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1 Troubleshooting. 2 Introduction This section provides you with the necessary skills to effectively troubleshoot the DIRECTV System.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Troubleshooting. 2 Introduction This section provides you with the necessary skills to effectively troubleshoot the DIRECTV System."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Troubleshooting

2 2 Introduction This section provides you with the necessary skills to effectively troubleshoot the DIRECTV System

3 3 Objectives Test signal using a signal meter Verify correct voltage from the IRD Test for an open circuit Test for a short circuit Field test the LNB Run a system test on the IRD Test signal using a signal meter Verify correct voltage from the IRD Test for an open circuit Test for a short circuit Field test the LNB Run a system test on the IRD

4 4 Troubleshooting Identifying Symptoms –No picture on television –Searching for Satellite –Missing Channels Identifying Symptoms –No picture on television –Searching for Satellite –Missing Channels

5 5 Troubleshooting System Inspection –Animal chewed through cable –Cable jacket is damaged by weed-eater –Cable stapled or kinked –Improper ground –Improper electrical outlet –Improper Connectors –Damage to reflector or mount System Inspection –Animal chewed through cable –Cable jacket is damaged by weed-eater –Cable stapled or kinked –Improper ground –Improper electrical outlet –Improper Connectors –Damage to reflector or mount

6 6 Signal Level Meter These 3 signal level meters are the most common used in the field today The signal level meter reads the level of signal in the line Advanced signal level meters like the BirdDog can identify specific satellites In Line meters may have an option that allows you to read voltage These 3 signal level meters are the most common used in the field today The signal level meter reads the level of signal in the line Advanced signal level meters like the BirdDog can identify specific satellites In Line meters may have an option that allows you to read voltage

7 7 Quick Hit Troubleshooting Determine the Signal at the IRD –Determine the defective component with SFSS on all odd, all even or several transponders –What is the signal level No signal or low signal at IRD –Do a hard reboot –Check the cable connections –Read signal level at the back of the receiver using a signal level meter Determine the Signal at the IRD –Determine the defective component with SFSS on all odd, all even or several transponders –What is the signal level No signal or low signal at IRD –Do a hard reboot –Check the cable connections –Read signal level at the back of the receiver using a signal level meter

8 8 Quick Hit Troubleshooting Good signal on the meter, but not on the IRD –Check voltage out of IRD –Using a binding post adapter or a pre-made test connector check the voltage, the black lead to the shield and the red lead to the center conductor Use VOM –Voltage should display as switching between 13 and 18 volts –No voltage or voltage not switching – replace receiver –Voltage detected but no signal level on IRD – replace receiver Good signal on the meter, but not on the IRD –Check voltage out of IRD –Using a binding post adapter or a pre-made test connector check the voltage, the black lead to the shield and the red lead to the center conductor Use VOM –Voltage should display as switching between 13 and 18 volts –No voltage or voltage not switching – replace receiver –Voltage detected but no signal level on IRD – replace receiver

9 9 Quick Hit Troubleshooting The Volt Ohm Meter VOMs can read AC or DC voltage VOMs can read resistance in Ohms VOMs are battery powered when checking resistance The Volt Ohm Meter VOMs can read AC or DC voltage VOMs can read resistance in Ohms VOMs are battery powered when checking resistance Ω

10 10 Quick Hit Troubleshooting The Volt Ohm Meter All VOMs have 2 leads or probes Connecting Leads Reading Voltage The Volt Ohm Meter All VOMs have 2 leads or probes Connecting Leads Reading Voltage

11 11 Quick Hit Troubleshooting The Signal Level Meter –Can read voltages at the LNB loaded This means that the Signal Level Meter reads the true voltage on the line with the draw from the LNB The Signal Level Meter –Can read voltages at the LNB loaded This means that the Signal Level Meter reads the true voltage on the line with the draw from the LNB

12 12 Troubleshooting In Line Components No Signal from ODU Cable –Are there other receivers on the account? If yes, are they working? –If they are, the problem is isolated to this receiver and feed –Proceed to the multiswitch or ODU; whichever is feeding this outlet No Signal from ODU Cable –Are there other receivers on the account? If yes, are they working? –If they are, the problem is isolated to this receiver and feed –Proceed to the multiswitch or ODU; whichever is feeding this outlet

13 13 Troubleshooting In Line Components No Signal from ODU Cable –If you have very weak or no signal at the port, test the other ports and see if they are working properly If the other ports are providing adequate signal but this one isn’t, replace the multiswitch If all ports have low signal level check the input signal to the multiswitch No Signal from ODU Cable –If you have very weak or no signal at the port, test the other ports and see if they are working properly If the other ports are providing adequate signal but this one isn’t, replace the multiswitch If all ports have low signal level check the input signal to the multiswitch

14 14 Troubleshooting In Line Components Signal coming in from multiswitch is low –Common Problems Electrical Surge Corroded/Damaged “F” Connectors Incorrect or Damaged Cable Moisture Migration Poor Return Loss Failed Internal Parts Signal coming in from multiswitch is low –Common Problems Electrical Surge Corroded/Damaged “F” Connectors Incorrect or Damaged Cable Moisture Migration Poor Return Loss Failed Internal Parts

15 15 Troubleshooting In Line Components If the signal coming into the multiswitch is low, go to the ODU and check the output at the LNB. –If low or no signal, look to see if there are any obstructions blocking signal –If there is clear line if sight attempt to realign the ODU to peak signal –If you can not get signal replace the LNB If the signal coming into the multiswitch is low, go to the ODU and check the output at the LNB. –If low or no signal, look to see if there are any obstructions blocking signal –If there is clear line if sight attempt to realign the ODU to peak signal –If you can not get signal replace the LNB

16 16 Good Signal From ODU –Test the drop to the multiswitch or the defective receiver for an open or a short The Volt Ohm Meter –Reading Resistance »Shorts, opens and damage Good Signal From ODU –Test the drop to the multiswitch or the defective receiver for an open or a short The Volt Ohm Meter –Reading Resistance »Shorts, opens and damage Troubleshooting In Line Components

17 17 Troubleshooting In Line Components Short Circuit Test –Disconnect cable on both ends –Set multi-meter to ohms –Touch one lead to center conductor and the other to the braid. –Meter should read 0, open or infinite –A short will be indicated by a fluctuating or constant resistance Short Circuit Test –Disconnect cable on both ends –Set multi-meter to ohms –Touch one lead to center conductor and the other to the braid. –Meter should read 0, open or infinite –A short will be indicated by a fluctuating or constant resistance

18 18 Troubleshooting In Line Components Open Circuit Test –Remove the cables from the LNB –Short cable using 75 ohm terminator –Set multi-meter to ohms –Touch one lead to center conductor and the other to the braid Open Circuit Test –Remove the cables from the LNB –Short cable using 75 ohm terminator –Set multi-meter to ohms –Touch one lead to center conductor and the other to the braid

19 19 Troubleshooting In Line Components Open Circuit Test (Continued) –Meter should read 75 ohms or greater, the longer the cable the greater the resistance in the circuit (Approximately. 1.6 Ohms per 100 feet of RG-6 –An indication of an open circuit would read 0, open or infinite Open Circuit Test (Continued) –Meter should read 75 ohms or greater, the longer the cable the greater the resistance in the circuit (Approximately. 1.6 Ohms per 100 feet of RG-6 –An indication of an open circuit would read 0, open or infinite

20 20 Troubleshooting In Line Components Damaged Cable Test –Check the resistance of a terminator which should read approximately 75 Ohms: Firmly holding the black probe to the outer case and firmly pressing the red probe to the center conductor Once the resistance is known, connect the terminator to one end of the cable and read the resistance at the other end using a binding post adapter or an adapter you made. Damaged Cable Test –Check the resistance of a terminator which should read approximately 75 Ohms: Firmly holding the black probe to the outer case and firmly pressing the red probe to the center conductor Once the resistance is known, connect the terminator to one end of the cable and read the resistance at the other end using a binding post adapter or an adapter you made.

21 21 Troubleshooting In Line Components Good Signal From ODU –Consider the Voltage drop, attenuation and insertion loss Use a signal level meter to calculate cable attenuation using a fixed scale for RG11, RG6 & RG59 Good Signal From ODU –Consider the Voltage drop, attenuation and insertion loss Use a signal level meter to calculate cable attenuation using a fixed scale for RG11, RG6 & RG59 Loss estimate per 100 feet at 68º F at 1450 MHz RG11 = RG6 = RG59 = -9.82

22 22 The Signal Level Meter –Calculating cable attenuation at 2150 MHz The Signal Level Meter –Calculating cable attenuation at 2150 MHz Loss estimate per 100 feet at 68º F at 2150 MHz RG11 = RG6 = RG59 = Troubleshooting In Line Components

23 23 Good Signal From LNB –Calculate the signal loss between the ODU and multiswitch Consider the cable loss and insertion loss of other component –Look for defective components –Check each device to determine the signal level coming in and out –If you suspect the drop is defective test for a short or open Good Signal From LNB –Calculate the signal loss between the ODU and multiswitch Consider the cable loss and insertion loss of other component –Look for defective components –Check each device to determine the signal level coming in and out –If you suspect the drop is defective test for a short or open Troubleshooting In Line Components

24 24 Troubleshooting In Line Components In Line Devices –The cable used for a DIRECTV installation should always be approved RG6 coaxial. –Signal Loss: Impact at 950 to 1450 MHz –7.89 dB per 100 feet Impact at 250 to 2150 MHz –9.69 dB per 100 feet Voltage drop per 100 ft at 18 volts with 300 milliamp draw –.48 volts per 100 feet In Line Devices –The cable used for a DIRECTV installation should always be approved RG6 coaxial. –Signal Loss: Impact at 950 to 1450 MHz –7.89 dB per 100 feet Impact at 250 to 2150 MHz –9.69 dB per 100 feet Voltage drop per 100 ft at 18 volts with 300 milliamp draw –.48 volts per 100 feet

25 25 Troubleshooting In Line Components Power Loss - dB –Some Signal Meters on the market can show you the dB values as well as signal strength –Generally you will see dB values at the ODU around - 32dB –The DIRECTV receivers can still show picture at levels no less than - 60dB –F-Connectors give you -.5dB loss per –F-81 barrels give you - 1dB loss per Power Loss - dB –Some Signal Meters on the market can show you the dB values as well as signal strength –Generally you will see dB values at the ODU around - 32dB –The DIRECTV receivers can still show picture at levels no less than - 60dB –F-Connectors give you -.5dB loss per –F-81 barrels give you - 1dB loss per

26 26 Good Signal From LNB –Calculate the signal loss between the ODU and multiswitch Consider the cable loss and insertion loss of all other components. –Is the loss greater than your calculation? If so: »Is the cable all RG6? »Are all components rated for the frequency spectrum you need for the receiver Good Signal From LNB –Calculate the signal loss between the ODU and multiswitch Consider the cable loss and insertion loss of all other components. –Is the loss greater than your calculation? If so: »Is the cable all RG6? »Are all components rated for the frequency spectrum you need for the receiver Troubleshooting In Line Components

27 27 Good Signal From MultiSwitch If the drop feeding the multiswitch now has good signal at that location check the output of the switch again If the drop feeding the multiswitch has no signal at that location and there are no in-line components replace that cable run You can run a temporary drop to confirm a cable problem If there are any in line components test the input signal and output signal of each to determine which has failed Replace any defective components or cable and reconnect the feed to the switch Good Signal From MultiSwitch If the drop feeding the multiswitch now has good signal at that location check the output of the switch again If the drop feeding the multiswitch has no signal at that location and there are no in-line components replace that cable run You can run a temporary drop to confirm a cable problem If there are any in line components test the input signal and output signal of each to determine which has failed Replace any defective components or cable and reconnect the feed to the switch Troubleshooting In Line Components

28 28 Using Test Equipment Open Ground Open Neutral Open Hot Hot/Ground Reversed Hot/Neutral Reversed Correct The scale on the unit enables you to determine the status of the outlet

29 29 Summary Now that you have completed this section you should be able to: –Test signal using a signal meter –Verify correct voltage from the IRD –Test for an open circuit –Test for a short circuit –Field test the LNB –Run a system test on the IRD Now that you have completed this section you should be able to: –Test signal using a signal meter –Verify correct voltage from the IRD –Test for an open circuit –Test for a short circuit –Field test the LNB –Run a system test on the IRD

30 30 Exercise Hands-On –Station #1 Verify Voltage & Signal Strength –Station #2 Open and Short Circuits –Station #3 Troubleshooting Wall Hands-On –Station #1 Verify Voltage & Signal Strength –Station #2 Open and Short Circuits –Station #3 Troubleshooting Wall


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