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Accounting and Financial Reporting Back to Table of Contents.

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Presentation on theme: "Accounting and Financial Reporting Back to Table of Contents."— Presentation transcript:

1 Accounting and Financial Reporting Back to Table of Contents

2 Accounting and Financial Reporting 2 Chapter 20 Accounting and Financial Reporting Financial Record Keeping Preparing Financial Statements

3 Accounting and Financial Reporting 3 Explain the important role accounting plays in business. Explain the accounting systems for a small business. Describe the importance of daily sales and cash receipts reports. Section 20.1 Financial Record Keeping 20.1

4 Accounting and Financial Reporting 4 All businesses must record and report all financial activities using established concepts and procedures. Section 20.1 Financial Record Keeping 20.1

5 Accounting and Financial Reporting 5 Accounting for Business One of the most important operations in the day-to- day activities of your business is maintaining accurate up-to-date financial records. Accounting records and reports help you run your business efficiently and profitably by keeping track of money earned and spent. Section 20.1 Financial Record Keeping

6 Accounting and Financial Reporting 6 Accounting for Business All U.S. businesses, large and small, use the GAAP system for their financial records. GAAP generally accepted accounting principles established to allow all businesses to use the same system of recording and reporting financial information Section 20.1 Financial Record Keeping

7 Accounting and Financial Reporting 7 Accounting for Business Financial reports indicate to banks, buyers, government agencies, and consumers how well your business is doing. financial reports statements or documents that summarize the results of a business operation and provide a picture of its financial position Section 20.1 Financial Record Keeping

8 Accounting and Financial Reporting 8 Accounting Assumptions When creating the accounting books for your business, you will make two assumptions: Section 20.1 Financial Record Keeping 1.Your business will operate as a separate entity. 2.Your financial reports will always cover a specific time period.

9 Accounting and Financial Reporting 9 Accounting Assumptions Financial reports must always cover an accounting period. accounting period a block of time, such as a month, a quarter, or a year, covered by an accounting report Section 20.1 Financial Record Keeping

10 Accounting and Financial Reporting 10 Accounting Assumptions You may choose either a calendar year or a fiscal year for your businesss accounting period. calendar year the accounting period of time from January 1 to December 31 Section 20.1 Financial Record Keeping fiscal year the accounting period of time that begins and ends in months other than the calendar year

11 Accounting and Financial Reporting 11 The Accounting Equation The accounting equation, the basis for keeping financial records, is as follows: assets anything of value that a business owns, such as cash, equipment, or a building Section 20.1 Financial Record Keeping assets = liabilities + owners equity

12 Accounting and Financial Reporting 12 The Accounting Equation Assets are further broken down to include current assets, such as accounts receivable, and fixed assets. current assets cash or any other items that can be converted to cash quickly and used by a business within a year Section 20.1 Financial Record Keeping accounts receivable the amount customers owe a business fixed assets any items that will be held by a business for more than one year, such as equipment, trucks, or buildings

13 Accounting and Financial Reporting 13 The Accounting Equation Total assets minus total liabilities, which includes accounts payable, equals the owners equity. liabilities the debts of a business Section 20.1 Financial Record Keeping accounts payable the amount a business owes to creditors owners equity the worth of a business

14 Accounting and Financial Reporting 14 The Accounting System Each business must create its own set of accounts. Each business will have different accounts, but all will use the same concepts and procedures for recording, summarizing, and report the financial information. Section 20.1 Financial Record Keeping

15 Accounting and Financial Reporting 15 Creating Accounts When you create the books of your business, you create a chart of accounts for each of the three categories in the accounting equation: assets, liabilities, and owners equity. chart of accounts the list of accounts a business uses in its operation Section 20.1 Financial Record Keeping

16 Accounting and Financial Reporting 16 Double-Entry Accounting Most businesses use a double-entry accounting system in which each business transaction affects two or more accounts. These changes are identified by entering debits or credits. debits additions to the left side of an account that increase the balance of all assets and expense accounts and decrease the balance of all liability and revenue accounts Section 20.1 Financial Record Keeping credits additions to the right side of an account that decrease the balance for all assets and expense accounts and increase the balance for all liability and revenue accounts

17 Accounting and Financial Reporting 17 Cash or Accrual Basis Income and payments are recorded by using a cash basis or accrual basis system. cash basis an accounting system in which income is recorded when it is received, and expenses are recorded when they are paid Section 20.1 Financial Record Keeping accrual basis an accounting system in which income is recorded when it is earned, and expenses are recorded when they are paid

18 Accounting and Financial Reporting 18 Journalizing Business Transactions It is important for a business to keep a journal to record business transactions as they occur. journal a financial diary of a business Section 20.1 Financial Record Keeping Journalizing helps a business owner keep up-to- date on his or her financial transactions. journalizing the process of recording business transactions, usually on a daily basis as they occur

19 Accounting and Financial Reporting 19 Journalizing Business Transactions The general journal is the type of journal most commonly used by businesses. general journal an all- purpose journal that is used to record all types of business transaction Section 20.1 Financial Record Keeping

20 Accounting and Financial Reporting 20 Posting to the General Ledger By posting to the general ledger, you can find the balance of each account. posting the process of transferring amounts from the general journal to accounts in the general ledger Section 20.1 Financial Record Keeping

21 Accounting and Financial Reporting 21 Using Sales and Cash Receipts Report Businesses that have regular daily sales should prepare these daily reports: Section 20.1 Financial Record Keeping Cash receipts Cash on hand Sales

22 Accounting and Financial Reporting 22 Describe the items of information included on each financial statement. Identify ongoing accounting activities. Explain how technology helps business owners with all the accounting features. Section 20.2 Preparing Financial Statements 20.2

23 Accounting and Financial Reporting 23 The ability to identify financial statements for a business, to understand what is reported by each, and to realize the importance of having accurate, up-to-date information is key to the financial health of your business. Section 20.2 Preparing Financial Statements 20.2

24 Accounting and Financial Reporting 24 Types of Financial Statements To operate a business profitably, you will need up-to-date financial information. Financial statements provide this important information. Section 20.2 Preparing Financial Statements

25 Accounting and Financial Reporting 25 Types of Financial Statements Types of financial statements include: Section 20.2 Preparing Financial Statements income statement balance sheet statement of cash flows

26 Accounting and Financial Reporting 26 Income Statement At the end of your accounting period, your income statement will tell you how much money your business made in sales and where the money went. income statement a report of the revenue, expenses, and net income or loss for the accounting period Section 20.2 Preparing Financial Statements

27 Accounting and Financial Reporting 27 Balance Sheet The main purpose of a balance sheet is to present your businesss financial position on a specific date and what you own, owe, and are worth. balance sheet a report of the final balances of all asset, liability, and owners equity accounts at the end of an accounting period Section 20.2 Preparing Financial Statements

28 Accounting and Financial Reporting 28 Statement of Cash Flows When your business has a negative cash flow, you will often experience a lack of available cash. cash flow the amount of cash available to a business at any given time Section 20.2 Preparing Financial Statements You may not be able to pay your bills or purchase more merchandise for resale.

29 Accounting and Financial Reporting 29 Statement of Cash Flows Your statement of cash flows gives you a picture of how the cash position of your business changed during a period of time. statement of cash flow a report of how much cash a business took in and where the cash went Section 20.2 Preparing Financial Statements

30 Ongoing Accounting Activities Section 20.2 Preparing Financial Statements 30 Weekly Accounting Activities Posting to the general ledger Keeping track of payments Keeping payroll records Keeping tax records Filing records

31 Ongoing Accounting Activities Section 20.2 Preparing Financial Statements 31 Monthly Accounting Activities Preparing financial statements Paying payroll tax deposits Reconciling the bank statement Balancing the checkbook Replenishing the petty cash fund


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