3Research Critique Is not synonymous with “criticize” Examines the strengths, weaknesses, meaning, and significance of the study (substantive and theoretical dimensions)Be objective and realistic in identifying the study’s strengths and weaknesses
4Important Points All studies have weaknesses or flaws Research is critiqued to broaden understanding, improve practice, and provide background for conducting a studyThe critique process involves comprehension, comparison, analysis, and evaluation
5Cochrane Systematic Reviews Cochrane Library www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/mrwhome/ /HOME The Cochrane Collaboration. Oxford: Update Software; Updated quarterly.Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Cochrane Reviews)'Gold Standard' for high-quality systematic reviewsFull-text included in Cochrane LibraryCochrane Reviews includes complete reviews and protocols (reviews that are still in progress)Cochrane Reviews abstracts are in PubMed
6More ReviewsDatabase of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (Other Reviews - DARE)prepared by the National Health Service Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of York, EnglandComplements the Cochrane Reviews by offering a selection of quality assessed reviews in those subjects where there is currently no Cochrane reviewBrief critical appraisals of previously published reviews of the effects of health careStructured abstracts, not full-textDARE not indexed in PubMed, but original research articles may beAlso available at no charge on the web from University of York |
7Other Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses PubMed MEDLINE - Systematic Reviews |access: part of PubMed's Clinical Queries (linked on PubMed Home and Advanced Search pages)Identifies systematic reviews and other similar types of studies found in biomedical journals included in PubMed databaseNo evaluation of comparative quality of different reviews on a topicAbstracts supplied by authors/journals. No separate evaluation of quality of researchIdentify systematic reviews in the biomedical area - gathers together much larger collection than other evidence-based practice resources
8Evidence Guidelines/Summaries BMJ Clinical Evidence |Compendium of evidence on the effects of clinical interventionsSummarizes the current state of knowledge, including knowns and unknowns, based on thorough searchCategorizes interventions as beneficial, likely beneficial, no known benefit, harmful ...DynaMed |Best available evidence summaries for nearly 2000 topicsClinical reference tool developed for use at the 'point-of-care'Outline format to quickly identify key conclusionsUpdated dailyOther ResourcesUSPSTF Guidelines |AHRQ Evidence Reports |FPIN Clinical Inquiries included in Journal of Family Practice | and American Family Physician |
9RCTs, Case Cohorts, Control Studies PubMed | (pubmed.gov )note: Filtered by publication type, but not qualityClinical Queries - Uses preconfigured search strategies to retrieve research-based citations on clinical topics in the areas of therapy, diagnosis, etiology, or diagnosisUse Limits to search by specific publication type (e.g. meta-analysis, randomized controlled trial, review)Cochrane Library | www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/mrwhome/ /HOME The Cochrane Collaboration. Oxford: Update Software; Updated quarterly.Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Clinical Trials)Bibliography of controlled trials as part of an international effort to hand search the world's journalsIncludes reports published in conference proceedings and in many other sources not in PubMed or other bibliographic databases
10Content of Research Reports The AbstractThe Introduction (review of the literature, theoretical framework, significance of and need for the study)The Methods SectionThe Results SectionThe Discussion SectionThe References
11The Beginning The title The abstract Could you tell what the article was about by reading the title?The abstractIncludes a brief description of the problemHow the study was done (methodology)The resultsConclusions
12Next Steps The Problem Review of the Literature Is it clear what the problem the authors are trying to solve?Review of the LiteratureDo the articles relate to the problem?Is it organized, broad to specific?Does it tell a story?Comprehensive and current? What years are covered in the ROL?Research Question/Aim/Purpose/HypothesisDo authors pose a research question or hypothesis?Is it explicitly stated what the aim or purpose of the study is?DesignIs the design stated?Does the design flow from the research question or aim?Did the authors explain why they choose this research design?
13Design Analysis of numerical data QuantitativeQualitativeAnalysis of numerical dataExperimentalQuasi-experimentalComparativeLongitudinalCorrelationalAnalysis of data such as words (e.g., from interviews), pictures (e.g., video), or objects (e.g., an artifact)Grounded theory - social processesPhenomonology – lived experienceEthnography – cultureHistorical
14The Journey Continues Sample Tool Is the population described? Is the sample method, or how the sample was chosen described?Is the sample size right for the analysis? Was a power analysis done to determine sample size?Were standards for protection of human subjects discussed?ToolWas the tool created by the authors or already established?Is a copy of the tool included in the article?Is reliability discussed?Is validity discussed?
15Tool, Instruments, Questionnaires, and More ValidityReliabilityExtent to which the tool measures what it was intended toContentCriterion relatedconstructResults are repeatable and consistentInternal consistencyTest-retestInter-rater
16PowerThe probability that a statistical test will detect a significant difference that exists - the risk of a Type I error can be calculated using power analysis.Level of significanceSample sizePower - acceptable level is .80Effect size - the degree to which the null hypothesis is false
17Effect SizeAn estimate of how large the treatment effect is, that is how well the intervention worked in the experimental group compared to the control group (intervention studies)The larger the effect size, the stronger are the experimental intervention’s effects.Effect size for intervention studies:.2 = small effect.5 = medium effect.8 = large effect
18Getting Closer to the End MethodologyAre methods of data collection sufficiently described?Is the time frame when the study occurred described?Data AnalysisIs information presented sufficient to answer the research question(s)?Were statistical tests used to analyze the data?Were values obtained from the analysis?Was statistical significance reported?Are the results explained?Are tables and figures easy to understand and informative?
19Confidence IntervalsProbability that a value will fall within a range of variablesThe larger the CI the less precise the measurement of that variableA very wide interval may indicates that more data should be collected before anything very definite can be said about the parameter95% CI most common
20The End Discussion Conclusions Is a discussion section presented? If yes, are the results compared with the literature review?ConclusionsAre conclusions clearly stated?Are conclusions directly related to the results?Do the findings add to the present nursing knowledge?Are study limitations identified?Did authors make recommendations for further research?Carlson, J. (1999). J Emerg Nurs, 25,
21ReferencesRelevance (extent to which the reference bears on the research question)Primary sources (descriptions of studies written by the researchers)Secondary sources (descriptions of studies written by someone other than the original researcher)Opinion and anecdotal
22Level of SignificanceThe researcher does not know when an error in statistical decision making has occurred. The researcher can control the risk of making a Type I Error by setting the level of significance.Level of Significance (alpha level) is the probability of making a Type I Error or the probability of rejecting a true null hypothesis.
23Level of SignificanceUsual level set at .05 (willing to accept the fact that if the study were carried out 100 times, the decision to reject the null hypothesis would be wrong 5 times)If researcher wants to have smaller risk of falsely rejecting null hypothesis, set at .01.Decreasing risk of making Type I Error increases risk of Type II Error.Findings are significant or not significant.
24Clinical Significance Related to practical importance of the findingsNo common agreement in nursing about how to judge clinical significanceEffect size?Difference sufficiently important to warrant changing patient care?
25Clinical Significance Who should judge clinical significance?The patients and their families?The clinician or researcher?Society at large?Clinical significance is ultimately a value judgment
26Research JournalsExamples of peer reviewed / refereed journals: Nursing Research, Advances in Nursing Science, Applied Nursing Research, Clinical Nursing Research, Western Journal of Nursing ResearchExample of Peer Reviewed online resource: MedscapePeer Review – Look for statement in first few pages of journal that it is peer reviewed. Content is “reviewed” by experts in field before publication