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What do I do with the literature when I’ve found it? Alison Brettle, Lecturer (Information Specialist) School of Nursing and Midwifery University of Salford.

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Presentation on theme: "What do I do with the literature when I’ve found it? Alison Brettle, Lecturer (Information Specialist) School of Nursing and Midwifery University of Salford."— Presentation transcript:

1 What do I do with the literature when I’ve found it? Alison Brettle, Lecturer (Information Specialist) School of Nursing and Midwifery University of Salford

2 Session Overview  Challenges, techniques and tools for managing and presenting your literature  Practical  Discussion  Toolkit/Wiki

3 Exercise  In groups  List 3 challenges to managing your information  Identify 3 solutions

4 Solution 1: Be systematic  Can still be systematic even if not doing a systematic review  Borrow some of the systematic review principles and approaches  Borrow/adapt tools that you would use in a systematic review

5 Systematic review process  Define/focus the question  Develop a protocol  Search the literature (possibly 2 stages scoping and actual searches)  Refine the inclusion/exclusion criteria  Assess the studies (data extraction tools, 2 independent reviewers)  Combine the results of the studies to produce conclusion– can be a qualitative or quantitative (meta-analysis)  Place findings in context – quality and heterogeniety of studies, applicability of findings

6 Ways to be systematic  Develop a protocol Provides a methodology for you to follow Keeps you focussed and on track Keeps a record (good evidence for your thesis)

7 Solution 2: Clarity  What are you trying to achieve with your lit review?  What questions are you trying to answer? Clarity about this will help  You to work out what you need to get out of the papers  How you can focus and structure your report/chapter/paper

8 Solution 3: Make use of technology  Use a reference management package  Need to invest some time up front this will be returned later (in the really stressful stages of your thesis writing)  Import direct from databases  Organise within the software  Cite as you write  Organise bibliographies and reference lists

9 Solution 4: Break it down  Break your review/work into chunks  Searching  Screening  Refining your question and your search  Extracting/appraising  Synthesising

10 Searching  Quick and dirty (scoping)  Refine  Comprehensive search (of databases) – load all onto reference management package (don’t go through)  After screening – Refine and additional sources

11 Screening  Establish some criteria/rationale/frame work – based on aims (and apply to all)  Screen by title and abstract  Screen by full text  Use a screening tool  Update and record on reference management software

12 Extraction/critical appraisal  Need to extract what is relevant to your review and critique it (back to your aims)  Make use of pre-defined tools (adapt accordingly)  Assessing quality – systems available – be explicit if you are going to do this  Think how you are going to record them/use them (hard copy or electronic)  Think how you are going to store them

13 Synthesise  Begin with an overview – summary (volume, nature and quality of evidence)  What are your themes?  Think back to your aims and what you are trying to achieve  Report on the parts of the papers that speak to these aims – remember to critique rather than simply be descriptive  What is your end message?

14 Exercises  In groups – choose a topic and draft a protocol  In a group – choose a topic and draft a screening tool  Individually – outline your inclusion/exclusion criteria and draft a screening tool  Individually – articulate your aims and map out the themes for your literature review

15 Systematic review models  Medical/Health care Cochrane Collaboration, NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination Usually includes “high quality” research evidence – RCTs Often includes meta-analysis (mathematical synthesis of results of 2+ studies that addressed same hypothesis in same way)  Social care/Social Sciences SCIE, EPPI Centre, Campbell Collaboration Often include wider range of studies including qualitative Often narrative synthesis of evidence

16 Useful resources – systematic reviews  Cochrane Collaboration  Centre for Reviews and Dissemination handbook for conducting systematic reviews, Searching for systematic reviews  EPPI-Centre – Stages of a review  SCIE - The conduct of systematic research reviews for SCIE knowledge reviews pubID=111


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