Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

BSBADM309A Process accounts payable and receivable Prepared by Melanie Lynch Training Consultant.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "BSBADM309A Process accounts payable and receivable Prepared by Melanie Lynch Training Consultant."— Presentation transcript:

1 BSBADM309A Process accounts payable and receivable Prepared by Melanie Lynch Training Consultant

2 Unit Descriptor This unit covers maintenance of accounts payable and accounts receivable records, processing of payments to creditors, and handling overdue accounts receivable.

3 Introduction to Accounting Assets and Liabilities Key Concepts in Accounting Debtors and Creditors Ledger Accounts Financial Source Documents The Accounting Equation Cash Flow and the Accounting Process Accounting with Journals Bank Reconciliation

4 The Purpose of Accounting A business wants to know its financial position A business needs to know if they can meet their debts and how much cash they have Another important measure of success is whether or not they have made a profit

5 Key Concepts in Accounting Assets are items of value owned by a business Liabilities are amounts owed by the business to parties outside the business Owners equity or proprietorship is the amount of the owners interest or investment in the business

6 Assets and Liabilities Assets: Cash Goods or inventories Furniture Buildings Land Accounts receivable or debtors Liabilities: Mortgage Bank Loan Insurance Accounts payable or creditors

7 Owners Equity or Proprietorship Owners Equity is the concept of worth. Owners Equity = Assets - Liabilities Owners Equity means that the amount of the owners interest, investment or equity in the business is calculated

8 The Accounting Equation The accounting equation is the relationship between the total assets, liabilities and owners equity of a business at a certain date. This relationship is always an equality. The source of funds given to the business will always equal the funds received by the business.

9 The Accounting Equation All events are regarded from the viewpoint of the business. Owners Equity = Assets - Liabilities Liabilities and owners equity are recorded on the same side of the accounting equation

10 Cash Flow in Business Business Inflow of cash Owners investing capital Providing services to clients Selling inventories to customers Customers paying outstanding accounts Other income, eg interest revenue, rent revenue Outflow of cash Owners withdrawing cash (drawings) Purchasing supplies Purchasing inventories from suppliers Purchasing assets other than inventories Paying outstanding accounts Expenses, eg wages, insurance

11 The Accounting Process Transactions Source documents Financial reports Trial Balance Ledgers Journals Bank Reconciliation

12 Journals Source documents Debtors and Creditors Ledger Business Transactions Accounting for Credit and Cash Flow in a Business Bank Reconciliation

13 Source Documents A source documents is a form which provides the details of a transaction and the evidence that the transaction has occurred They provide the basis for entries in the accounting records

14 Source Documents

15 Source documents that provide evidence of income include: Cash Register Rolls Cash Receipts Invoices to Debtors Credit Notes from Creditors Source documents that provide evidence of expenses include: Cheque butts Invoices from Creditors Credit Notes to Debtors

16 Source Documents All source documents must be entered into the daily journals before they can be filed away Source documents are entered into Journals in chronological date order All source documents should be checked for accuracy before they are entered into the accounts system

17 Journals A journal is sometimes referred to as a day book. It is the first place of entry for the business day-to-day transactions, which are entered in date order Journals are totalled at the end of the month after Bank Reconciliation has taken place

18 Journals

19 Types of Journals Cash Receipts Journal - records all the receipts of cash Cash Payment Journal - records all payments from the business General Journal - records any transaction that does not fit into any one of the other specialised journals Purchases Journal - records all purchases of inventories on credit Purchases Returns Journal - records all returns made on credit purchases Sales Journal - records all sales of inventories on credit Sales Returns Journal - records all returns made on credit sales

20 Accounting for Cash with Journals Cash Receipts and Cash Register Rolls are the financial source documents that are posted to the Cash Receipts Journal Cheque butts are the financial source documents that are posted to the Cash Payments Journal

21 Cash Receipts Journal The Cash Receipts Journal records all receipts of cash There is a source documents for every entry (a receipt or cash register roll/summary) There is no set number of columns in a Cash Receipts Journal. Columns are set up for the most frequent items of receipts for each particular business

22 Cash Receipts Journal Cash from cash receipts is banked daily. This means that the cash received from various sources must be added together for each day and the total amount banked and this is reflected in the Bank column of the Cash Receipts Journal The totals of the dissection columns should always equal the total of the Bank column (with the exception of Discount Revenue)

23 Cash Payments Journal The Cash Payments Journal records all payments from the business The source documents for the payment of cash is the cheque butt or cheque duplicate There is no set number of columns in the Cash Payments Journal

24 Cash Payments Journal If more than one cheque is drawn on one day, the amount of each cheque must be entered in the Bank column If more than two accounts are paid with one cheque then the total amount of the cheque is entered in the Bank column The totals of the dissection columns should add up to the total of the Bank column (with the exception of Discount Expense)

25 Accounting for credit with Journals All goods and services purchased or sold and paid for at a later time (usually on a statement at the end of the month) are recorded in the following Journals: Purchases Journal (source doc – Invoices from Creditors) - records all purchases of inventories on credit Purchases Returns Journal (source doc – Credit Notes from Creditors - records all returns made on credit purchases Sales Journal (source doc – Invoices to Debtors) - records all sales of inventories on credit Sales Returns Journal (source doc – Credit Notes to Debtors) - records all returns made on credit sales

26 Purchases Journal records all purchases on credit the source documents for entries in the Purchases Journal are the invoice received for goods purchased on credit suppliers who the company owes money to are known as Creditors creditors are considered liabilities, since we owe them money Creditors accounts are Credit in nature

27 Purchases Returns Journal records all returns made on credit purchases the source documents for entries in the Purchases Returns Journal are the credit notes received for goods purchased and returned to the supplier

28 Sales Journal records all purchases of goods on credit the source documents for entries in the Sales Journal are the invoices dispatched for goods sold on credit customers who owe the company money are knows as Debtors debtors are considered assets, since they owe us money Debtors accounts are Debit in nature

29 Sales Returns Journal records all returns made on credit sales the source documents for entries in the Purchases Returns Journal are the credit notes duplicates dispatched for goods sold on credit and returned by the customer

30 Debtors and Creditors Ledger Accounts

31 What is a Ledger Account? A device is needed where changes to a particular debtors or creditors account can be kept account of. Such a device is called an account An account is a record where all changes to a particular item are shown A ledger is a book, set of loose cards, or file of all the accounts

32 Purpose of Debtors and Creditors Ledger Accounts The purpose of keeping debtors and creditors ledgers is so that at any point in time the business can check to whom it owes money (Creditors accounts) and who owes money to the business (Debtors accounts) When statements are sent to debtors at the end of the month they are drawn up from the Debtors Ledger When statements are received at the end of the month they can be checked against the Creditors Ledger

33 Debtors and Creditors Ledger Accounts Ledger accounts keep a record of what happens to a Debtor or Creditor A Debtor is someone to whom the business has sold goods and services. A Debtor is considered an asset, because they bring income to the business. A Creditor is someone from whom the business has purchases goods and services. A Creditor is considered a liability, because they are an expense to the business.

34 Accounting Rules Asset accounts have a debit nature. Therefore increases to asset accounts are recorded on the debit side and decreases to asset accounts are recorded on the credit side Liability and Owners Equity accounts have a credit nature. Therefore increases to liability accounts are recorded on the credit side and decreases to liability accounts are recorded on the debit side

35 Preparation of ledger accounts There is usually a large number of ledger accounts for a business The procedure for entering details into the ledger is called posting Posting is usually done at the end of the month and entries are posted from the daily journals (CRJ, CPJ, SJ, SRJ, PJ, PRJ, GJ)

36 Posting from the Journals Entries from the following journals are usually posted to the debtors accounts: –Sales Journal –Sales Returns Journal –Cash Receipts Journal Entries from the following journals are usually posted to the creditors accounts: –Purchases Journal –Purchases Returns Journal –Cash Payments Journal

37 To post to a ledger account Identify the account and the account number and open an account if one is not already in existence Show the date of the transaction Fill in the Particulars column with the name of the other account/s affected Place the relevant amount in the debit or credit columns according to the rules of accounting Calculate the running balance and place this in the balance column (indicating a dr or cr balance)

38 Balancing a ledger account If it is the first entry in the ledger account the balance is the same as the entry (debit or credit) If there is an existing balance in the ledger account (debit or credit), add a like entry and subtract an opposite entry Keep a running balance showing whether the account is in debit or credit

39 Debtors and Creditors Schedules At the end of the month a Debtors Schedule and Creditors Schedule is drawn up The debtors schedule list all the Debtors names and total amounts that they owe with a grand total The creditors schedule list all the Creditors names and total amounts that the business owes with a grand total

40 Bank Reconciliation

41 Why reconcile? We need to make sure that the money recorded in the Cash Receipts book has made it to the bank We need to make sure that the money recorded in the Cash Payments book has come out of the bank

42 What books and forms do we need to reconcile? Bank Reconciliation Statement from the previous month Cash Receipts Book Cash Payments Book Bank Statement Cash at Bank Ledger Card To produce a new Bank Reconciliation for the end of month

43 What is the process of Bank Reconciliation? First, obtain the Bank Reconciliation Statement from the previous month which shows any outstanding deposits and unpresented cheques from the previous month These amounts should be checked against the new Bank Statement – if they appear tick them off on the Bank Statements and the Bank Reconciliation Statement from the previous month They then have been ACCOUNTED for

44 Step 2 in the Bank Reconciliation Process Next obtain the Cash Receipts Journal and look at the Bank column, and the Bank Statement Tick off all the entries in the Cash Receipts Journal against the CREDIT column on the Bank Statement For any entries that DO NOT appear on either the Bank Statement or the Cash Receipts Journal, you should circle them to be ACCOUNTED for in the reconciliation process

45 Step 3 in the Bank Reconciliation Process Next obtain the Cash Payments Journal and look at the Bank column, and the Bank Statement Tick off all the entries in the Cash Payments Journal against the DEBIT column on the Bank Statement For any entries that DO NOT appear on either the Bank Statement or the Cash Payments Journal, you should circle them to be ACCOUNTED for in the reconciliation process

46 Some CPJ entries not accounted for on the Bank Statement Most commonly some entries in the Cash Payments Journal are not accounted for on the bank statement because we have sent out cheques to pay our creditors and/or expenses and the parties have not yet banked those cheques These are called unpresented cheques and will have to be ACCOUNTED for (Step 6)

47 Some CRJ entries not accounted for on the Bank Statement Most commonly some entries in the Cash Receipts Journal are not accounted for on the bank statement because we may have deposited cash/cheques near the end of the month and they have not been captured in the current Bank Statement These are called outstanding deposits and will have to be ACCOUNTED for (Step 6)

48 Some Bank Statement entries not accounted for in the CPJ Journal Some items may appear on the Bank Statement that may be an expense that will have to be ACCOUNTED for by writing them into the Cash Payments Journal (Step 4) before you total the columns at the end of the month For example, Bank and government charges and fees

49 Some Bank Statement entries not accounted for in the CRJ Journal Some items may appear on the Bank Statement that may be an expense that will have to be ACCOUNTED for by writing them into the Cash Receipts Journal (Step 5) before you total the columns at the end of the month For example, Direct Deposits, Interest earned on the account

50 Step 4 in the Bank Reconciliation Process Write any expenses from the Bank Statement (eg. Bank or government fees/charges) from the DEBIT column of the Bank Statement into the Cash Payments Journal These items on the Bank Statement can then be ticked off as they are ACCOUNTED for Total the columns in the CPJ

51 Step 5 in the Bank Reconciliation Process Write any expenses from the Bank Statement (eg. Direct deposits, interest earned) from the CREDIT column of the Bank Statement into the Cash Receipts Journal These items on the Bank Statement can then be ticked off as they are ACCOUNTED for Total the columns in the CRJ

52 Step 6 in the Bank Reconciliation Process It is now time to construct the new Bank Reconciliation for the end of the month This will ACCOUNT for the outstanding deposits that are circled in the Cash Receipts Journal and the unpresented cheques as circled in the Cash Payments Journal It should be set out in the following manner

53 Structure of Bank Reconciliation Statement Bank Reconciliation Statement Of Acme Trading Company As at 31 March 2002 Credit Balance as per Bank Statement8, Add Outstanding Deposits2, , Less Unpresented Cheques No No Debit Balance as per Bank Ledger Card 9,685.00

54 Explanation of Bank Reconciliation Statement The Credit Balance as per Bank Statement is the final balance as shown on the bank statement for the month The outstanding deposits are taken from any entries circled in the CRJ The unpresented cheques are taken from any entries circled in the CPJ These entries can now be ticked in the CRJ and the CPJ, as they have been ACCOUNTED for

55 Step 7 in the Bank Reconciliation Process Finally we have to ensure that the Debit balance as per the Bank Ledger Card actually balance with the final amount on the Bank Reconciliation Statement To do this we obtain the Bank Ledger Card which will usually show a Debit balance

56 Cash at Bank Ledger Account is an Asset account We take the total amount for the month from the Cash Receipts Journal and transfer it to the Bank Ledger Card, posting the amount to the Debit column and adding it to the balance We take the total amount for the month from the Cash Payments Journal and transfer it to the Bank Ledger Card, posting the amount to the Credit column and subtracting it from the balance

57 Structure of Bank Reconciliation Statement Cash at Bank _____________________________________ Date Particulars Debit Credit Balance Balance 8, Cash Receipts J. 2, , Cash Payments J , The Cash at Bank balance on the Ledger Card is now reconciled with the amount on the final Bank Reconciliation Statement

58 Final Reconciliation You will know that your books are balanced and reconciled if the bank balance on the Bank Ledger Card equals the bank balance on the end of month Bank Reconciliation Statement


Download ppt "BSBADM309A Process accounts payable and receivable Prepared by Melanie Lynch Training Consultant."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google