Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13 Steppe Peoples and The Civilizations of Eurasia 1200 to 1500."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 13 Steppe Peoples and The Civilizations of Eurasia 1200 to 1500
The Great Mongol Conquests Song Dynasty- trouble with northern provinces Nomadic groups collected taxes with the aid of Chinese officials Nomad Rulers of China before the Mongols Khitans Liao 907-1123 Mongolia, Manchuria and N. China keep nomads and Chinese separate Jurchens push the into China (Chin Dynasty)
Mongol Life Difficult life – meager resources, internal struggles unusually hardy – excellent soldiers Temujin 1162 Genghis Khan – Ruler of all within the seas
The Secret of Genghis Khans Success Organized the people bureaucratically instead of by kin group. 10 men = squad (with a leader chosen by Temujin) 10 squads made a company. devastatingly effective more joined (Turks) from conquered cities they recruited scribes Attacked the Jurchens – city walls, artisans Alternated campaigns: into China or westward 1227 Genghis Khan dies
Genghis Khans successors divided among his four sons one already dead so passed to his grandson Batu Ogadai – Empire of the Great Khan defeated the Jurchens – restored Chinese style of administration and Confucian thought 1279 China is finally subdued The availability of competent Confucians to staff the administrative machine meant that China continued to be governed, except at the highest levels by Chinese.
Genghis Khans successors Continued Expansion westward Southern Russia no ready made system of tax collecting merchants and princes Middle East Persia, Syria, Baghdad Moslems unwilling to pay Christians didnt mind but made poor administrators Il-Khans – Turks
Mongol Power and Unity Under Kublai Khan Kublai Khan (ruled 1260-1294) Took over for his brother Leader of the Mongol Army Good Postal System Scout/ Spying outsiders assigned a responsible job and a high salary were unlikely to disobey. Karakorum – Genghis Capital Cambaluc – Kublais Capital Religious attitudes of the Khan
The Breakup of the Mongol Empire At Vienna the Mongol Army returns home to pick a successor for Ogadai. 1294 Kublai Khans death – the empire begins to break up. Three factors Wearing out of the Mongol manpower Weakening of effective central power over the empire A growing divergence between the Mongol forces stationed in each of the three main areas that had been conquered
The Ming Reaction in China 1368 Chinese drive the Mongols out (1.5 vs 60million) Mongol incompetence or Mandarin espionage? The White Lotus Sect and the Buddha of the Future stir up support to topple the Gov.t Ming Taizu – The Peasant Emperor 1368-1398 1 st Ming Emperor Moved capital to Peking to protect against the Steppe peoples
The Ming Reaction in China cont. Set out to remove all signs of the Mongols bring back the classic China Art Flourished more use of gunpowder Restoration and Autocracy removed closeness to Nobility Power of the Eunuchs Harems/ Concubines Legitimate heir Eunuchs become educated/ advisors to the emperor Eunuch power tied to the court Nobility tied to the countryside.
Ming Voyages of Discovery Cheng Ho – sailed 7 times to the Indian Ocean brought back the King of Ceylon, Prince of Sumartra, Giraffe from East Africa in position to dominate the Indian Ocean Ming Emperors cut back, forbade sailing to the Indian Ocean and the construction of large sea vessels.
Japans coming of Age Until 1200 Japan had copied Chinese culture Organized along clan lines, often fighting amongst one another able to defeat Kublai Kahn Rise of Japanese Towns initially culture only found in the royal court Feudal lords too busy fighting housed artisans – namely blacksmiths merchant pirates – of the samurai class – more money into the economy
Japans coming of Age cont. Buddhist Monasteries – owned important lands. Would defend against Samurai Clans warrior monks Zen sect – accepted samurai Pure Land sect – accept ordinary peasants. Japanese Emperor – powerless Real power laid in the hands of the Shoguns
Japanese Cultural Life more expression from Japanese artists – lower class than in China Noh Drama Priests of The Sun Goddess – Shinto Japanese society was not built on a radical new idea like medieval Europe Japan handicapped by shortages of resources
The Response of Islam Mongol conquest was a disaster for Islam. eventually regain strength because of the Turkish-Mongol rule. ran the Christians out: Syria, Mesopotamia, Persia Timur the Lame (1360-1405) The Ottoman Empire Asia Minor – Osman or Othman (1290-1326) 1354 Gallipoli Peninsula Balkans
Response of Islam continued Constantinople – remained under Greek control 4 th Crusade 1204 Greek Power restored 1261 1453 – Sultan Mohammed II takes Constantinople The power of the Ottoman Empire laid in the religiously dedicated warriors
The Response of Islam continued The Sunni form of Islam became the main form in the Ottoman Empire Sultan used personal slaves to conduct government business Janissaries slaves – administration raided villages (Christians)
Islamic Expansion Elsewhere Islam makes headway in China and Polynesia Yunnan and other major trading cities Java 1526 Philippines, Borneo, Indonesia Africa Eastern Coast defeating Nubia opens Western Africa
Moslem Culture Architecture after 1300 Miniature painting Firdausi 1020 – starts revival of Persian as a language for poetry Rumi – 1273 – Gods love for human beings Sadi – 1291 Hafiz – 1390 Iban-Khaldun 1406 – Geographer and Historian