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Shipping, Marine Environmental Protection and Alien Invasive Species Miguel García García-Revillo University of Cordoba MARSAFENET OPEN CONFERENCE MARITIME.

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Presentation on theme: "Shipping, Marine Environmental Protection and Alien Invasive Species Miguel García García-Revillo University of Cordoba MARSAFENET OPEN CONFERENCE MARITIME."— Presentation transcript:

1 Shipping, Marine Environmental Protection and Alien Invasive Species Miguel García García-Revillo University of Cordoba MARSAFENET OPEN CONFERENCE MARITIME SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN EUROPE Multiple layers in regulation and compliance (Panel 1: Global and regional approaches) Porto, May 23 rd, 2014

2 1.- The problem of Alien invasive species (AIS) (or IAS) 1.- The problem of Alien invasive species (AIS) (or IAS) 2.- AIS and Sea 2.- AIS and Sea 3.- International legal framework 3.- International legal framework 4.- AIS, Marine Environmental Protection and Shipping 4.- AIS, Marine Environmental Protection and Shipping Shipping, Marine Environmental Protection and Alien Invasive Species

3 1.- The problem of Alien invasive species (AIS) (or IAS) a.- What are Alien Invasive Species b.- Movement of AIS, sometimes beneficial, sometimes catastrophic c.- Patterns of Introduction d.- Current situation Shipping, Marine Environmental Protection and Alien Invasive Species

4 1.- The problem of Alien invasive species (AIS) (or IAS) a.- What are Alien Invasive Species b.- Movement of AIS, sometimes beneficial, sometimes catastrophic c.- Patterns of Introduction d.- Current situation Shipping, Marine Environmental Protection and Alien Invasive Species

5 1.- The problem of Alien invasive species (AIS) (or IAS) a.- What are Alien Invasive Species b.- Movement of AIS, sometimes beneficial, sometimes catastrophic c.- Patterns of Introduction d.- Current situation Shipping, Marine Environmental Protection and Alien Invasive Species

6 1.- The problem of Alien invasive species (AIS) (or IAS) Shipping, Marine Environmental Protection and Alien Invasive Species c.- Patterns of Introduction Ballast waterBallast water Hull Fouling.Hull Fouling. Aquaculture/maricultureAquaculture/mariculture Scientific ResearchScientific Research Pets, aquarium species, live bait, live food and plant seedsPets, aquarium species, live bait, live food and plant seeds Ex situ animal breeding programmesEx situ animal breeding programmes Inter-basin water transfer and navigational canals (Lessepsian invasions)Inter-basin water transfer and navigational canals (Lessepsian invasions) Climate ChangeClimate Change Emergency relief, aid and response efforts; international development assistance.Emergency relief, aid and response efforts; international development assistance.

7 1.- The problem of Alien invasive species (AIS) (or IAS) a.- What are Alien Invasive Species b.- Movement of AIS, sometimes beneficial, sometimes catastrophic c.- Patterns of Introduction d.- Current situation Shipping, Marine Environmental Protection and Alien Invasive Species

8 1.- The problem of Alien invasive species (AIS) (or IAS) 1.- The problem of Alien invasive species (AIS) (or IAS) 2.- AIS and Sea 2.- AIS and Sea 3.- International legal framework 3.- International legal framework 4.- AIS, Marine Environmental Protection and Shipping 4.- AIS, Marine Environmental Protection and Shipping Shipping, Marine Environmental Protection and Alien Invasive Species

9 2.- AIS and Sea Shipping, Marine Environmental Protection and Alien Invasive Species Their capability to seriously harm the marine environment A number of ais (marine or not) are transported by sea

10 GEF-UNDP-IMO GloBallast Partnerships and IOI, 2009: Guidelines for National Ballast Water Status Assessments. GloBallast Monographs No. 17

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13 Zebra mussel in American Great Lakes (1986)

14 Zebra mussel in American Great Lakes (1992)

15 Zebra mussel in American Great Lakes (2010)

16 James T. Carlton: Ecological Roulette

17 1.- The problem of Alien invasive species (AIS) (or IAS) 1.- The problem of Alien invasive species (AIS) (or IAS) 2.- AIS and Sea 2.- AIS and Sea 3.- International legal framework 3.- International legal framework 4.- AIS, Marine Environmental Protection and Shipping 4.- AIS, Marine Environmental Protection and Shipping Shipping, Marine Environmental Protection and Alien Invasive Species

18 3.- International legal framework Conventional Law Customary Law (3.3.- International Responsibility) Shipping, Marine Environmental Protection and Alien Invasive Species

19 3.- International legal framework Conventional Law Customary Law (3.3.- International Responsibility) Shipping, Marine Environmental Protection and Alien Invasive Species

20 3.1.- Conventional Law regulating AIS A.- Treaties dealing specifically with Alien Invasive Species A.- Treaties dealing specifically with Alien Invasive Species B.- Treaties not focused on AIS but containing provisions specifically devoted to AIS B.- Treaties not focused on AIS but containing provisions specifically devoted to AIS C.- Treaties not focused on AIS and not containing any provision specifically dealing with them but affecting AIS indirectly C.- Treaties not focused on AIS and not containing any provision specifically dealing with them but affecting AIS indirectly

21 A.- Treaties dealing specifically with Alien Invasive Species.- Ballast Water Convention, 2004, not in force.- Ballast Water Convention, 2004, not in force.- No more special treaties.- No more special treaties

22 B.- Treaties not focused on AIS but containing provisions specifically devoted to AIS Global treaties: Convention on Biological Diversity (art.8.h) Convention on Biological Diversity (art.8.h) Law of the Sea Convention (UNCLOS) (art.196) Law of the Sea Convention (UNCLOS) (art.196) Other treaties: CMS, Int. Watercourses (not in force) Antartic.... Other treaties: CMS, Int. Watercourses (not in force) Antartic.... Regional Treaties and regulations:.- Caribean, Mediterranean, etc....- European Union / Council of Europe

23 C.- Treaties not focused on AIS and not containing any provision specifically dealing with them but affecting AIS indirectly. Global treaties Global treaties Regional treaties Regional treaties

24 C.- Treaties not focused on AIS and not containing any provision specifically dealing with them but affecting AIS indirectly. Global treaties Agreement Concerning Co-Operation in the Quarantine of Plants and their Protection Against Pests and DiseasesAgreement Concerning Co-Operation in the Quarantine of Plants and their Protection Against Pests and Diseases SPS AgreementSPS Agreement International Plant Protection Convention, IPPC (FAO)International Plant Protection Convention, IPPC (FAO) International Health RegulationsInternational Health Regulations Cartagena protocole on BiosafetyCartagena protocole on Biosafety CITES, Ramsar, Paris (World Heritage)CITES, Ramsar, Paris (World Heritage) Regional treaties

25 C.- Treaties not focused on AIS and not containing any provision specifically dealing with them but affecting AIS indirectly. Global treaties Agreement Concerning Co-Operation in the Quarantine of Plants and their Protection Against Pests and DiseasesAgreement Concerning Co-Operation in the Quarantine of Plants and their Protection Against Pests and Diseases SPS AgreementSPS Agreement International Plant Protection Convention, IPPC (FAO)International Plant Protection Convention, IPPC (FAO) International Health RegulationsInternational Health Regulations Cartagena protocole on BiosafetyCartagena protocole on Biosafety CITES, Ramsar, Paris (World Heritage)CITES, Ramsar, Paris (World Heritage) Regional treaties Agreement Agreement for the Establishment of the Near East Plant Protection Organization Plant Protection Agreement for the Asia and Pacific Region Convention for the establishment of the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization Phyto-Sanitary Convention for Africa NAFTA Agreement

26 3.- International legal framework Conventional Law Customary Law (3.3.- International Responsibility) Shipping, Marine Environmental Protection and Alien Invasive Species

27 3.2.- Customary Law Sovereignty over natural resources Sovereignty over natural resources The right to regulate the ballast water management (ports, internal waters, territorial sea). The right to regulate the ballast water management (ports, internal waters, territorial sea).

28 3.- International legal framework Conventional Law Customary Law (3.3.- International Responsibility) Shipping, Marine Environmental Protection and Alien Invasive Species

29 (3.3.- International Responsibility) Most of introductions are: Non intentional (ballast, hull fouling, etc), or... Non intentional (ballast, hull fouling, etc), or... Intentional but not generating international responsibility because they are self-introductions (mariculture-fish farming, etc) Intentional but not generating international responsibility because they are self-introductions (mariculture-fish farming, etc)

30 3.- International legal framework Conventional Law Customary Law (3.3.- International Responsibility) Shipping, Marine Environmental Protection and Alien Invasive Species

31 1.- The problem of Alien invasive species (AIS) (or IAS) 1.- The problem of Alien invasive species (AIS) (or IAS) 2.- AIS and Sea 2.- AIS and Sea 3.- International legal framework 3.- International legal framework 4.- AIS, Marine Environmental Protection and Shipping 4.- AIS, Marine Environmental Protection and Shipping Shipping, Marine Environmental Protection and Alien Invasive Species

32 1.- The problem of Alien invasive species (AIS) (or IAS) 1.- The problem of Alien invasive species (AIS) (or IAS) 2.- AIS and Sea 2.- AIS and Sea 3.- International legal framework 3.- International legal framework 4.- AIS, Marine Environmental Protection and Shipping 4.- AIS, Marine Environmental Protection and Shipping Shipping, Marine Environmental Protection and Alien Invasive Species

33 4.- AIS, Marine Environmental Protection and Shipping.- The uncomfortable enigma.- AIS, Marine Env. Prot. And Shipping (in this order).- The upcoming EU Regulation on IAS Shipping, Marine Environmental Protection and Alien Invasive Species

34 4.- AIS, Marine Environmental Protection and Shipping.- The uncomfortable enigma.- AIS, Marine Env. Prot. And Shipping (in this order).- The upcoming EU Regulation on IAS Shipping, Marine Environmental Protection and Alien Invasive Species

35 4.- AIS, Marine Environmental Protection and Shipping.- The uncomfortable enigma.- AIS, Marine Env. Prot. And Shipping (in this order).- The upcoming EU Regulation on IAS Shipping, Marine Environmental Protection and Alien Invasive Species

36 4.- AIS, Marine Environmental Protection and Shipping.- The uncomfortable enigma.- AIS, Marine Env. Prot. And Shipping (in this order).- The upcoming EU Regulation on IAS Shipping, Marine Environmental Protection and Alien Invasive Species

37 1.- The problem of Alien invasive species (AIS) (or IAS) 1.- The problem of Alien invasive species (AIS) (or IAS) 2.- AIS and Sea 2.- AIS and Sea 3.- International legal framework 3.- International legal framework 4.- AIS, Marine Environmental Protection and Shipping 4.- AIS, Marine Environmental Protection and Shipping Shipping, Marine Environmental Protection and Alien Invasive Species

38 Miguel García García-Revillo University of Cordoba MARSAFENET OPEN CONFERENCE MARITIME SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN EUROPE Multiple layers in regulation and compliance (Panel 1: Global and regional approaches) Porto, May 23 rd, 2014 Thank you for your attention


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