Presentation on theme: "MODULE : C Special Accounts"— Presentation transcript:
1 MODULE : C Special Accounts CA R.C. Joshi ,FCA,CAIIB,LL.B. B.Com(Hons.)
2 Special Accounts: In brief we would cover the following Bank Reconciliation Trial Balance Capital & Revenue Expenditure Inventory Valuation Bills of Exchange ConsignmentJoint Venture Leasing & Hire Purchase
3 Module – C Special Accounts Accounts for no-Trading OrganisationsDepreciation AccountingAccounting From incomplete records(Single Entry SystemRatio Analysis
4 Bank ReconciliationEvery trader/business maintains Bank Account. However when you compare the balance on a particular day (generally at the end of month )on comparison the Bank Balance as per Books maintained by Business & that reflected by Bank Statement may not be matching most of the times. A few reasons are listed below :
5 BR : Difference in CB & PB Bank Reconciliation Statement is a stateAll Cheques Issued may not have been Presented in BankAll Cheques deposited may not been Credited in Bank AccountInterest & Bank Charges effected by BankStanding Instruction given to Bank not reflected in Businessman’s Books
6 BR : Difference in CB & PB For eg. Tel. Bills , Electric Bills & Insurance Premia (debited by Bank )Standing Instruction for Credits may be FD Interest, Dividends etc.Dishounour of Cheques deposited as also those issued by BusinessDirect Credit in Bank by Business.Thus Bank Reconciliation is a statement prepared to explian the difference between the balance as as per the ash Book & Bank Pass Book/Statement.
7 BR It is a STATEMENT(not an Account) prepared by Customer. Overcasting the deposit side of Cash Book increases the Bank Balance as per Cash book. Bank shows as Deposits & withdrawals what is called for Receipts & Payments by Businessman in his Cash Book.
8 Bank A/C as per Cash Book for Dec Dec Dr Dec Cr.1 To Opening Bal8 To A & Co By X & Co By Y & Co10 By Cash (C)(withd.)20 To Cash ( C ) Dep30 By MTNL To B & Co By Z & Co31 By Bal C/d
9 Bank Statement Withdrawals Deposits Balance 1 Dec Opening Bal Cr.X & Co Y & Co A & Co Cr.Cash20 Cash Cr.31 By Charges By Dividend Cr.
10 Bank Reconciliation as on 31st December RsBank Balance as per Cash Book as on 31st Dec Add: Chequ issued but not presentedMTNL Rs.800+ Z & Co. Rs.900 = Rs.1700Dividend Credited not effected in CB RsLess : Cheque Deposited but not credited Rs Bank Chgs. Debited not effected in CB RsAns: bank Bal. as per Bank Statement
11 BR Statement (When we start with Bank Bal. as per Bank Statement Bank Balance as per Cash Book as on 31st Dec Add: Cheque Deposited but not credited Rs Bank Chgs. Debited not effected in CB RsLess :Chequ issued but not presented MTNL Rs.800+ Z & Co. Rs.900 = Rs.1700Dividend Credited not effected in CB RsAns: bank Bal. as per Bank Statement
12 Select the appropriate 1.Dr. Bal. as per Pass Book means ______ (Overdraft, Favourable Balance, neither of the two)2. Cheque deposited it is recorded on________side (of Cash Book) & when dishonoured it is recorded on _______ side of the CASH BOOK. (Debit, Credit)3.Debit Bal. in the Cash Book shows (Overdraft, Favourable Balance, neither of the two)4. Insurance premia paid by the Bank is ________ (debited/Credited) by the Bank.5.Direct Deposit by the Customer is first recorded in (Cash Book, Pass Book).
14 BR :Match the following Column : A Column:B 1.Cash Book Dr. Side Deposits 2. Cash Book Cr. Side Withdrawals 3. Pass Book Dr. side Receipts 4. Pass Book Cr. Side Payments 5. Dr. Bal. in Pass book Overdraft as per Pass Book.
16 TRIAL BALANCE Rectification of Errors Trial Balance is a list or abstract of balances from Books(ledger, Cash Book, journal) to determine posted Debits/Credits and to establish a basic summary for financial statements. It may be prepared monthly, quarterly & half yearly.
18 ErrorsCompensating Errors: One effect nullifies the wrong effect on anotherError of Commission: A clerical error committed while posting, totaling or balancing of an AccountError of Principles : An error arising out ofnon-observance of Accounting PrinciplesOne Sided Error: An error which affects only one side of Account
19 Errors Two Sided Errors : An error affecting two sides Rectifying Entry : An entry passed to rectify the error.Suspense Account: An Account opened to tally trial balance temporarily.
20 Example-1Goods purchased from Sohanlal wrongly entered into Sales Register at Rs.500.Correct Entry( That should have been) Purchases A/c. Dr. 500To Sohanlal Cr.Rs.500 Wrong Entry Passed Sohanlal A/c. Dr To Sales Cr. 500
21 Example-1 Rectification Entry Sales A/c. Dr.500 Purchase A/c. Dr To Sohanlal Cr. Rs.1000(Being purchase of goods wrongly recorded in Sales Register now rectified.)
22 Example -2Salary Paid to Vijay, Accountant wrongly recorded to his Personal A/c. Rs.1000Correct Entry Salary A/c. DrTo Cash Cr. Rs.1000 Wrongly Passed as : Vijay A/c. Dr To Cash Cr. Rs. 1000
23 Example-2Rectification entry Salary A/c. Dr To Vijay A/c Cr (Being Salary paid wrongly debited to personal A/c now rectified).
24 Example-3Wages paid for installation of Machinery Rs.500 were debited to Wages A/c.Rs.500 Correct Entry Machinery A/c. Dr To cash Rs.500 Wrongly passed as : Wages A/c. Dr To Machinery Rs.500
25 Example-3 Rectification Entry Machinery A/c. Dr. Rs.500 To cash Rs.500 ( Being wages paid for Installation of Machinery is wrongly debited to Wages A/c. now rectified).
26 Example-4Rent paid Rs.200 wrongly debited to Postage A/c. Correct Entry: Rent A/c. Dr. Rs Cash A/c. Cr Rs.500 Entry wrongly passed as : Postage A/c. Dr. Rs Cash A/c. Cr Rs.500
27 Example-4 Rectification Entry Rent A/c. Dr. Rs To Postage A/c. Cr Rs.500 (Being Payment of Rent wrongly debited to Postage A/c. now rectified).
28 Match the followingColumn: A Column : B 1.Trial Balance Diff. in Trial Bal Net Trial Bal Always shows Dr. bal. 3. Gross Trial Bal Always shows Cr. Bal. 4. Suspense A/c Generally shows Dr. Bal. 5. Real A/c Statement of balances of ledger A/cs Dr. or Cr. Balances Ledger A/c Debit & credit totals Ans: 1(6), 2(5), 3(8), 4(1), 5(2)
29 Fill in the Blanks1.Errors which cancel out the effects of one another are called _________ Errors 2. Mistakes involving wrong recording or posting are called Errors of ________ 3. Difference in Trial Balance is transferred to ____________Account.4. When a transaction is not recorded it is an error of _________.
32 CAPITAL EXPENDITURE & REVENUE EXPENDITURE From the Trial Balance we can observe that some items directly appear in Balance Sheet while a some other items are charged to P&L A/c. Items which directly appear are generally CAPITAL while those charged to P & L are REVENUE. How this is classified?
33 The BasisNature of the Expenses 2. Effect on revenue Earning Capacity 3. Benefit from the Expenditure1.NATURE : Tests : Whether recurring in ordinary course of business : Salary, Electricity Bill, Tel Charges, Raw purchased etc.Applicability of Materiality Concept : An Wall Clock costing Rs.500/- having long useful life & it is non-recurring. However Materiality Concept it allowed to be charged as REVENUE.Building, Plant & Machinery, Motor Cars are examples of CAPITAL Expenditure
34 Effecting on Revenue Earning Capacity The expense which help to generate income/revenue in the current year are revenue in nature and should be matched against the earned in the current year. If the expenditure helps to generate revenue for more than one accounting year is generally called purchase of plant.
35 State whether expenditure is Revenue/ Capital/ Deferred Revenue 1.Freight paid on a Machine for bringing it to factory.2.The shifting of stock from old works to new site.3.The overhauling expenses of Machine4.The Legal expenses incurred in connection with raising of Debentures issue.5 Purchase of Machinery.6. Labour Welfare Expenses
36 True or False1.A revenue expenditure of one party may be Capital receipt for the other party.2.Receipts from Sale of machinery is revenue receipt.3.The distinction between & revenue expenditure can not be definite. It depends on the facts & circumstances of each case.4.Legal charges paid for purchase of land are
37 True or FalseCapital Expenditure but legal charges paid in the ordinary course of business is revenue expenditure.5. Wages paid in the Ordinary Course of business are revenue expenditure but wages paid for erection of machinery are capital expenditure.6.Debenture receipts are revenue receipts.
40 ObjectiveThe main objective for accounting for INVENTORIES is to ascertain income through matching appropriate costs t for receipts as well as conversion of raw materials into semi-finished & finished products.As per Accounting Standard-2 the inventory may be for sale in the ordinary course of businessIn the process of production for such saleThe production for goods or services for sale including maintenance, supplies and consumables other than machinery & spares.
42 Find out Stock Value under 3 methods : (page:249),April ,2009 Date Recepits L.F Units Rate Issued Date Units 1 Op. Stock Purchases Purchases PurchaseStock verification on 3rd April reveals loss of 1o units. Show the stock of Cost of goods sold & valuation of stock as on 7th april,2009 under FIFO,LIFO & Weighted Average Cost Method.
44 FIFO(page no: 250)April, Receipts Issue* Balance *10.50= *10= *10.20= *10.50=2100*10= *10.20= *10.20= *10.50=2100 Closing Stock under FIFO Method :290 units Rs.3018 Cost of Goods Sold : units Rs Loss of Units : units Rs.80
46 LIFOApril, Receipts Issue Balance *10.50= *8= *1050=2100Units *10.50= *8= , *8=2320 Closing Stock under LIFO 290 units Rs.2320 Cost of Goods Sold units Rs Loss of Units units Rs.100
47 Average Weighted CostApril, Receipts Issue Balance *8= *9.09= loss = *9.09= *10.20= *9.21=8201*9.21= *9.21=4513*10.50= *9.58= *9.58= *9.58=2778Stock: units 290*9.58= Rs.2778Cost of Goods Sold 1100 units=10251Loss of units 10*9.09 = Rs.91.
48 Base Stock MethodBase Stock Method : It is assumed holding of minimum quantity (base stock) with a particular price & the quantity in excess thereof are dealt with some other basis. Adjusted Selling Price:
49 Methods Periodic Inventory Perpetual Inventory Implications of FIFO & LIFO Methods in rising methods & falling Prices.Requirements In rising Market , FIFO just like LIFO in falling Market will reflect lowest cost so higher profits.
52 Fill in the Blanks1. The inventory valuation is subjective because it depends on the _________________followed by the accountant2. Historical value is reduced to net realisable value due to the accounting convention of ____________.3. Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less costs of of _______________and less costs necessary to make the ______.4. The ascertainment of the costs at the end by physically counting the stock is known as _________.5. The basis of inventory valuation should not be changed frequently because its violates the accounting principle of ____________.
53 Answers to fill in the Blanks 1. Accounting Policies 2. Conservatism 3. Completion, Sale 4. Periodic Inventory 5. Consistency
56 Bills of ExchangeThe main journal is divided into a number of journals. So there are Bills Receivable & Bills Payable journals. Types of Instruments of Credit :Promissory NoteBills Of Exchange : It is an instrument in writing Signed by the maker containing an unconditional order to pay a certain sum of money to a person named in the instrument or to his order to the bearer on a certain fixed future date or demand.(se. 5 of NI Act)
62 Bills of Ex.( c). Here Bank collects the money from Drawee remits to A. Cash or Bank A/c. Dr To Bank for Bills Collection Cr (d) When endorsed Bill is met. No entry in B’s Books. In B’s Books :Bills Payable A/c. Dr To Cash/ Bank Cr
63 Dishonouring of Bill Books of A a) Dishonour of retained Bill. B’s A/c Dr To BR A/c. Cr To Cash (b) Discounted Bill Dishonoured BR A/c/ Dr Noting Charges Dr To Cash A/c. Cr B’s A/c Dr To BR A/c. Cr To Cash
64 Dishonouring of Bill Books of A (a) Dishonour of retained Bill. B’s A/c Dr To BR A/c. Cr To Cash (b) Discounted Bill Dishonoured BR A/c/ Dr Noting Charges Dr To Cash A/c. Cr B’s A/c Dr To BR A/c. Cr To Cash
65 Bills Sent for collection BR A/c/ Dr Noting Charges A/c To Cash A/c. Cr To Bills for collection B’s A/c Dr To BR A/c. Cr To Noting Charges
66 When endorsed Bill is dishonoured BR A/c Dr Noting Charges A/c Dr To CB’s A/c Dr To BR To Noting Charges In B’s Books Bills Payable Noting Charges A/c Dr To Bills Payable
68 On retirement In A’s Books Cash A/c Dr. Rs.9500 Rebate A/c Rs To Bills Receivable Rs In B’s BooksBills Payable A/c. Dr. Rs To Cash A/c. Cr Rs To Rebate Cr. Rs.500
69 When Bills is renewed B by paying Rs.4000. Bill is renewed for a period of 3 months for which pays 3 months interest at 10% p.a.First old bill is to be cancelled B’s A/c Dr. RsTo Bills Receivable A/c. Cr. Rs.10000Cash A/c Dr Rs.4000 Bills Receivable A/c Rs To Interest A/c Rs To B’s A/c Rs.10000
70 Renewal in B’s booksFirst old bill is to be cancelled Bills Payable A/c Dr. Rs.10000To A’s A/c. Cr Rs.10000A’s A/c Dr Rs.10000Interest A/c. Dr Rs To Cash A/c. Cr Rs To B’s A/c Rs.6150
71 Accommodation BillsThese bills are drawn without consideration & objective is to accomdate one party. The rest of things are same as Bills receivable (with exception to sharing of discount in the manner they share Proceeds from Bills).
72 State whether the following statements are true or false 1. A bill of exchange is a negotiable instrument.2. A bill of exchange need not to be dated.3. A bill of exchange must be accepted by the drawer.4. Drawer is a person to whom the bill is endorsed.5. Amount of bill is paid to the payee.6. Drawee after acceptance becomes acceptor.7. A bill of exchange must be in writing.8. A bill of exchange may be drawn for payment in kind.9. Drawer has the right to discount the bill.10. There are three parties to a bill of exchange..
74 State whether the following statements are true or false 11. There are two parties to a promissory note.12. Drawee is the maker of the bill exchange.13. Debtor is the maker of a promissory note.14. A bill of exchange is a conditional order.15. A bill of exchange must be properly stamped.16. The maker of a promissory note must sign it.17. Mere acknowledgement of debt is not a promise.18. A bill of exchange which arises out of trading relationship of two persons is called a trade bill.19. Acceptance is voluntary for a bill of exchange.20. In general acceptance , the drawer agrees with some of the conditions of the bill.
76 BE: Fill in the Blanks1.When goods are sold on credit seller, becomes a ________ and buyer becomes a _________.2. Negotiable Instrument can be ________ from one person to another.3. A bill of exchange must be properly _________4. A bill of exchange must be signed by the ________. 5. A Bills of exchange is accepted by the _________
77 Answers to fill in the blanks Ans1. Creditor, Debtor 2. transferred 3. Stamped Maker 5. drawee.
79 15.CONSIGNMENT ACCOUNTA consignment is the dispatch of goods buy its owner to its agent for the purpose of selling. It this Principal (Owner) is a Consignor, Agent is a Consignee. The goods so sent are called Consignment Outward & for Agent it is Consignment Inward.
80 15.CONSIGNMENT ACCOUNTSince transfer of goods to Agent is not a sales the invoice prepared is called Pro forma invoice. And the Statement prepared by Agent Showing sale of goods received on Consignment .Unsold stock or damaged stock, expenses incurred & his commission is called ACCOUNT Sale.Commission:ORDINARY &DEL CREDRE. Ordinary Commission is paid on total Sales. Losses or bad debts are borne by Consignee
81 Consignment Ex. (page 281)Jyotimal of Kolkata consigned 50 cases Cotton Goods costingRs.2000 each to Ziauddin of Decca. Jyotimal paid follwing expenses : Carriage Rs Freight Rs & loading Charges Rs.3500.Ziauddin sales 30 cases at Rs.3500 each and incurs the following exp. Landing Charges Rs Warehousing & Storage Rs.5000 & selling Rs It is found that 2 cases have been lost in transit. Ziauddin is entitled to a commission of 10% on gross sales. Draw the necessary ledger accounts in the books of Jyotimal.
82 15.CONSIGNMENT ACCOUNT(pg. no:281) Consignment A/c To Goods Sent on Cons. Rs By Ziauddin(Sales) (50*2000) Rs * To Bank:carriage By Goods lost in Transit Freight (2*2000= )Loading Chgs To Ziauddin Loading By Good lost in transitWarehousing Selling To Ziauddin (Commission) To P & L A/c By Closing Stock
83 Ziauddin’s A/cTo Consignment By Consignment Exp By Consignment-Comm ______ By BankCl. Stock; 50*2000 = Rs In transit 3* =7500Add; Prop. Exp.Consignor15* Rs Consinee: Non recurring:On 15 cases for warehousing 45cases 3000 for 15 cases ________38500
84 15.Indicate the Correct Answer. When goods are sent on Consignment debit is given to (a) Consignee’s A/c (b) Consignment Account(( C ) Sales A/c.The relationship between Consignor & Consignee is that of(a) Principal & Agent() buyer & Seller( C ) debtor & Creditor.3. A loss which is natural & unavoidable is called (a) abnormal (b) normal ( c) Contingent 4. A loss arising due to pilferage, theft, fine etc. is(a) Normal (b) abnormal ( c) Contingent 5. Abnormal loss of stock after adjusting for recovery of insurance claim is transferred to (a) Trading A/c. (b) P& L A/c ( c)Capital A/c. 6. Consignee’s A/c is a (a) Nominal A/c.(b) Personal A/c. (C ) Real A/c.7. Del Credre Commission is calculated on (a) Cash Sales (b) CreditSales ( C ) total Sales.
85 15.Answers to Indicate the Correct Answer 1 ( b) 2(a) 3( b) 4 (b) 5 (b) 6 ( b)7( C )
87 JVIt is an agreement between two or more parties. The agreement is made to carry on a specific jobThe agreement is over as soon as venture is completed
88 JV Example (pg.288) A & B entered into a JV sharing P & L in the ratio of 3:2 They opened a Joint Bank A/c. where A deposited Rs.5000 & B deposited Rs A purchased goods for Rs & incurred Rs.5000 for expenses out of the Joint Bank & he also supplied materials from his stock for Rs He sold the entire goods for Rs & deposited entire amount into the joint Bank a/c.B purchased goods for Rs & incurred Rs.3000 for various expenses out of the joint Bank A/c. He sold all the goods for Rs except for goods valued at Rs.2000 which he took for his own use. The proceeds were also deposited in joint Bank a/c. Pl. prepare JV A/c, Joint Bank A/c & C-Venturer’s A/c.
89 Joint Venture A/c. (pg.288)To Joint Bank By Joint Bank A/c Pur Sale Proceeds Exp Sale Proceeds To A’s Capital To Joint Bank A/c By B’s A/c- Goods Taken Pur Exp To Profit Trd A B
90 Joint Bank A/cTo A (Contri) By JV (goods & Exp) To B(contribution) By JV To JV(Sale Proceeds) By A-Final Pay To JV- Sale Proceeds By-B –Final Pay CO-VENTURERS A/cA B A BTo JV By JV A/c To JV Bank A/c By JV By JV-Proft
91 16 JV: Fill in the blanks1. In JV the association of persons is of a _______ nature.2. JV may also be called as a ______ partnership.3. The co-venturers enter into a ________ with each other.4. The co-venturers agree to share ______ or _________arising out of business. 5. The persons entering into JV are called __________.Ans: Temporary 2. Temporary/restricted 3. Contract 4. Profit/Loss 5. Co venturers
92 16.JV Match(1) JV (a) Personal (2) Co-ventures A/c (b) Nominal A/c (3) Goods Supplied on JV A/c ( C )Real (4 ) Joint Bank A/c (d) Personal (5) Cr. Bal. in JV A/c (e) Profit on JV (6) JV ends (f) Completion of Venture
95 17.LEASING & HIRE PURCHASE Leasing is a contract between two parties,whereby the owner of an assets transfers his rights of use to some other party on payment of a fixed periodical rent. So there are Lessor, Lessee, Lease Deed, Lease Rent terms use. Types : 1. Finance or Capital lease. 2. Operating Lease 3. Services Lease and 4. Leveraged Lease.FINANCE or CAPITAL LEASE: This is fairly for a long time. i.e. Primary Period+ Secondary Period. During Primary period Lessor charges Lease Rent in a manner covering Cost of the Machine plus interest thereon. In secondary period he charges Nominal rent.
96 Operating LeaseOperating lease is a lease which is not ‘Finance’ or a ‘Capital’ lease .It does not transfer any of the rewards and the risk of ownership of the leased property to the lessee. The contract is, usually, cancelable and of lower maturity period than in case of financial lease. Normally, the period of lease is much less compared to the economic life of the asset.
97 Dist. Fin. Lease & Op. Lease. Fin. Lease may give option to Any lease where lessor takes risk at nominal price Lessor takes a risk Long term Short term Lessor incurs maintenace Lessee incurs maintenance With intention of becoming owner No such intention On Liability side Dues less down On Asset side Dep. is Prov payment appears reduced on yearly payment the instalments
98 Operating LeaseLeasing of telephones, vehicles, computers, etc., are some of the examples of the operating lease. The lease period is normally for a short period and may stretch from a day to about three years
99 Service LeaseThis takes care of Services & not Capital outlay. Assets generally remains with the Lessee.Leveraged Lease : In this type there are three parties. Financier apart from Lessor & Lessee.
100 Accounting Treatment in case of Finance Lease: 1. Under Fixed Assets Head would appear Sub-Head as Assets given on Lease along with Dep.Bank A/c. Dr.To Lease RentLease Rent A/c Dr To P & L A/c.
101 Hire Purchase & Instalment Sale Hire Purchase has two Components instalments & Interest. Distinction: HP & Instalment 1. Ownership 2. On Default in Repayment Buyer’s right to terminatye Contract4. Buyer’s right to dispose off goods 5. Loss of Goods
102 17Lease1. In a lease agreement there are ___ parties. 2. The user of the assets is known as_______ 3. In higher purchase transactions the buyer Pays the price in _______.4. In higher purchase , the ownership of goods passes to the buyer on payment of _______ instalment.5.The ownership of goods passes to the buyerimmediately in ________system.6. Under Hire Purchase , buyer is called____ while seller is called ______.
103 Answers 1.two 2. Lessee. 3. Installment 4. Last 5. instalment 5. Hire Purchaser & Hire Vendor
105 18.Non- Trading Organisations are also required to maintain the following books of accounts like Cash Book, General Ledger, Journal , Membership Register, Donations Register, Property Register & Others depending on the type for eg. Students Register in case School. Final Accounts consist of 1.Receipts & Payment A/c 2. Income & Expenditure A/c.3. Balance sheet.
106 18Receipts & Payment A/c. : This shows actual amounts (Cash & cheques) received and paid for the whole year.Income & Expenditure A/c ; It is similar to P&L A/c. that Businessman prepares.Balance Sheet : It is same as B/S in Business. Capital here referred to as Capital Fund or General Fund.
107 Diff. Rec. & Payments & I & E A/c. Receipts & Payments Income & Exp. 1. Classification : Real A/c Nominal A/c.2. Contents:Summary of actual receipts & Payments It contains I & E of a period3. Items included: Capital & Revenue 3. Only Revenue4. Op. & Cl. Bal.: Cash & Bank No op. or Cl. Bal but In R & P Ends with deficit & Surplus.
108 Choose the Correct Answer (a)The I & E account is prepared on the basis of :(i) Mercantile system of Accounting(ii) Cash System of Accounting (iii) Hybrid System of Accounting (b) Amount received towards endowment fund is:(i) Revenue Receipt (ii) Capital Receipt (iii) Deferred Revenue Receipt.
109 Non Trading Accounts( C ) The debit balance in the Income & Expenditure Account indicates : (i) the excess of income over expenditure (ii) the excess of expenditure over income (iii) the excess of Cash receipts over Cash Payments(d) Which of the following items should not be entered in the receipts & payments accounts of a Club : (i) Subscriptions received (ii) Sale of Machinery ( iii) Loss on sale of Furniture.
110 Answers a(i) Mercantile system of Accounting b(ii) Capital Receipt c(ii) the excess of expenditure over incomed( iii) Loss on sale of Furniture.
111 Non- Trading Accounts(e) Subscriptions receivable at the beginning & at the end of the year are Rs.2000 & Rs.3000 respectively. Income & Expenditure shows subscriptions at Rs The amount shown as subscriptions in Receipts & Payments (a) (b)23000 & (c ) RsAns: Subscriptions Received During the year (? say X ) Less : Subscriptions received for Previous year Less : Sub. Received in advance nilAdd: Outstanding subscription for Current year Subscriptions taken to I & E A/c Therefore X = Rs Rs Rs.3000 =Rs Ans.
112 Match the followingA B 1.Receipts & Payment A/c. (a) No intention of earning it Profit 2. I & E A/c (b) Excess of expenditure over Income 3. Deficit (C) In & Exp. For the year 4. Non- Trading Organization (d) Actual Receipts & Payments in Cash1 (d ) 2 ( C) 3 (b) 4 (a)
114 Depreciation(i) is a part Operating Cost (ii) It is reduction in the value of assets (iii) The decrease in the value of its assets is due to its use caused by wear & tear or obsolescence (iv) decrease in the value of assets in gradual & Continuous.Dep. Helps us to arrive at correct profit.
115 Accounting Entries Depreciation A/c Dr. To Asset A/c. Cr. ALTERNATIVELYDepreciation A/c DrTo Prov. For dep. A/c. Cr.
116 Methods of Depreciation Straight Line : Cost Price – Scrap Value Est. Life of assets (no. of yrs)W. D.V: Here Depreciation provided on the book value which appears after writing down depreciation periodically.Here the Value of asset would never become Zero whil in case of Straightline the value of asset become zero.
117 WDV Dep. Method: Machinery Account 1/4/05To Bank /3/ By Dep ______ 31/3/06 By Bal C/d1/4/06 To Bal B/d /3/ By Depreciation ______. 31/3/07 By Bal C/d /4/07 To Bal /d /3/08 By Depreciation _______ 31/3/08 By Bal C/d /4/08 To Bal B/d /3/09 By Dep ______ 31/3/09 By Bal C/d1/4/09 To Bal B/d
118 Sinking FundSinking Fund Method (For Providing Dep.) Dep. A/c Dr To Sinking Fund A/c Cr ( For Making Investment )Sinking Fund Investment A/c To Bank A/c. Cr.
119 SF methodNext year Bank A/c. Dr To Int. on Sink. Fund Invest. A/c.Cr. Dep. A/c To Sinking Fund A/c. Int. on Sink. Fund Invest. A/c. Dr To Sinking Fund A/c. Sinking Fund A/c. Dr To Bank A/c.
120 In the year of Replacement (Sale of Investments)i) Bank A/c. Dr.To sinking Fund investment A/c.(Profit on sale of Investments)ii)Sinking Fund Inv. A/c. Dr. To Sinking Fund A/c) iii)Sinking Fund A/c. Dr. To Sinking Fund Inv. A/c.(Loss) iv)Dep. A/c. Dr To Sinking Fund A/c (Dep. For the year )
121 SF Method (Pur. Of new asset) vii) New Asset A/c. To Bank A/c. (Sale of old asset)V. Sinking Fund A/c. Dr To Asset A/c vi) Sinking Fund A/c To Asset A/c. (Tr. Of sinking fund to Asset)(Pur. Of new asset) vii) New Asset A/c To Bank A/c.
122 ExampleRs is spent by way of overhauling on a 2nd hand Motor car Purchased at Rs on 1/4/06. The car on which straight line method depreciation is provided is sold for Rs on 39/6/2009. Pl. show the entries & Motor Car showing profit or loss on sale of car.
123 Car1/4/2003: By Car A/c. Dr. Rs To Bank A/c (being the purchase cost of 2nd hand car) By Car A/c Dr To Bank A/c (Being the overhauling cost capitalised ). 31/3/04 By Dep. A/c Dr To Motor Car By P & L A/c. Dr To Dep
124 Car 31-3-05 By Dep. 11500 To Motor Car A/c. 11500 By P & L A/c. Dr To Dep By Dep To Motor Car A/cBy P & L A/c. Dr To Dep
125 30/06/2009 By Cash A/c Dr. 65000 By Dep. A/c 2875 By Loss on Sale Car 12625 To Motor Car
126 Motor Car A/c 1/4/03 To Bank 80000 31/3/04 By Dep 11500 1/4/03 To Bank /3/04 By Bal C/d /4/04 To Op. Bal /3/05 By Dep /3/05 By Bal C/d1/4/05 To Op. Bal /3/06 By Dep /3/06 By bal c/d1/4/06 To Op. Bal /6/06 By Dep /6/ By Bank30/6/06 By Loss on sale of car
127 20. Accounting from incomplete records Single Entry System
128 20. Accounting from incomplete Records (Single Entry System) Single entry system arises out of incomplete information & the Accountant has to construct Accounts based on the drawing figures from available information.Computation of PROFITS : (i) Net Worth Method : This involves adjustment for drawings & adjustment for capital Introduced.Sales & Purchase PolicyEg. Sales proportions/ Cash/ Credit sales Credit Policy: Closing debtors represent 2 months Credit Salesand Creditors represent 2 months Purchases. Price Policy: Selling Price at a certain % of Sales.
129 Single Entry SystemConversion Method : This method requires more details like collections from debtors, Payment to creditors etc. to give a true picture.For e.g. For a Firm the Debtors at the beginning of the year are Rs.1lakh. Closing debtors are 20% more. Payment made to creditors during year Rs Here we are required to find out the credit purchase made during the year. We can the figure y constructing Creditors Account as under :
130 Creditors AccountDr Cr April By Op. Bal ,00, /12 To Bank /12 By Purchases /03 To Cl. Bal (Balancing figure)In single entry problems sales/debtors may be given by ratio or /% or the number of times or in a algebra type where we have to find out value of X.
132 21. RATIO ANALYSISAccounting ratios are relationship expressed in mathematical terms between accounting figures which for meaningful purpose.Classification: P & L RatiosBalance Sheet RatiosComposite or Inter-Statement Ratios.
133 Functional Classification ProfitabilityTurnover/Activity Ratios Financial/Solvency RatiosFinancial Ratios may be further classified as Short Term Ratios/Liquidity Ratiosor Long Term/ Solvency Ratios
134 PROFITABILITY RATIOS Return on Capital Employed EBIT * Capital Employed Earnings before Interest & TaxOp. Profit means profit from the Operations of the Company plus Int(Long term) & TaxCapital Employed = Share Capital+ Reserves & Surplus+ Long Term loans –( Non- business assets + Fictitious assets)Proper calculation gives us Return on Capital Employed
135 Earnings Per Share (EPS) EPS = Net Profit after tax & Pref. DividendNo. of Equity SharesThis shows whether equity Capital of Co. is properly used or notCompany’s capacity to pay Dividend.EPS helps us at estimating Market Price of the Company
136 Price Earning (P/E Ratio) Market Price of per Equity ShareEPSHelps to decide whether to buy Share of a Company.
137 Gross Profit Ratio Gross Profit* 100 Net Sales It helps in Price decision & Profit from Op. before Charging all other expenses.
138 Net Profit RatioNet Operating Profit * 100Net sales
139 Solvency Ratios Long Term Solvency Ratios Fixed Assets Ratios : Fixed Assets Long Term FundsThe ratio should not be more than one.If it is less than one then it indicates part of the Working Capital Financed through Long term Funds i.e. we may call Core Working Capital
140 Debt- Equity Ratio :i) DE Ratio : Total Long Term Debt Total Long Term FundsIi) DE Ratio : Total Long Term Debt Shareholders Funds Debt Service Coverage Ratio= Cash Profit available for debt serviceInterest+ Instalment
141 Short Term Solvency Ratio i) Current Ratio = Current Assets Current Liabilities ideal ratio: 2.Acceptable to Bank 1.33ii) Liquidity Ratio/Acid Test or Quick Ratio: Liquid Assets Current Liability
142 Turnover Ratios Stock Turnover Ratio = Cost of goods Sold during the year Average Inventory Debtors Turn over Ratios (Debtors Velocity) = Credit Sales Average Accounts ReceivableDebtors Collection Period = Months or days in a year Debtors turnover or Accounts receivable Average Monthly or daily Credit sales
143 Fixed Assets Turnover Ratio = Cost of Goods Sold Net Fixed Assets
145 Balance Sheets as at 31st March Rs. Lakhs Assets 1999 2000 2001 Fixed Assets: Gross Block Less : Dep Net BlockCurrent Assets: Stock Debtors Other Current AssetsTotal Assets
146 EBIT * 100 Capital Employed EBIT=Earnings before Interest & Tax RoC For March,2000Ret. On Cap. Emp= Total Cap. Employed for March,1999 isRs Rs for Mar,2000.So Av. Cap. Employed is Rs.6100 /2= 3050 lakhs. EBIT is Rs So RoC 1020*100= 33.34% RoC for March, Total Cap. Employed for March,2000 is Rs Rs for Mar,2001.So Av. Cap. Employed is Rs.8200 /2= 4100 lakhs. EBIT is Rs So So 1800*100= %
147 2000 2001 Current Ratio = Current Assets Current Liabilities 4100 = =1.92Debt Equity Ratio = Total Long Term Debt Total Long Term Funds
148 Fixed Assets Turnover Ratio = Cost of goods Sold during the year Average Net Fixed Assets We may take sales when Cost of goods figures are not available4800 = =Average Fixed Assets for March,2000 = =3480/2=1740Average Fixed Assets for March,2001 = =3600/2=1800
149 Stock Turnover Ratio = Cost of goods Sold during the year Average Inventory We may take sales when Cost of goods figures are not availableSales = = Av Inv
150 EPS = Net Profit after tax & Pref. Dividend No. of Equity Shares Net Profit after Tax for 2000 = Rs.300 Lakhs = Rs.3 =EPSWhile no. of Eq. shares are Lakhs Net Profit after Tax for 2001 = Rs.600 Lakhs = Rs. 6 =EPSWhile no. of Eq. shares are Lakhs