the risk of ownership of the leased property to the lessee. The contract is, usually, cancelable and of lower maturity period than in case of financial lease. Normally, the period of lease is much less compared to the economic life of the asset.

97 Dist. Fin. Lease & Op. Lease.
Fin. Lease may give option to Any lease where lessor takes risk at nominal price Lessor takes a risk Long term Short term Lessor incurs maintenace Lessee incurs maintenance With intention of becoming owner No such intention On Liability side Dues less down On Asset side Dep. is Prov payment appears reduced on yearly payment the instalments

98 Operating Lease Leasing of telephones, vehicles, computers, etc., are some of the examples of the operating lease. The lease period is normally for a short period and may stretch from a day to about three years

99 Service Lease This takes care of Services & not Capital outlay. Assets generally remains with the Lessee. Leveraged Lease : In this type there are three parties. Financier apart from Lessor & Lessee.

100 Accounting Treatment in case of Finance Lease:
1. Under Fixed Assets Head would appear Sub-Head as Assets given on Lease along with Dep. Bank A/c. Dr. To Lease Rent Lease Rent A/c Dr To P & L A/c.

101 Hire Purchase & Instalment Sale
Hire Purchase has two Components instalments & Interest. Distinction: HP & Instalment 1. Ownership 2. On Default in Repayment Buyer’s right to terminatye Contract 4. Buyer’s right to dispose off goods 5. Loss of Goods

102 17Lease 1. In a lease agreement there are ___ parties. 2. The user of the assets is known as_______ 3. In higher purchase transactions the buyer Pays the price in _______. 4. In higher purchase , the ownership of goods passes to the buyer on payment of _______ instalment. 5.The ownership of goods passes to the buyer immediately in ________system. 6. Under Hire Purchase , buyer is called____ while seller is called ______.

103 Answers 1.two 2. Lessee. 3. Installment 4. Last 5. instalment
5. Hire Purchaser & Hire Vendor


105 18. Non- Trading Organisations are also required to maintain the following books of accounts like Cash Book, General Ledger, Journal , Membership Register, Donations Register, Property Register & Others depending on the type for eg. Students Register in case School. Final Accounts consist of 1.Receipts & Payment A/c 2. Income & Expenditure A/c. 3. Balance sheet.

106 18 Receipts & Payment A/c. : This shows actual amounts (Cash & cheques) received and paid for the whole year. Income & Expenditure A/c ; It is similar to P&L A/c. that Businessman prepares. Balance Sheet : It is same as B/S in Business. Capital here referred to as Capital Fund or General Fund.

107 Diff. Rec. & Payments & I & E A/c.
Receipts & Payments Income & Exp. 1. Classification : Real A/c Nominal A/c. 2. Contents:Summary of actual receipts & Payments It contains I & E of a period 3. Items included: Capital & Revenue 3. Only Revenue 4. Op. & Cl. Bal.: Cash & Bank No op. or Cl. Bal but In R & P Ends with deficit & Surplus.

108 Choose the Correct Answer
(a)The I & E account is prepared on the basis of : (i) Mercantile system of Accounting (ii) Cash System of Accounting (iii) Hybrid System of Accounting (b) Amount received towards endowment fund is: (i) Revenue Receipt (ii) Capital Receipt (iii) Deferred Revenue Receipt.

109 Non Trading Accounts ( C ) The debit balance in the Income & Expenditure Account indicates : (i) the excess of income over expenditure (ii) the excess of expenditure over income (iii) the excess of Cash receipts over Cash Payments (d) Which of the following items should not be entered in the receipts & payments accounts of a Club : (i) Subscriptions received (ii) Sale of Machinery ( iii) Loss on sale of Furniture.

110 Answers a(i) Mercantile system of Accounting b(ii) Capital Receipt
c(ii) the excess of expenditure over income d( iii) Loss on sale of Furniture.

111 Non- Trading Accounts (e) Subscriptions receivable at the beginning & at the end of the year are Rs.2000 & Rs.3000 respectively. Income & Expenditure shows subscriptions at Rs The amount shown as subscriptions in Receipts & Payments (a) (b)23000 & (c ) Rs Ans: Subscriptions Received During the year (? say X ) Less : Subscriptions received for Previous year Less : Sub. Received in advance nil Add: Outstanding subscription for Current year Subscriptions taken to I & E A/c Therefore X = Rs Rs Rs.3000 =Rs Ans.

112 Match the following A B 1.Receipts & Payment A/c. (a) No intention of earning it Profit 2. I & E A/c (b) Excess of expenditure over Income 3. Deficit (C) In & Exp. For the year 4. Non- Trading Organization (d) Actual Receipts & Payments in Cash 1 (d ) 2 ( C) 3 (b) 4 (a)

113 19. Depreciation Accounting

114 Depreciation (i) is a part Operating Cost (ii) It is reduction in the value of assets (iii) The decrease in the value of its assets is due to its use caused by wear & tear or obsolescence (iv) decrease in the value of assets in gradual & Continuous. Dep. Helps us to arrive at correct profit.

115 Accounting Entries Depreciation A/c Dr. To Asset A/c. Cr.
ALTERNATIVELY Depreciation A/c Dr To Prov. For dep. A/c. Cr.

116 Methods of Depreciation
Straight Line : Cost Price – Scrap Value Est. Life of assets (no. of yrs) W. D.V: Here Depreciation provided on the book value which appears after writing down depreciation periodically. Here the Value of asset would never become Zero whil in case of Straightline the value of asset become zero.

117 WDV Dep. Method: Machinery Account
1/4/05To Bank /3/ By Dep ______ 31/3/06 By Bal C/d 1/4/06 To Bal B/d /3/ By Depreciation ______. 31/3/07 By Bal C/d /4/07 To Bal /d /3/08 By Depreciation _______ 31/3/08 By Bal C/d /4/08 To Bal B/d /3/09 By Dep ______ 31/3/09 By Bal C/d 1/4/09 To Bal B/d

118 Sinking Fund Sinking Fund Method (For Providing Dep.) Dep. A/c Dr To Sinking Fund A/c Cr ( For Making Investment ) Sinking Fund Investment A/c To Bank A/c. Cr.

119 SF method Next year Bank A/c. Dr To Int. on Sink. Fund Invest. A/c.Cr. Dep. A/c To Sinking Fund A/c. Int. on Sink. Fund Invest. A/c. Dr To Sinking Fund A/c. Sinking Fund A/c. Dr To Bank A/c.

120 In the year of Replacement
(Sale of Investments) i) Bank A/c. Dr. To sinking Fund investment A/c. (Profit on sale of Investments) ii)Sinking Fund Inv. A/c. Dr. To Sinking Fund A/c) iii)Sinking Fund A/c. Dr. To Sinking Fund Inv. A/c.(Loss) iv)Dep. A/c. Dr To Sinking Fund A/c (Dep. For the year )

121 SF Method (Pur. Of new asset) vii) New Asset A/c. To Bank A/c.
(Sale of old asset) V. Sinking Fund A/c. Dr To Asset A/c vi) Sinking Fund A/c To Asset A/c. (Tr. Of sinking fund to Asset) (Pur. Of new asset) vii) New Asset A/c To Bank A/c.

122 Example Rs is spent by way of overhauling on a 2nd hand Motor car Purchased at Rs on 1/4/06. The car on which straight line method depreciation is provided is sold for Rs on 39/6/2009. Pl. show the entries & Motor Car showing profit or loss on sale of car.

123 Car 1/4/2003: By Car A/c. Dr. Rs To Bank A/c (being the purchase cost of 2nd hand car) By Car A/c Dr To Bank A/c (Being the overhauling cost capitalised ). 31/3/04 By Dep. A/c Dr To Motor Car By P & L A/c. Dr To Dep

124 Car 31-3-05 By Dep. 11500 To Motor Car A/c. 11500
By P & L A/c. Dr To Dep By Dep To Motor Car A/c By P & L A/c. Dr To Dep

125 30/06/2009 By Cash A/c Dr. 65000 By Dep. A/c 2875 By Loss on Sale Car 12625
To Motor Car

126 Motor Car A/c 1/4/03 To Bank 80000 31/3/04 By Dep 11500
1/4/03 To Bank /3/04 By Bal C/d /4/04 To Op. Bal /3/05 By Dep /3/05 By Bal C/d 1/4/05 To Op. Bal /3/06 By Dep /3/06 By bal c/d 1/4/06 To Op. Bal /6/06 By Dep /6/ By Bank 30/6/06 By Loss on sale of car

127 20. Accounting from incomplete records
Single Entry System

128 20. Accounting from incomplete Records (Single Entry System)
Single entry system arises out of incomplete information & the Accountant has to construct Accounts based on the drawing figures from available information. Computation of PROFITS : (i) Net Worth Method : This involves adjustment for drawings & adjustment for capital Introduced. Sales & Purchase Policy Eg. Sales proportions/ Cash/ Credit sales Credit Policy: Closing debtors represent 2 months Credit Sales and Creditors represent 2 months Purchases. Price Policy: Selling Price at a certain % of Sales.

129 Single Entry System Conversion Method : This method requires more details like collections from debtors, Payment to creditors etc. to give a true picture. For e.g. For a Firm the Debtors at the beginning of the year are Rs.1lakh. Closing debtors are 20% more. Payment made to creditors during year Rs Here we are required to find out the credit purchase made during the year. We can the figure y constructing Creditors Account as under :

130 Creditors Account Dr Cr April By Op. Bal ,00, /12 To Bank /12 By Purchases /03 To Cl. Bal (Balancing figure) In single entry problems sales/debtors may be given by ratio or /% or the number of times or in a algebra type where we have to find out value of X.


132 21. RATIO ANALYSIS Accounting ratios are relationship expressed in mathematical terms between accounting figures which for meaningful purpose. Classification: P & L Ratios Balance Sheet Ratios Composite or Inter-Statement Ratios.

133 Functional Classification
Profitability Turnover/Activity Ratios Financial/Solvency Ratios Financial Ratios may be further classified as Short Term Ratios/Liquidity Ratios or Long Term/ Solvency Ratios

134 PROFITABILITY RATIOS Return on Capital Employed
EBIT * Capital Employed Earnings before Interest & Tax Op. Profit means profit from the Operations of the Company plus Int(Long term) & Tax Capital Employed = Share Capital+ Reserves & Surplus+ Long Term loans –( Non- business assets + Fictitious assets) Proper calculation gives us Return on Capital Employed

135 Earnings Per Share (EPS)
EPS = Net Profit after tax & Pref. Dividend No. of Equity Shares This shows whether equity Capital of Co. is properly used or not Company’s capacity to pay Dividend. EPS helps us at estimating Market Price of the Company

136 Price Earning (P/E Ratio)
Market Price of per Equity Share EPS Helps to decide whether to buy Share of a Company.

137 Gross Profit Ratio Gross Profit* 100 Net Sales
It helps in Price decision & Profit from Op. before Charging all other expenses.

138 Net Profit Ratio Net Operating Profit * 100 Net sales

139 Solvency Ratios Long Term Solvency Ratios
Fixed Assets Ratios : Fixed Assets Long Term Funds The ratio should not be more than one. If it is less than one then it indicates part of the Working Capital Financed through Long term Funds i.e. we may call Core Working Capital

140 Debt- Equity Ratio : i) DE Ratio : Total Long Term Debt Total Long Term Funds Ii) DE Ratio : Total Long Term Debt Shareholders Funds Debt Service Coverage Ratio= Cash Profit available for debt service Interest+ Instalment

141 Short Term Solvency Ratio
i) Current Ratio = Current Assets Current Liabilities ideal ratio: 2.Acceptable to Bank 1.33 ii) Liquidity Ratio/Acid Test or Quick Ratio: Liquid Assets Current Liability

142 Turnover Ratios Stock Turnover Ratio =
Cost of goods Sold during the year Average Inventory Debtors Turn over Ratios (Debtors Velocity) = Credit Sales Average Accounts Receivable Debtors Collection Period = Months or days in a year Debtors turnover or Accounts receivable Average Monthly or daily Credit sales

143 Fixed Assets Turnover Ratio =
Cost of Goods Sold Net Fixed Assets

144 Calculate the following ratios for YE March2000 & 2001
Return on Capital Employed (b) Current Ratio © Debt Equity Ratio (d) Fixed Assets Turnover Ratio (e) Inventory Turnover Ratio (f) Earning Per Share Balance Sheets as at 31st March Rs. Lakhs Liabilities Sh. Capital:Shares of Rs.10 each Reserves & surplus Secured Term Loans Cash Credits from bank Sundry Creditors

145 Balance Sheets as at 31st March Rs. Lakhs Assets 1999 2000 2001
Fixed Assets: Gross Block Less : Dep Net Block Current Assets: Stock Debtors Other Current Assets Total Assets

146 EBIT * 100 Capital Employed EBIT=Earnings before Interest & Tax
RoC For March,2000 Ret. On Cap. Emp= Total Cap. Employed for March,1999 isRs Rs for Mar,2000.So Av. Cap. Employed is Rs.6100 /2= 3050 lakhs. EBIT is Rs So RoC 1020*100= 33.34% RoC for March, Total Cap. Employed for March,2000 is Rs Rs for Mar,2001.So Av. Cap. Employed is Rs.8200 /2= 4100 lakhs. EBIT is Rs So So 1800*100= %

147 2000 2001 Current Ratio = Current Assets Current Liabilities
4100 = =1.92 Debt Equity Ratio = Total Long Term Debt Total Long Term Funds

148 Fixed Assets Turnover Ratio = Cost of goods Sold during the year Average Net Fixed Assets
We may take sales when Cost of goods figures are not available 4800 = = Average Fixed Assets for March,2000 = =3480/2=1740 Average Fixed Assets for March,2001 = =3600/2=1800

149 Stock Turnover Ratio = Cost of goods Sold during the year Average Inventory
We may take sales when Cost of goods figures are not available Sales = = Av Inv

150 EPS = Net Profit after tax & Pref. Dividend No. of Equity Shares
Net Profit after Tax for 2000 = Rs.300 Lakhs = Rs.3 =EPS While no. of Eq. shares are Lakhs Net Profit after Tax for 2001 = Rs.600 Lakhs = Rs. 6 =EPS While no. of Eq. shares are Lakhs

151 Thank You

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