Presentation on theme: "FUTURE DIRECTIONS OF RADON AND TRITIUM MONITORING Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant."— Presentation transcript:
FUTURE DIRECTIONS OF RADON AND TRITIUM MONITORING Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant
James T. (Tom) Voss, NRRPT, CHP Fellow of the Health Physics Society PO Box 1362 Los Alamos, NM
What are the Current Applications for Radon and Tritium Monitoring Current Nuclear Power Reactors Current Research and Test Reactors New Nuclear Power Reactors Small Transportable Nuclear Reactors
What are the Current Applications for Radon and Tritium Monitoring International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) DOE Operations Medical Resurgence in Uranium Mining
What are the Current Applications for Radon and Tritium Monitoring Uranium Fuel Fabrication Thorium as a Reactor Fuel Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Need for Remote Real-time Monitoring of Nuclear Facilities
Current Nuclear Power Reactors
Current Research and Test Reactors
New Nuclear Power Reactors
Applications for License Renewal Calvert Cliffs, Units 1 and 2 Oconee Nuclear Station, Units 1, 2 and 3 Arkansas Nuclear One, Unit 1 Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 Turkey Point Nuclear Plant, Units 3 and 4 North Anna, Units 1 and 2, and Surry, Units 1 and 2 Peach Bottom, Units 2 and 3 St. Lucie, Units 1 and 2 Fort Calhoun Station, Unit 1 McGuire, Units 1 and 2, and Catawba, Units 1 and 2 H.B. Robinson Nuclear Plant, Unit 2
Applications for License Renewal R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 V.C. Summer Nuclear Station, Unit 1 Dresden, Units 2 and 3, and Quad Cities, Units 1 & 2 Farley, Units 1 and 2 Arkansas Nuclear One, Unit 2 D.C. Cook, Units 1 and 2 Millstone, Units 2 and 3 Point Beach, Units 1 and 2 Browns Ferry, Units 1, 2, and 3 Brunswick, Units 1 and 2 Nine Mile Point, Units 1 and 2
Applications for License Renewal Monticello Palisades James A. FitzPatrick Wolf Creek, Unit 1 Harris, Unit 1 Oyster Creek Vogtle, Units 1 and 2 Three Mile Island, Unit 1 Beaver Valley, Units 1 and 2 Susquehanna, Units 1 and 2 59 APPLICATIONS FOR LICENSE RENEWAL HAVE BEEN ACCEPTED
Applications Currently Under Review Pilgrim 1, Unit 1 Vermont Yankee Indian Point, Units 2 and 3 Prairie Island, Units 1 and 2 Kewaunee Power Station Cooper Nuclear Station Duane Arnold Energy Center
Applications Currently Under Review Palo Verde, Units 1, 2, and 3 Crystal River, Unit 3 Hope Creek Salem, Units 1 and 2 Diablo Canyon, Units 1 and 2 Columbia Generating Station 19 APPLICATIONS FOR LICENSE RENEWAL ARE UNDER REVIEW
Radon and Tritium Monitoring in Nuclear Reactor Facilities Radon monitoring is performed to; alert personnel to the potential for personal contamination due to radon alert personnel to the potential for degradation in the performance of alpha CAMs alert personnel to unacceptably high levels of radon in the facility
Radon and Tritium Monitoring in Nuclear Reactor Facilities Tritium monitoring is performed to; alert personnel to the potential for inhalation of tritium alert personnel to the potential malfunction of plant liquid process equipment
Radon and Tritium Monitoring Outside Nuclear Reactor Facilities Radon monitoring is performed to establish environmental background levels of alpha and beta emitters in the ambient air.
Radon and Tritium Monitoring Outside Nuclear Reactor Facilities Tritium monitoring is performed to; establish a baseline level of tritium in the ambient air and water outside the facility boundary alert personnel to the potential malfunction of plant liquid process equipment
Special Applications for Tritium Monitors Inside Nuclear Reactor Facilities Simultaneous and separate monitoring of elemental tritium and tritium oxide can be used to identify the presence of leaks in the hydrogen recombiner in the facility. Elemental tritium will only exist for a short period of time before it either combines with an oxygen atom or it replaces a hydrogen atom on a water molecule.
Special Applications For Tritium Monitors For The ITER Project ITER will require a lot of tritium to start. This leads to the need for tritium monitors inside the facility, around its perimeter, and at those locations producing tritium for ITER. Tritium monitors with high working ranges will be needed for ITER in addition to conventional tritium monitors ITER is scheduled to start producing power in 2018.
Special Applications For Tritium Monitors For DOE DOE is continuing with refurbishing the US nuclear arsenal. The tritium in those devices must be replaced about every 15 years. The gamma radiation from the device drives the need for tritium monitors with active gamma compensation.
Special Applications For Tritium Monitors For DOE DOE produces and maintains a supply of elemental tritium for our weapons program. Since the elemental tritium combines with oxygen readily there is a need to simultaneously monitor for elemental tritium and tritium oxide. The presence of elemental tritium outside its containment indicates that tritium is leaking from its containment.
Small Transportable Nuclear Power Reactors
What is in the future for these power reactors ? It seem unlikely the NRC will grant operating licenses for these types of nuclear power reactors. It seems unlikely the final cost for these types of nuclear power reactors could equal that of the new commercial nuclear power reactors. Small Transportable Nuclear Power Reactors
Resurgence in Uranium Mining
Resurgence in Uranium Mining The EPA estimates there will be 10,000 to 15,000 more uranium miners in the US by The EPA is considering lowering the allowable radon exposures for uranium miners.
World Uranium Production Production from mines (tonnes U) Tons of Uranium Canada Kazakhstan Australia Namibia Russia Niger Uzbekistan USA World total41,28243,853
United States Uranium Production Production from mines (tonnes U) Tons of Uranium USA World total41,28243,853 US Uranium Current Production is Primarily From 4 Mines. 90% of US Uranium Mining is In-Situ.
Uranium Mines in Canada
Uranium Mines in Australia
Worker, Public, and Environmental Protection for Uranium Mining Controlled Ventilation Radon and Airborne Uranium Monitoring Portable and Personal Continuous Air Monitors In-Situ Mining Open Pit Mining
Worker Protection for Uranium Mining Radon and Airborne Uranium Monitoring Routine area radon and uranium monitoring with sophisticated instruments Radon monitoring before opening a new area to workers Personal radon and uranium monitors for workers
Public and Environmental Protection for Uranium Mining There is a need for a CAM for Continuously Monitoring for Airborne Alpha and Beta Activity at High Volumetric Sampling Rates.
Public and Environmental Protection for Uranium Mining In-Situ Mining In-Situ mining leaches the uranium ore from the underground deposit and greatly reduces the volume of above ground waste.
Public and Environmental Protection for Uranium Mining Open Pit Mining Reduces the risk to the workers by providing better ventilation and reduces other risks in underground mining Exposes more rock dust and uranium ore that could increase the spread of those into the environment Australias Olympic Dam mine is converting to an open pit operation
Public and Environmental Protection for Uranium Mining Closing and covering an open pit mine at the end of its useful life could provide the best permanent solution for protecting the public and the environment. In-Situ mining could also minimize the mines affect on the public and the environment.
Uranium Fuel Cycle Facilities
Uranium Hexafluoride Production Honeywell International, Inc. Metropolis, IL
Uranium Fuel Cycle Facilities Gas Centrifuge Uranium Enrichment Areva Enrichment Services Idaho Falls, ID (under review) Louisiana Energy Services Eunice, NM (in construction) U.S. Enrichment Corporation Piketon, OH (in construction)
Uranium Fuel Cycle Facilities Gaseous Diffusion Uranium Enrichment U.S. Enrichment Corporation Paducah, KY U.S. Enrichment Corporation Piketon, OH (cold standby)
Uranium Fuel Cycle Facilities These Facilities need Radon and Airborne Radioactivity Monitoring. Due to the presence of gamma radiation from the uranium the radon monitors need active gamma compensation.
Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing The present US political position is to NOT reprocess nuclear fuel. A small amount of plutonium and uranium are being used to produce MOX (mixed oxide fuel) but the output is small compared to the need.
Thorium as a Nuclear Fuel World Supplies in Tons Australia340,000 India 300,000 United States 300,000 Norway 180,000 Canada 100,000 South Africa 39,000 Brazil 18,000 Malaysia 4,500 Other Countries 100,000 World Total 1,400,000
Benefits of Thorium as a Nuclear Fuel Greater Abundance than Uranium Production of Thorium Fuel Does Not Require Isotopic Separation Use of Thorium Fuel Produces Much Less Long-Lived Transuranics Than Uranium Fuel
Thorium Fueled Nuclear Power Reactors Thorium reactors have been used for more than 40 years. Shippingport Atomic Power Station commenced producing electrical power from its thorium-232, uranium-233 powered reactor in 1957 and was decommissioned in 1982.
Thorium Fueled Nuclear Power Reactors These nuclear power reactors will have the same radon and tritium monitoring needs as other nuclear power reactors do.
Need For Remote Real-Time Radiological Monitoring of Nuclear Facilities Notification of an Unplanned Release Identification and Quantification of Unplanned Releases Tracking of Unplanned Releases to the Environment Prediction of the Path of Unplanned Releases
Radon Potential Map of the US
Surface Uranium Deposits
Surface Thorium Deposits
Some Unplanned Releases from Nuclear Facilities Three Mile Island Contributing Factors Facility Design Equipment Malfunction Operator Training
Some Unplanned Releases from Nuclear Facilities Chernobyl Contributing Factors Facility Design Equipment Malfunction Operator Training
Some Unplanned Releases from Nuclear Facilities Japan, Tokaimura Contributing Factors Facility Design Operator Training
Some Unplanned Releases from Nuclear Facilities Practices to Prevent and/or Mitigate the Consequences Better Facility Designs Better Equipment Designs Better Operator Training Better Radiological Monitoring Inside and Outside the Facilities
Summary Portable, Stationary, High Sampling Rate, and Energy Compensated Radon Monitors are needed. Portable, Stationary, Elemental vs. Oxide, and Energy Compensated Tritium in Air Monitors are needed. Stationary Tritium in Water Monitors are needed.
References American Nuclear Societywww.ans.org Health Physics Societywww.hps.org Institute of Nuclear Power Operations Nuclear Energy Institutewww.nei.org US Department Of Energywww.doe.gov US Nuclear Regulatory Commission